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chapter 1 History of Engineering and Development of Industrial Engineering

chapter 1 History of Engineering and Development of Industrial Engineering


中国计量学院质量与安全工程学院工业工程专业

Introduction to Industrial Engineering

Name: Liu Qing Tel: 0571-86845097

Office: yangzhong 312 Mp: 13758186576

中国计量学院质量与安全工程学院工业工程专业

Chapter 1
History and Perspective of Industrial Engineering (IE)

History and Perspective of IE
相关的影响, 发展
A
HISTORY

History of IE
B
IMPACT

C
RELATIONSHIP

D
SYSTEM

与其他工程学 科

IE and System Engineering

History of IE------Definition
Industrial engineering is concerned with the design,
improvement, and installation of integrated system of people, material, information, equipment, and energy. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical, physical, and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems 工业工程是研究,改进,安装及综合系统人,物料,设备,能源和信息。它借鉴的专门知识和技能的数学,物理,和社 会科学随着工程的原则和方法分析和设计说明,预测,和评价结果得到这样的系统

------Institute of Industrial Engineers (IIE)工业工程师协会(国际经济研究所

History of IE------Target
? ? Traditional: Developing ways to provide goods and services more efficiently and effectively 传统发展方式提供商品和服务的更有效
? Technology ? Processes ? ? Also: Developing ways to improve the way in which we acquire and use resources 发展中国家的方式来提高我们的方式,获得和使用资源 ? Energy, water, minerals, and other natural resources

History of IE------Function
? A manufacturer of corporate jets opened a new facility to manufacture tail sections. An industrial engineer (IE) laid out the new facility, by deciding where material would be delivered, where each machine used in the manufacturing process would be located, how work would flow through the facility, and where finished sections would be shipped from the facility An IE at a hospital worked with a team to redesign the process for cleaning an operating room and preparing it for the next operation. The time between scheduled operations was reduced from 45 to 20 minutes. More operations can be scheduled in each operating room each day 一家公司飞机打开了一个新的设备制造尾节。工业工程师(即)奠定了新的设施,决定在那里材料将交付,其 中每个机在生产过程中使用的将是,如何将流经设施,并在完成的部分将被运到工厂 一个在医院工作队重新设计工艺洁净手术室和制备它的下一个操作。之间的时间预定业务由45减少到了20分钟。 多个操作可以安排在每个操作室的每一天

?

?
?

History of IE------Function
IEs improve efficiency, which means that we help bring Prosperity 为提高工作效率,这意味着我们的帮助繁荣的
Being an IE is very satisfying because you can create an efficient and safe workplace where people are proud of the high quality products and services they produce. 作为一个IE是非常骄傲的,因为 你可以创建一个有效和安全的工 作场所的人民感到自豪的高质量 产品和服务的生产。

IEs improve quality, which means that we help provide good products and services
为提高质量,这意味着我们帮助提供良好的产品和服务

IEs improve safety, which means that we help protect people

.

为提高安全性,这意味着我们帮助保护人民

History of IE------ Chronology
微观分析 工业工程 (IE) 传统IE 运筹学 微观和宏观分析 工业与系统工程

科学管理

现代IE

设 施 设 数 学 规 可靠性 系统设计 计 划 排队论 管理控制 作业分析 时间共享 科学管理 原理 逻辑代数 标准化 零件可 互 换性 劳动专业化分 工 时间研究 组织概念 动作研究 工资激励 一 般 系 统 生 产 率 概 统计分析 信息系统 论 念 工程经济 存储论 决策理论 技术政策 第一批模型 存储模型 管理计划 人机关系 物料搬运 模拟 人因工程 技术革新 论 系统工程 控制理论 大系统理论 整体系统设计 社会系统 控制论 。。。。。。


1750

计件工资

日程安排表

统 计 质 量 管 工厂布置 理
1930 大萧条

网络技术

最优化理论
(年代)

91

1890 1900 产业革命

1915 第一次世界大 战

1940 第二次世界大 战

1958 1977 信息时代

IE发展年表

History of IE------ Founders
Frederick W. Taylor
(March 20, 1856 – March 21, 1915 ) Taylor was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. Taylor is regarded as the father of scientific management. Taylor is most remembered for developing the time and motion study. Selected publications: 1895 <A Piece-rate System> 1903 <Shop Management> 1911 <Principles of Scientific Management>

History of IE------ Founders
Frank Bunker Gilbreth
(July 7, 1868 – June 14, 1924) He was an early advocate of scientific Management and extended Taylor’s work considerably. He is a pioneer of motion study, and his main contribution was the identification, analysis, and measurement of fundamental motions involved in performing work. He reduced all motions of the hand into some combination of 17 basic motions, and this made IE based on “”science” rather than “art”.

History of IE------ Founders
Lillian Moller Gilbreth
(May 24, 1878 – January 2, 1972) She is one of the first working female engineers holding a Ph.D. She and her husband Frank Bunker Gilbreth were efficiency experts who contributed to the study of industrial engineering in fields such as motion study and human factors. She combined the perspectives of an engineer, a psychologist, a wife, and a mother. She helped industrial engineers see the Importance of the psychological dimensions of work.

Impact of Related Development— Operations Research译相关的影响,发展业务研究

Origination
It is originated in England and the United States It involves a combinational use of science, mathematical, behavioral science, probability theory and Statistics
它起源于英国美国 它涉及的组合使用 科学,数学,行为 科学,概率论与 统计

Impact
After World War Ⅱ, OR was extended to problems in industry Now, OR connote a set of quantitative methods that are applicable to a wide range of managerial and operational Problems 第一次世界大战后Ⅱ,或是扩展工业难题现在,或意味着一套 定量方法是适用范围广管理和操作问题

Impact of Related Development— Digital Computers
The digital computer permits the I.E. to construct computer simulation models of manufacturing facilities. Computer simulation is emerging as the most widely used I.E. technique. ? 数字计算机允许即构建计算机仿真模型的生产设备。 ? 计算机仿真已成为最广泛使用的IE技术。

I.E. can now designing facilities and work spaces directly on acomputer station. The computer is also being used to autom-atically generate process plans, bill of material, tool release orders, work schedules, operator instructions, and so on. 即现在可以设计设施和工作空间直接在计算机站。该计算机还被用于自动化—-地生成过程的计划, 账单的材料,工具发布订单,工作计划,操作说明,等等。

I.E. uses PCs to perform various analysis, to execute mathematical models, to plan and manage complex projects, to create data bases, and to implement a wide range of decision support tools. 即利用电脑进行各种分析,执行数学模型,规划和管理复杂项目,创建数据库,并实施广泛的 不同的决策支持工具。

Impact of Related Development— Digital Computers
Part of commonly used production and simulation software
Lingo

ERP/MRP

CAD

C/C++ Promodel Matlab Arena Em-plant

Impact of Related Development— Service Industries

One of the first service industries to utilize industrial engineering was the health-care industry After the Second World War, there was a growing awareness that the principles and techniques of I.E. were also applicable in nonmanufacturing environments. 一次服务行业,利用工业工程医疗保健业

A more recent area to utilize I.E. is that of government agencies 最近的一个地区利用即是政府机构

二战后第一次世界大战中,有是一 个成长意识原则与技术即是也适用 非制造业环境的。
Many other service industries are utilizing industrial engineers to improve their operations 许多其他服务行业,是利用工业工程师提高他们的业务

Relationship to Other Engineering Disciplines

? As discussed before, the industrial
engineering disciplines.

engineering profession evolved from other

? Figure 1.3 illustrate the general nature of this evolution as well as the inputs to industrial engineering from certain nonengineering disciplines 作为讨论之前,工业工程专业从其他工程学科。

图1.3说明的一般性质的演变以及投入工业工程从某些非工程学科

IE and System Engineering

A system can be defined as a set of components which are related by some form of interaction, and which act together to achieve some objective or purpose. 一个系统可以被定义为一套组件相关的某种形式的互动,和行为 一起实现一些目标或目的

Components 组成部分
Simply the individual parts or elements, that collectively make up a system 简单的个体部分或要素,共同构 成一个系统

Relationship

Objective or Purpose 目标或目的
It is the desired state or outcome which the system is attempting to achieve. 它是理想的状态或结果,该系统试图 实现.

The cause-effect dependencies Between components 因果相依

组件之间

IE and System Engineering
Basic courses taken by all engineering students provide a general foundation upon which design principles in particular engineering curricula are later built 基础课程的学生提供了一个总体工程基础上设计的原则在具体工程课程是后来修建

Mechanical Engineers

Design mechanical systems Design electrical systems Design industrial systems

Electrical engineers Industrial engineers

Provided! that is, that we define industrial to include all types of organizations, not just manufacturing!

IE and System Engineering ------Industrial and systems engineering design

Levels of Industrial systems
First Level Human activity systems It is concerned with the physical workplace at which human activity occurs Second Level Management control systems

It is concerned with procedures for planning, measuring, and controlling all activities within the organization

IE and System Engineering ------Industrial and systems engineering design

?Human Activity System
The human activity system within an organization consists the following elements that are designed or prescribed by I.&S.E.s: ? The manufacturing process itself (or the processing procedure of a service organization) ? Materials and all other resources utilized in the production process ? Machines and equipment ? Methods by which workers performs tasks ? Layout of facilities and specification of material flow ? Material handling equipment and procedures ? Workplace design ? Storage space size and location ……………………………..

IE and System Engineering ------Industrial and systems engineering design

?Management Control System
The management control within an organization consists the following elements that are designed or prescribed by I.&S.E.s: ? Management planning system ? Forecasting procedures ? Budgeting and economic analysis ? Material requirement planning ? Inventory control procedures ? Production scheduling ? Overall information system ? Quality control system ? Resource allocation ? Decision support system ……………………………..

IE and System Engineering ------Typical I.&S.E. activities
Different companies expect their I.&S.E.s to perform different kinds of activities Besides the operational level of firm, I.E. functions have been expanded to the design of management systems

Production Operations

Management system

Corporate Services

IE and System Engineering ------Typical I.&S.E. activities

?

Production Operation
? Related to the product or service ? Related to the process of manufacturing the product or producing the service. ? Related to the facilities ? Related to work methods and standards ? Related to production planning and control

IE and System Engineering ------Typical I.&S.E. activities

?

Management System
? Related to information systems ? Related to financial and cost systems ? Related to personnel

IE and System Engineering ------Typical I.&S.E. activities

?
? ? ? ?

Corporate Service
Related Related Related Related to to to to comprehensive planning policies and procedures performance measurement analysis

[ Note ] ? One person cannot possibly perform all of the foregoing activities for an organization ? An individual engineer will specialize in a subset of the foregoing activities ? The industrial engineering department will coordinate the individual efforts to address the spectrum of activities outlined

中国计量学院质量与安全工程学院工业工程专业


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