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Chapter 4 American History

Chapter 4 American History


Chapter Four
American History

Pre-Columbian period
North America's Moundbuilder Culture
A Mississippian priest, with a ceremonial flint mace. Artist Herb Roe, based on a repousse copper plate.

? The earliest inhabitants of the United
States: arrived in Alaska by crossing the Bering land bridge, at least 14,000 – 30,000 years ago. ? ancestors to modern Native Americans in the United States and Alaskan Native peoples, as well as all indigenous土著的 peoples of the Americas.

? thirteen colonies of Great Britain located ?
? ?
along the Atlantic seaboard. On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence American Revolutionary War The Philadelphia Convention on September 17, 1787 :Constitution The Bill of Rights

?

? In the 19th century, the United States
acquired land from France, Spain, the United Kingdom, Mexico, and Russia, and annexed the Republic of Texas and the Republic of Hawaii. ? the American Civil War of the 1860s. the end of legal slavery in the United States.

? By the 1870s, the national economy was the
world's largest. ? The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a military power. ? In 1945, the United States emerged from World War II as the first country with nuclear weapons. ? Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union left the United States as the sole superpower超 级大国.

Native Americans and European settlers
? Indigenous people: 12,000 and as many
as 40,000 years ago ? The first successful English settlements were the Virginia Colony in 1607 and the Pilgrims' Plymouth Colony in 1620. The 1628 chartering of the Massachusetts Bay Colony resulted in a wave of migration;

Colonial period殖民地时期

? Many new immigrants were indentured
servants契约奴隶—some two-thirds of all Virginia immigrants between 1630 and 1680. ? By the turn of the century, African slaves were bonded labor. ? With the 1729 division of the Carolinas and the 1732 colonization of Georgia, the thirteen British colonies were established.

Formation of the United States of America (1776–1789)

Independence and expansion
? Tensions between American colonials and
the British during the revolutionary period of the 1760s and early 1770s led to the American Revolutionary War, fought from 1775 through 1781.

Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, one of the rebels' first successes in the Revolutionary War

Declaration of Independence, but it actually shows the

drafting committee presenting its work to the Congress

.

? The system of republicanism共和主义: the
Enlightenment ideas and classical western philosophy: individual liberty and constraining the power of government through a system of separation of powers. ? Bill of Rights was ratified on December 15, 1791 such as freedom of speech and religious practice and consisted of the first ten amendments of the Constitution.

? Ratified in 1788, the Constitution ? Slavery was abolished in 1865 by the Thirteenth
Amendment to the United States Constitution; ? Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments respectively guaranteed citizenship for all persons naturalized within US territory and voting for people of all races. ? The Nineteenth Amendment prohibited gender discrimination in voting rights; later, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed racial segregation in public places.

Westward expansion (1789–1849)

? Expand westward ,Indian Wars and an Indian

?
? ? ?

? ?

removal policy The Louisiana Purchase of in 1803 almost doubled the nation's size. Florida, Spain to cede割让 it and other Gulf Coast territory in 1819. Texas in 1845. The 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day American Northwest. The U.S. victory in the Mexican–American War resulted in the 1848 cession of California and much of the present-day American Southwest. The California Gold Rush of 1848–49 further spurred western migration.

? New railways: Over a half-century, up to
40 million American bison, or buffalo, were slaughtered for skins and meat and to ease the railways' spread. The loss of the buffalo, a primary resource for the plains Indians, was an existential blow to many native cultures.

Settlers crossing the Plains of Nebraska

Civil War era内战时期 (1849–1865) Reconstruction复兴 and the rise of industrialization (1865–1890)

Civil War and industrialization
? Confederate States联盟国 of America vs
Union联邦 ? In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe hastened the country's industrialization. ? 1867 Alaska purchase from Russia; In 1898 Hawaii;

? slave and free states With the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter April 12, 1861, , the
American Civil War began and four more slave states joined the Confederacy. Lincoln‘s Emancipation Proclamation 奴隶解放宣言 committed the Union to ending slavery. Following the Union victory in 1865 ? The wave of immigration, lasting until 1929, provided labor and transformed American culture. National infrastructure development spurred economic growth.

The Union: blue, yellow, gray; The Confederacy南部联邦:

brown

Battle of Gettysburg

? Reconstruction took place for most of the
decade following the Civil War. During this era, the "Reconstruction Amendments" were passed to expand civil rights for black Americans. ? the Thirteenth Amendment, which outlawed slavery, ? the Fourteenth Amendment that guaranteed citizenship for all people born or naturalized within U.S. territory, ? the Fifteenth Amendment that granted the vote for all men regardless of race.

? Gilded Age镀金时代, a term that author
Mark Twain used to describe the period of the late nineteenth century when there had been a dramatic expansion of American industry.

? After the Gilded Age came the

Progressivism革新主义, imperialism帝国主义, and World War I (1890–1918)

Progressive Era, reform over perceived industrial corruption. greater federal regulation of anti-trust laws. ? Four new constitutional amendments— the Sixteenth through Nineteenth— resulted from progressive activism.

Women‘s suffrage选举权
? a Constitutional
amendment Enfranchising给予选举权 women. It became constitutional law on August 26, 1920. ? Alice Paul stands before the Woman Suffrage Amendment's ratification banner.

Post-World War I and the Great Depression 大萧条(1918–1940) World War II (1941–1945)

World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
? In 1917, the United States joined the Allies盟国, turning
the tide against the Central Powers ? the Roaring Twenties兴旺的二十年代 ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 that triggered the Great Depression. ? After his election as president in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt ? The Dust Bowl风沙浸蚀区 of the mid-1930s impoverished many farming communities and spurred a new wave of western migration

? The economic problems of the Great
WWII

Depression were solved by the huge demands of

? On December 7, 1941, Japan launched a
surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, prompting the United States to join the Allies against the Axis powers轴心国. ? Participation in the war spurred capital investment and industrial capacity.

? In 1945 United Nations Charter宪章 ? The United States, having developed the
first nuclear weapons, used them on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima广岛 and Nagasaki 长崎in August. Japan surrendered on September 2, ending the war.

An abandoned farm in South Dakota during the Dust Bowl,

1936

Soldiers of the U.S. Army 1st Infantry Division landing in

Normandy on D-Day, June 6, 1944

The Cold War begins (1945–1964)
The Civil Rights Movement (1955–1970)

Cold War and protest politics
? The United States and Soviet Union
jockeyed for power after World War II during the Cold War。NATO and the Warsaw Pact. ? The United States promoted liberal democracy and capitalism, while the Soviet Union promoted communism and a centrally planned economy.

? A growing civil rights movement, Rosa
Parks and Martin Luther King, Jr., fought segregation and discrimination. ? Kennedy's assassination in 1963 ? the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 were passed under President Lyndon B. Johnson.

Martin Luther King - March on Washington

? Johnson and Richard Nixon, Vietnam War. ? countercultural movement, opposition to
the war, black nationalism, and the sexual revolution. ? Betty Friedan, Gloria Steinem, and others led a new wave of feminism that sought political, social, and economic equality for women.

The Women's Movement (1963–1982)

? Gloria Steinem
at a meeting of the Women's Action Alliance, 1972.

The Counterculture Revolution and Cold War Détente (1964–1980)

The end of the Cold War (1980–1991)

? during the 1960s and 1970s. Feminism
and the environmental movement became political forces, and progress continued toward civil rights for all Americans. more liberated social views.

? Watergate scandal, in 1974 Nixon became the
first U.S. president to resign. ? The Jimmy Carter administration of the late 1970s ,the Iran hostage crisis. ? The election of Ronald Reagan as president in 1980 heralded a rightward shift in American politics, reflected in major changes in taxation and spending priorities. ? significant diplomatic progress with the Soviet Union. The subsequent Soviet collapse ended the Cold War.

The "World Superpower" (1991– present)

? After the fall of the Soviet Union, the United
States emerged as the world's sole remaining superpower ? military action overseas, including the 1991 Gulf War. ? elected in 1992, President Bill Clinton oversaw unprecedented gains in securities values, a side effect of the digital revolution and new business opportunities created by the Internet (Internet bubble). The 1990s saw one of the longest periods of economic expansion.

Contemporary era

? On September 11, 2001, al-Qaeda
terrorists struck the World Trade Center in New York City and The Pentagon near Washington, D.C., killing nearly three thousand people. In response, the Bush administration launched a "War on Terrorism".

? Despite tougher border scrutiny审查 after
9/11, nearly 8 million immigrants came to the United States from 2000 to 2005 – more than in any other five-year period in the nation's history. Almost half entered illegally.

? In December 2007, the United States entered
the longest post-World War II recession, which included a housing market correction, a subprime mortgage crisis次贷危机, soaring oil prices, and a declining dollar value. ? In February 2008, 63,000 jobs were lost, a 5year record for a single month. In September 2008, the crisis became much worse beginning with the government takeover of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac followed by the collapse of Lehman Brothers. This economic crisis was considered the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression.

? By October 2009, the U.S. had lost a total
of 8.2 million jobs, leaving the unemployment rate above 10% for the first time since 1983, and an underemployment rate of over 17%, the highest since records began being kept in 1994. China, holding an estimated $1.6 trillion of U.S. securities, is the largest foreign financier of the record U.S. public debt.

? On November 4,2008,Senator Barack
Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; he was sworn into office as the 44th President on January 20, 2009.

Questions:
? 1. Explain the “westward expansion” in
detail. ? 2. What is the importance of the Philadelphia Convention? ? 3. Describe the rise of U.S. industrialization.

? 4. How do you understand the
progressivism in the U.S. history? ? 5. How did the Great Depression influence America? ? 6. How did the 2008 Economic Recession happen?



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