Unit 1 Friendship
Grammar Direct speech & Indirect speech
I Warming Up
Listen to Anne’s story. The teacher will repeat each sentence after her. Pay attention to how your teacher retells what Anne said. Notice the difference between Anne’s story and your teacher’s retelling of it.
Direct speech S: My name is Anne Frank and my family is Jewish. T: She said ___________ that her name was ___ Anne Frank and ___ her family was ___ Jewish. Indirect speech
Direct speech S: My family and I are hiding in Amsterdam. T: She said _______ that __________ she and her family were hiding in Amsterdam. Indirect speech
Direct speech S: My only true friend is Kitty — my diary. T: She said ___________ that her only true friend was Kitty — her ___ ___ diary. Indirect speech
Direct speech S: After hiding here for a long time, I’ve become crazy about nature. T: She said _______ that after hiding there _____for a long time, she had become crazy ______ about nature. Indirect speech
II Grammar Study
1. Look at the sentences in Exercise 1 of your Student’s Book on page 5. Work in pairs and identify the difference between direct speech and indirect speech in the sentences. Differences: Verb tenses Pronoun forms Word order Adverbials of time
Sentence structure Decla Positive rative Direct speech Indirect speech She said that she had passed that exam. John told me that he couldn’t finish the job that afternoon.
She said, “I passed this exam.” Negative John said, “I can’t finish the job this afternoon.”
Sentence structure Interrogative (yes/no questions) Direct speech Indirect speech
“Are you going Sam asked to buy this coat?” Mary if she Sam asked was going to Mary. buy the coat.
Sentence structure Special Interrogative Direct speech “How can I solve the problem?” Jane asked me. Indirect speech Jane asked me how she could solve the problem.
Work in groups of four, study all the examples provided and read the grammar appendix on page 89-90. Finish your task of summarizing the rules.
Direct Speech Declarative Sentence Yes/No questions structure Special questions
Direct Speech Present Past Present perfect Past perfect Present continuous Future
Direct Speech First person Second person This These Here
Adverbial of place
This place These places Come
Adverbial of time
Direct Speech Now Today Yesterday This week/month/year Last week/month/year Three days ago Tomorrow
Task 1 Sentence structure
Direct Speech Declarative Interrogative Special Interrogative
Indirect Speech Say/tell sb.that+clasue Ask/wonder whether/if +statement order Ask/wonder wh-word +statement order
Direct Speech Present Simple Past Present Perfect Past Perfect Present Continuous Future
Indirect Speech Past Past Perfect Past Perfect Past Perfect Past Continuous Past Future
Task 3 Pronoun
Direct Speech First person Second person This/ these Here
Indirect Speech Third person First/third person That /Those There
Adverbial of place
This place These places Come Bring Borrow
That place Those places Go Take Lend
Now Today Yesterday
Adverbial of time This week/month/year Last week/month/year Three days ago Tomorrow
Then That day The day before/the previous day That week/month/year The week/month/year before Three days before The next/following day
Try to change direct speech into indirect speech : 1. He said, “the earth goes around the sun.” He said that the earth goes around the sun. 2. He said, “The train leaves at 7:30p.m.” He said that the train leaves at 7:30p.m. 3. He said, “Rome isn’t built in a day.” He said that Rome isn’t built in a day. 4. Tom said, “I was born in July, 1978.” Tom said he was born in July, 1978.
When direct speech is about: a) a truth 真理 b) a timetable 时间表 c) a saying/proverb/quotation 格言/引用语 d) An adverbial indicating the past 过去的时间状 语
Try to do SB P.5 Ex.2 Change the sentences either into direct speech or indirect speech: 1. Anne said that she didn’t know the address of her new home. 2. Anne told her father that she had got tired of looking at nature through dirty curtains and dusty windows. 3. The girl said that she needed to pack up her things in the suitcase very quickly.
4. Her father asked her why she chose/ had chosen her diary and old letters. 5. “Are you very hot with so many clothes on?” Mother asked/said to her. 6. “What else have you hidden under your overcoat?” Margot asked her. 7. “ When shall we go back home?” Anne asked her father. 8. “ Why did you talk so much to that boy?” Father asked Anne.
GM: What’s the weather like in…tomorrow? I can’t hear the man clearly on the TV. GS: That’s all right. I can help. The man said it was going to rain. GM: What did he say about Shanghai? GS: ….
1. Do WB P.42 Ex.1 2. Review the rules of the changes from direct speech into indirect speech.