名词性从句（一） 宾语从句：转述故事情节，揭示寓意道理， 引出观点态度，交待事实现象 概括归纳总结
1.简述故事情节，揭示寓意道理 语言观察： 1)Through an example of a disabled boy, we learn that one will finally succeed if he acquires the quality of persistence. 2)The passage tells us that despite obstacles and failures, many people with their distinct qualities were able to overcome difficulty and eventually realized their goals and achieved success.
2.引出观点 语言观察： 1)I fully agree that trivial things play an important part in our life. 2)Many students still prefer to go to university as they believe the environment of the university is very important for an individual’s development and that graduates from key university are more likely to find a job.
3.事实现象描写 语言观察： A latest survey shows that the health of Chinese youngsters has greatly declined. 4.归纳、倡议、号召、总结 语言观察： 1)Anyway, I won’t choose to study abroad because I think that as as long as I work hard, I will achieve success wherever I am. 2)We do hope that more and more characters like him will come out and inspire us in our life.
名词性从句(二) 同位语从句:得出结论, 定义解释 1)得出结论 语言观察： From the above discussion, I can safely draw a conclusion that success comes to anyone who keeps working perseveringly and that lack of perseverance can only result in frustration and failure.
2)定义解释 语言观察： However, 15% of them don’t know whom to tell, for the reason that they aren’t willing to share their inner thoughts.
名词性从句（三） 1.What 2. “It” 结构 3.主表一体句 What…is that/ how/when… 4.The reason why…is that… whoever 与those who
名词性从句的标志词what 语言观察： 1)However, the high cost of studying abroad is more than what ordinary families can afford. 2)Another significant quality for a popular person is to remember what is important to a certain person and what he is concerned about. 3)The story discusses what makes one person different from others even if they are in the same situation.
实战演练： What I learned from the textbook 1.__________________________________ (我在课本上学到的)is not practical at all. what caused such great damage 2.As to _____________________________ (什么造成如此大的损失)， it is still a puzzle. what will happen next 3.I am curious about _____________________ (接下来会发生什么事情)
It 句型 It is + clear/obvious/evident…that +….. It is important / necessary/strange..that sb. (should) do sth. It is a pity/shame that… It is said/reported/expected/suggested…that.. It happens/seems/appears/doesn’t matter whether…. It is beyond doubt/ out of question that…..
语言观察： 1. It is evident that to be a likeable person, one needs to show understanding and interest towards others. 2.It is still believed that handwritten letters are irreplaceable. 3.It is important that all the citizens (should) know the importance of rubbish classification. 4.It is a pleasure that I can have a good friend as Li. 5.It goes without saying that diligence is more important than intelligence in one’s success.
实战演练： It annoyed the teacher that 1.______________________________( 让老师 感到很生气) he was late for school again. 2. ___________________( 希望) the project It is hoped that can be completed before the storm comes.
It is a bad habit that 3._______________________( 是一个坏习惯) you are always late for the lecture.
语言观察： 1）what troubles me most is that he keeps making noises when doing homework.
2)What worried me most was that I found it difficult for me to remember new words.
实战演练： What I’d like to suggest is that 我要建议的是) 1.__________________________( we should put up some signs to warn people of the potential danger.
What really matters is 2.__________________________( 真正重要的是) how we can make full use of the limited time.
Whoever + 单数= those who + 复数 Such…as … 实战演练： Whoever breaks the school regulations 1.___________________________________ (违反校规的人)deserves to be punished. Those who respect others 2.__________________________( 尊重别人的人) are to be respected. Such people as violate the public morality 3.___________________________________ (那些违背社会公德的人) should be criticized.
定语从句 1.as 2.which 3.who/whom 4.when/where/why/whose
1.置于句首或句中，引起非限制性定语从句， 先行词为前（后）面的整个句子，往往有“正如， 正象”的意思 适用于：图表说明类文章、谚语俗语及其它的事实 性内容的引入
实战演练： As the saying goes 1.______________________( 正如俗语所云)， “God help those who help themselves.” As was expected 2.____________________( 正如所预料的那样)， I improved my English so much that I even won the first prize in the English Oral Contest of my school. As the data shows 3.______________________( 如数据所显示)， “parent” ranks second for the girls but fourth for the boys. As is known to all 众所周知)，honesty is 4._________________( the pillar of a society.
Which 语言观察： 1.The book which was written by him is very interesting. 2.The picture which is hanging on the wall is painted by Tom. 3.We discussed the video which was on language teaching.
Which 引导的非限制性定语从句（一） 适用于：对前面句子所以引起的结果进行表述 语言观察： 1.Every day I needed to wash about 1,000 items of clothing, which was really boring and tiresome. 2.Film tickets are getting more and more expensive, which turns many potential audience away.
实战演练： 1.Recently, my English teacher, Mr. Smith is chosen as an Excellent Foreign Teacher in Which pleased all of us our city, ______________________________ (这使我们所有的人都很高兴). 2.Some advertisements do not give much information but only try to persuade people which increased/added 由此增加了) to buy, ______________________( the cost on goods.
Which 引导的非限制性定语从句（二） 适用于：与先行词形成整体与部分、方位对比等 关系由some/all/none/most介词短语或 其他名词等+which 构成，多用于说明文 和记叙文 语言观察： I have a lot of books, most of which are in English.
实战演练： among which 其中) 1.I have a lot of habits, ____________( the worst one is that I often find excuses to cover my mistakes. 2.There is a library in the southern corner of behind which 在它后面)is a our school, ______________( swimming pool. 3.During the “earth hour”, people in Sydney will have a one-hour blackout activity the purpose of which throughout the city, ______________________ (这个活动的目的) is to make people aware of energy saving better.
4.A big fire broke out last night, ______________________ （以至于） as a consequence of which a lot of houses were burned to the ground.
Who/whom 语言观察： 1.Mr. Wang, who is an excellent teacher in our school, has won the great honor as one of the “10 Excellent Teachers” in our school. 2.The girl who is standing under the tree is my sister.
用于summary 当中，以故事中人物作为先行词 以此作为切入点，概括其所作所为，从而交代整个 故事情节 语言观察：
1）The article told us a story of a student who had thrown away his years of hard work, great academic achievements and a promising future just for some short-term benefits.
2.The passage introduced to us a writer who suffered a lot in his childhood but persevered in the schooling with the help of kind people and finally achieved his dream.
实战演练： 1.Soon after the flood, a great number of soldiers were sent to help the rescue who not only took drinking water and food to _______________________________________ the city (他们不但给城市带来了水和食物)but also shelters for survivors. 2.About 1,000 people involved in the survey, the majority of whom ______________________________( 他们当中 大多数)think that local government should be responsible for the accident.
常用搭配： There was a time when…. Gone are the days when…. …stage/situation/point/life/activity where…. The reason why… When/where/why=介词+which Whose…=of which the…=the …of which.. Such/the same/as…as The way that/in which/\...
实战演练: 1.There was a time when I was addicted to playing _______________________________ computer games.(我沉溺于玩电脑游戏) 2.Now I am in a situation where I don’t know how to improve my English _______________________________________ (我不知道如何提高我的英语成绩) 3.He refused to tell me the reason why/ for which he was late ___________________________( 他为何迟到)。 where/ in which 在这里) 4.This is my life, ________________( I have found peace and beauty.
I don’t know where he is from. I have no idea where he is from. I don’t doubt that the exam will be hard. There is no doubt that the exam will be hard. We can conclude from the article that… We can draw a conclusion from the article that….
It is known to all that he is a good man. As we all know, he is a good man. What we all know is that he is a good man. We all know that he is a good man. That he is a good man is known to all.
I will tell you what I know. I will tell you all /anything (that) I know.
Whoever breaks the law is to be punished. Those who break the law are to be punished. Such people as break the law are to be punished.
写作中的语法是可以预知的，认真研究 篇章的布局安排，找准语法在写作中的 切入点，练熟常用语法形式，保证临场 写作的标准，是有效写作的重要环节。 学会对有效语法点进行筛选，将固定的 语法置于灵活的语境中，不乱用，不滥用