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histology and embryology

histology and embryology


Emphases of today’s lecture
1. Four types of basic tissue: : epithelium,connective,nerve,muscular microscope, 2. Methods in histology: Paraffin section, Electron microscope Cell and tissue culture, Histochemistry and cytochemistry, Immunocytochemistry, In situ hybridization 3. Classification of epithelial tissue:simple squamous/cuboidal/columnar ,pseudostratified,stratified squamous/cuboidal/columnar/transitional 4.Membrane specializations of epithelial cells: tight junction , intermediate junction , gap junction , desmosome , infoldings of membrane

Summary
? A. Classification of CT:CT proper , cartilage tissue , bone tissue , blood tissue ? B. 7 types of cell in LCT 1. fibroblast, collagenous fiber synthesis 2. Macrophage Macrophage & the mononuclear phagocyte system 3. Plasma cell 4. mast cell 5. fat cell 6. undifferentiated mesenchymal cells 7. leukocyte
C. 3 fibers:collagenous fibers , reticular fibers , elastic fibers

Questions:
? 1. Describe the process of collagen fibers’ formation:The synthesis of procollagen ; The Golgi complex process the procollagen ; Three polypeptide chains polymerize to form collagen fibrils ; The collagenous fibrils polymerize to form fibers. ? 2. What kind of cells present in loose connective tissue? And what are the functions of those cells? ? Cells : fibroblasts , mast cells , macrophages , adipocytes , leukocyte , plasma cell , undifferenciated mesenchymal cells ? Fibroblast : Synthesize fibers and ground substance ; Mast cells : cause allergic reaction and secrete some basophilic granules ; Macrophage : phagocytosis , secrete , antigen presenting function; Adipocytes : synthesize and store fat ; Leukocyte : Take part in the immune course ; Plasma cell : Are responsible for the synthesis of antibodies ; re Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells : Can differentiate to some other cells

Summary 1.
? Cartilage is a semi-rigid半刚性 form of 半刚性 connective tissue ? 3 types:hyaline , elastic , : fibrocartilage ? Growth of cartilage occurs by interstitial growth from within and appositional growth at the periphery

Types of cartilage
1. Hyaline cartilage: flexible and resilient
Lacuna – cavity in matrix holding chondrocyte Collagen the only fiber

2. Elastic cartilage: highly bendable
Matrix with elastic as well as collagen fibers Epiglottis, larynx and outer ear

3. Fibrocartilage: resists compression and tension
Rows of thick collagen fibers alternating with rows of chondrocytes

Stages of Intramembranous Ossification
? An ossification center骨化中心 appears in the fibrous connective tissue membrane ? Bone matrix is secreted within the fibrous membrane ? Woven bone编织骨 and periosteum form ? Bone collar骨领 of compact bone forms, and red marrow appears

Endochondral ossification

Stages 1-3 during fetal week 9 through 9th month

Stage 4 is just before birth

Stage 5 is process of long bone growth during childhood & adolescence

4.1 Stages of Intramembranous Ossification
? An ossification center骨化中心 appears in the fibrous connective tissue membrane ? Bone matrix is secreted within the fibrous membrane ? Woven bone编织骨 and periosteum form ? Bone collar骨领 of compact bone forms, and red marrow appears

Questions: 1.What’s the function of cartilage?
(1.Bear the mechanical stress without permanent distortion;2.Support;3.Shock-absorbing and sliding area for joint , facilitate the bone movement ; 4.Essential for the development and growth of long bone .) )

2.Review the structure of bone.(epiphysis ; diaphysis , periosteum , endosteum ,medullary cavity )

ABO systems

Blood Group A B AB O

Antigens Genotypes Antibodies in Serum on RBCs 基因型 A B A and B Neither Anti-B Anti-A Neither Anti-A and anti-B AA or AO BB or BO AB OO

Emphases of today’s lecture
1. Four types of basic tissue:epithelium,connective,nerve,muscular : 2. Methods in histology: Paraffin section, Electron microscope Cell and tissue culture, microscope,
Histochemistry and cytochemistry, Immunocytochemistry, In situ hybridization

3. Classification of epithelial tissue:simple squamous/cuboidal/columnar ,pseudostratified,stratified squamous/cuboidal/columnar/transitional 4.Membrane specializations of epithelial cells: tight junction , intermediate junction , gap junction , desmosome , infoldings of membrane

Granulopoiesis粒细胞生成 粒细胞生成

Two principal types:
Striated muscle Type Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle involuntary Heart Smooth muscle involuntary Viscera内脏 内脏

contraction voluntary Location Limbs body wall

Similarities between cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle
? Made up of elongated fibers. ? Myofibrils show transverse striations. ? Myofibrils also made up of thin and thick filament.

? The T tubule lie opposites the z-lines. ? It possesses diads composed of one T tubule and one terminal cisterna. ? A unique and distinguishing characteristic is the presence of intercalated disks. ? Intercalated disks represent junctional complexs.

Ⅲ. Smooth muscle
? Smooth muscle cells are fusiform. Each cell has a single nucleus located in the center of the broadest part of the cell.

2. Supporting cells of CNS
Oligodendrocytes Astrocytes: protoplasmic原生质的 原生质的 fibrous Microglia小神经胶质细胞 小神经胶质细胞 Ependymal cells室管膜细胞 室管膜细胞

Process ending swell ↓ ending foot ↓ attach to capillary ↓ glial limiting membrane 神经胶质界膜 ↓ blood-brain barrier



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