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ap psychology chapter 2

ap psychology chapter 2


Chapter #2: Biological Basis of Behavior
Soma Axon
-nucleated cell body - long, tube-like structure along which electrical signals (the action potential) are conducted - responds to input from the dendrites and soma -transmits a neural message down its length and then passes its information on to other cells -branch out from soma -receive input from other neurons through receptors on their surface -fatty coating surrounding the axon -insulation for the electrical impulses carried down the axon and speeds up the rate at which electrical information travels down the axon -small gaps between myelin -help speed up neural transmission -knobs at the end of the axon from which neurotransmitters are released into the synapse (gap between terminal buttons of one neuron and dendrites of another neuron) - where neurotransmitter are housed -electrical charge of a neuron at rest: -70 mv charge found inside neuron -no action potential is occurring -referred as nerve impulse; +30 mv -neuron “fires”, causing permeability of cell membrane to change allows electrically charged ions to enter cell -travels down axon to terminal buttons where it causes release of a neurotransmitter -“all or nothing” event (analogous to pulling the trigger of a gun) -trigger point: -50 mv Axons Speak

Dendrite Myelin Sheath Nodes of Ranvier Synaptic Terminals Synaptic Vessicles Resting Potential Action Potential

Dendrites Listen

Absolute Threshold Refractory -after neuron fires, it passes through an absolute refractory phase no amount of stimulation can cause the neuron to fire again Period

-followed by relative refractory phase neuron needs more stimulation than usual to fire again (analogous to the time after firing a pistol: re-cock the gun to shoot again)

Chapter #2: Biological Basis of Behavior
All or None Response Sodium Potassium Pump
-sufficient input: neuron reaches firing threshold once reached there is a point of no return -nerve impulse triggered and a wave of activity (action potential) travels down axon -exchange of sodium and potassium resulting in action potential and repolarization follows -ion channel opens, Na+ ions enter axon -after Na+ passes, K+ ions flow out of axon -renews negative charge inside axon so it can fire again -removal of Na+ restores resting potential -stimulate the firing of messages vs. slowing the transmission of neural messages

Excitatory vs. Inhibitory Signals Synapse Neurotransmitter

Steps of Synaptic Transmission

-gap between the terminal buttons of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron -location of neurotransmitter entry -released by terminal buttons -chemical messengers -bind the receptors on subsequent dendrites -carry information that is the foundation of behaviors and mental processes -excitatory or inhibitory -when sufficient input, neuron reaches firing threshold -when threshold is surpassed an action potential forms neuron fires allowing electrically charged ions to enter cell -dendrite receives information from other neurons -soma accepts incoming information, sends nerve impulse down axon -axon carries information away from soma to axon terminals -release neurotransmitters in vesicles of terminal buttons -chemical enters synapse, locks into receptor sites of receiving neuron -any excess neurotransmitter is re-collected by transmitting neuron: reuptake -after a neuron fires absolute refractory phase followed by the relative refractory phase

Chapter #2: Biological Basis of Behavior
Antagonist Blocker Glial Cells Types of Neurons (Sensory, Motor, Inter) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
-a drug that blocks the action of a neurotransmitter -guide the growth developing neurons -help provide nutrition for and get rid of wastes of neurons -form insulating sheath around neurons that speeds conduction -Afferent neuron: sensory – carries information from the sense to CNS (brain) -Efferent neuron: motor -- carries motor commands from CNS to muscles and glands -Interneuron – transmits impulses b/t sensory & motor neurons part of the nervous system -comprises of all nerves except the brain and spinal cord -contains the somatic and autonomic system and the sympathetic and parasympathetic system -part of the nervous system -consists of the brain and spinal cord

Central Nervous System (CNS) -controls the non-skeletal or smooth muscles Autonomic Nervous System -heart, digestive track Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System

-involuntary control -further divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic -responsible for the physiological arousal: fight or flight reaction -emergency system - antagonistic with parasympathetic system -complementary opposite system responsible for conserving energy -works to return you to balance -antagonistic with sympathetic system

Chapter #2: Biological Basis of Behavior
Adrenal Glands Pituitary Thyroid Lesion Studies
-stressful situations cause the pituitary gland to -secrete epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradenaline) -results in fight or flight reactions -“master gland” -releases hormones which control hormonal release by other glands -located under the part of the brain that control it: the hypothalamus -regulates cellular metabolism -specializes in growth and metabolism -precise destruction of brain tissue -enables more systematic study of the loss of function resulting from surgical removal, cutting of neural connections, or destruction by chemical applications -study of loss of function resulting from surgical removal of portions of the brain -measures subtle changes in brain electrical activity through electrodes placed on the head -allow for localization of functions in the brain -Computerized Axial Tomography -generate cross sectional images of the brain through an X-ray like technique -Positron Emission Tomography -capture the brain as it is working -provide images via diffusion of radioactive glucose in the brain -more glucose used in an area of brain, the more active of an area -allows psychologists to observe what brain areas are at work during various tasks and psychological events -uses magnetic resonance to generate highly detailed pictures of the brain -only captures a “snapshot”

Ablation EEG CAT Scan PET Scan

MRI

Chapter #2: Biological Basis of Behavior
Cerebellum Cerebral Cortex
-controls muscle tone and balance -center for motor function -covers the bulk of the outer surface of the brain -covers the cerebral hemispheres -wrinkled layer -involved in higher cognitive functions (thinking, planning, language use, and fine motor control) -receives sensory input via the thalamus and sends out motor information -made up of the cerebellum, medulla oblongata, and the pons -gateway for most of the sensory input to the brain -relays this input to appropriate regions of the cerebral cortex through neural projections -switchboard of the brain -responsible for higher level thought and reasoning -contains the primary motor cortex -executive of the brain -controls the 4 F’s: feel (as in temperature and water balance), food, fight or flight and fornication -controls autonomic nervous system -controls the endocrine system -handles somatosensory information -receives information of temperature, pressure, texture, and pain -located at the front of the head -contains the limbic system, the hypothalamus, the thalamus, and the cerebral cortex -area of the brain involved in learning, emotion, and memory -comprises of the hippocampus, amygdala, and the septum -location of reticular activating system -controls heart rate, swallowing, breathing, and digestion -processes visual input -travel cross optic chiasma on the way to opposing hemisphere

Hindbrain Thalamus

Frontal Lobes Hypothalamus

Parietal Lobes Forebrain Limbic System Medulla Occipital Lobes

Chapter #2: Biological Basis of Behavior
Hippocampus
-involved in learning and memory formation -damages does not eliminate existing memories but prevents formation of new memories condition known as anterograde amnesia -area that controls the arousal to attend to incoming stimuli

Reticular Activating System (RAS) Temporal Lobes -handles auditory input Pons Amygdala Corpus Callosum

Motor Cortex

-critical for processing speech and appreciating music -way station passing neural information from one brain area to the other -plays a role in sleep -related to aggression -associated with anger, fear, and to some extent sex drive -evaluates the “emotional relevance” of any incoming information -hemispheres joined together in the center of the brain by this dense band of nerves -hemispheres handle information in a contralateral fashion (receptors on left side of body transmits information to the right cerebral cortex and vice versa) -instantaneously allows the two halves of the brain to communicate with each other -an area on the top of the brain directly associated with control of voluntary movements

Sensory Cortex

-receives input from receptors in body -mediates sense of touch

Chapter #2: Biological Basis of Behavior
Broca’s area
-structure in left area of brain responsible for the expression of language - If Broca’s is broken you can’t produce speech -structure in the left area of brain responsible for the understanding of language -Roger Sperry -function of the left and right hemispheres -when corpus callosum severed two hemispheres isolated from one another -language function in the brain on left -recognition of pictures on right -work with “split brain” patients -conducted experiments on the perceptions of patients who had their corpus callosum severed in a surgical procedure designed to control seizures -demonstrated the 2 hemispheres can operate independently of each other -patients could not report what was seen on left side of screen -right side of brain has limited language capability -injured while doing railroad work -reliable worker, but personality was significantly altered after a metal rod 4 feet in length was driven though his skull in his frontal lobes -severing of the connection between frontal lobes and his limbic system left him impulsive, highly emotional, and unable to perform goal directed activity ***important case study

Wernicke’s area Split Brain Operation “Hemispherectomy”

Roger Sperry

Phineas Gage


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