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高考英语语法填空技巧分类突破:介词

高考英语语法填空技巧分类突破:介词


介词

考点解密
介词是高考中的一个重要考点,在连续 两年的高考中都有两空是专门考查介词的, 除此以外,介词还频繁出现在完型填空和 短文改错。涉及面较广,考察了学生的词 汇量和对介词的正确使用

介词 ( preposition )
一 介词的分类与语法功能 1.介词是虚词, 不能单独做句子成分, 必须与名词、 代词( 或相当于名词的其他词类、短语、或从句 ) 构成介词短语,在句子中充当一个成分。 介词分为: 简单介词: at 、 in 、 on 、for 、 to 合成介词: within 、 inside 、 onto、 throughout .

短语介词: according to 、 out of 、 because of、 by means of、 in spite of 、 instead of

双重介词 : from behind /above / under , until after

分词介词 :considering , including , judging from /b

1. It is going to rain this afternoon according to the weather forecast.
2. He quarrelled with her yesterday. 3. He succeeded in passing the final examination . 4. I’m still thinking of how I can fulfill the task ahead of time. 5.The professor will give us a talk on how to study

English well.

总结 1:介词后常接 名词、代词、动名词 、从句、
不定式组成介词短语。 This machine is in good condition .

Where is the key to my bike ?

Nothing in the world could live without air or water She always thinks herself above others 总结 2 : 介词短语在句子中可作表语、 定语 、状语和 宾补。

二. 介词搭配 1. 动词+ 介词 ? rob sb of sth ( clear / inform /cheat / remind / accuse / cure . etc) ? supply us with sth = supply sth to / for sb ( provide / fill )
? make sth of / from / into ? 介词+ the + 人体部位 (strike / catch / hit/

? prevent sb from doing

? persuade sb into / out of doing sth ( advise/ warn /reason)

? buy sth for sb ( leave / get / win / gain / lose )

? tell sth to sb ( show / teach / sing / write / read) ? give sth to sb( allow / promise / pass / hand )

? say to sb ( suggest / explain / apologize / murmur /whisper)

? 同一介词与不同动词 ( to / for / at … 同一动词与不同介词的搭配 ( look / agree / hear / call /stand …

2. 形容词+ 介词 afraid / angry / anxious / tired / strict / good popular / pleased / known / familiar 1. I’m afraid _____ being late for school because my head teacher is very strict _____ us . 2. Einstein was known ______ his theory of relativity _____ a famous physics scientist ______ the world .

3. He is angry _____ what his e-pal has said for he is tired _____ being laughed at by others . 4. The boy is familiar ______ the fiction because it is very popular ______ teenagers so far .

3. 名词+ 介词 1. The absence / lack of water is the most serious problem . 2. The girl has a good way _____ studying English . 3. The key _____ success lies in diligence and wisdom . 三 重点介词的用法归纳与辨析 1. 表示世纪、年、月、 季、周 用 in / during , in the 1990s , in May , in spring , in the first week of June 2. 在某一天或某天上、下午、晚上 、前夕 用 on

3. 在某一时刻、 或某一点时间用 at .

4. till , until , to 的用法。 1) till / until 与延续动词连用,用于肯定句,与短暂 动词连用用在否定句( 在句首、强调句 不用till ).

2) to 表终结常与from 连用 from … to … from time to time from hand to hand from door to door from house to house from one + 名词+ to another 表 “依次” 名词 + by + 同一名词 one by one …
5. in , after , later in + 一段时间 . 常用 一般将来时。 after + 一段时间 . 常用一般过去时。 after + 点时间 . 用各种时态。 一段时间 + later 过去时

6 . 地点介词 : at , on , in , to , off across , through over , under below , above to ( 静态 ), towards ( 动态 ),along 7. 表示方式、手段、 工具 的介词 by / through ( 表泛指 的方式、手段) by (交通工具类) by / with / in ( 方式、手段) 1.The boy likes writing _____ a pen and especially likes writing _____ blue and black ink . 2. He got full mark _____ his own effort, he often

8. On 与 about 区别
简单区分:about通俗大众;on学术【专业】性强
on与about 二者都是介词,意为“关于,论及” 等,一般情况下,二者可以互相替换,但二者有 点区别:about常用于简单的或浅显的论述等,是 一般用语,多用于讲故事,谈话;思考等; on多 用于系统论述或专题讲演、论著等,具有学术性, 如:The teacher told us a story about Lei Feng. It's very moving. He will give us a talk on the history of the Party.他将给我们做个关于 党史的报告。

注意:learn about,read about,quarrel about,hear about, story about 等短语一般涉 及知识的深度,所以不能用on代替about。
We're going to listen to a lecture afternoon He wrote the school. African history this

It is a book 一本学术著作)

birds. 那是一本论及鸟类的书。(可能是

It is a book birds. 那是一本关于鸟类的书。(可能是一 本供小孩看的故事书)

9. 表 “ 除… 之外 ” 的介词 besides , but = except , except for , except that … 注意: 1) 前面有不定代词、 疑问代词时,多用but

All but one are here . Nobody but I likes literature . 2) 后接不定式短语为排除对象时,多用but He has nothing to do but wait . 3) 固定短语 have no choice but to do sth (只得做某事) can not but do sth =cannot help but do sth (不得不 but for / but that…(要不是)

10. between / among (三者以上)

1) Mary is sitting _____ Tom and wang Li.
2) She was busy _____ cooking , washing , sewing and looking after the baby . 3)Shanghai is _____the largest cities in the world 4) A horse can be seen _____ trees now.

10 表原因的介词:
for , because of , due to , owing to , on account of , as a result of 1. He didn’t come to the meeting ______ his illness 2. The reason ______ his being angry is that he lost his cell phone. 3. ______ a heavy snow , the highway has been closed up. 4. The accident is ______ the driver’s drinking .

11. 不定式复合结构中的 for , of

1)It is clever ______ you to answer such a difficult an

2)It is mean ______ her to give me so little pocket mo
3)It is quite impossible _____ him to explain why .

4) It is hard ______ you to learn a foreign language
without perseverance . 12 . 兼类词 ( 兼作连词和副词) after since till / until before .

介词 ( preposition )
一 介词的分类与语法功能 1.介词是虚词, 不能单独做句子成分, 必须与名词、 代词( 或相当于名词的其他词类、短语、或从句 ) 构成介词短语,在句子中充当一个成分。 介词分为: 简单介词: at 、 in 、 on 、for 、 to 合成介词: within 、 inside 、 onto、 throughout .

短语介词: according to 、 out of 、 because of、 by means of、 in spite of 、 instead of

双重介词 : from behind /above / under , until after

分词介词 :considering , including , judging from /b

1. It is going to rain this afternoon according to the weather forecast.
2. He quarrelled with her yesterday. 3. He succeeded in passing the final examination . 4. I’m still thinking of how I can fulfill the task ahead of time. 5.The professor will give us a talk on how to study

English well.

解题技巧
1. 什么情况下可能是填介词? 我们首先必须知道两点: (1)介词必须要接宾语,其宾语可以是名词、 代词、动名词,或者what从句; (2)名词、代词或动名词在句中通常作主语、 动词的宾语、介词的宾语。 因此,我们在解答语法填空时,若空格后是 名词、代词或动名词时,且他们不是在句中作 主语,也不是在动词后作宾语时,这个格空就 很可能是填介词。

2. 应该填哪个介词? 在判断可能填介词之后,要根据具体的 语境来确定填哪个介词,特别是根据空格 所在句子的意思来选择一个恰当的介词。 另外,以下几条思路对解题非常有用: (1)由介词短语与谓语的逻辑关系来确定。 2008年广东高考36题,“感到累了”应当 是“干活一整天之后”,故填after。

(2)由所处句型的特殊需要来确定。如2008年广 东高考31题,这是一个there be句型,该句型一 般是表示“在某个地点存在某人或某物”;可见 “_______these proverbs”应当是表示地点的; 不难得知“有趣故事”应当是在“这些成语的背 后”,故填behind。 (3)由特殊的结构关系来确定。如能接复合宾语 (宾语+宾补)的介词只能是with或without。 (4)考虑介词(空格)与前面的动词或名词之间的 搭配关系,或者介词(空格)与后面名词之间的搭 配关系来确定具体要填的介词。

[例1]Chinese proverbs are rich and they are still widely used in Chinese people’s daily life. _____these proverbs there are often interesting stories. (广东) 实例剖析 分析:因these proverbs是名词,且不是作主语、 宾语、表语等,前面很可能是填介词;句意是 “在中国的这些成语故事的背后常常有有趣的 故事”,表示“在……背后”,用介词behind。

[例2]He was very tired _______ doing this for a whole day... 分析:累了必定是在干了一整天活之后,故填 after;另外,表示“因……而累”,be tired from也是固定短语,故也可填from。

[例3]…the villagers who had gathered around me were arguing as to who should have the honour of receiving me ______a guest in their house. 分析:句意是“把我们作为客人接待”,表示 “当作,作为”用介词as。

[例4]I wanted to reward the old woman ______the trouble I had caused her. 分析:句意是“我想酬谢我们给她造成了麻烦 的那个年迈的妇女。” 表示“因……而酬谢/ 报答某人”,是reward sb. for sth.,即用for 引出原因,故填for。 类似的表达还有: thank sb. for sth.; praise sb. for sth.; punish sb. for sth.等。

考点击破

一、单句填空:用适当的介词填空。 1. Fred entered without knocking and, very out of breath, sank ______ into a chair. (安徽) 2. If you really have to leave during the meeting, you’d better leave ______ by the back door. (北京) by the 3. A great man shows his greatness ______ way he treats little men. (福建) 4. You have no idea how she finished the relay with her foot wounded so much. (福建) race ______

5. I like Mr. Miner’s speech; it was clear and to ___________ the point. (辽宁) 6. Let’s learn to use the problem we are facing ______ as a stepping-stone to future success. (宁夏) 7. Modern equipment and no smoking are two of the things I like about ______ working here. (全国 Ⅱ) 8. I began to feel _________ home in the new at school when I saw some familiar faces. (山东)

9. Elizabeth has already achieved success beyond ______ her wildest dreams. (陕西) 10. Everything was perfect for the picnic for the weather. (浙江) except _________ 11. This is a junior school. You should go to a senior school ______ for girls of your age. (北京) 12. Although _________ against my opinion, the old professor didn’t come up with his own. (福建)

13. ______ In the silence of the pauses, we could hear each other’s breathing and could almost hear our own heartbeats. (湖南) of the 14. Scientists are convinced ______ positive effect of laughter ______ on physical and mental health. (江西) 15. Experts have been warning ______ for some time of the health risks caused by passive smoking. (江西) 16. The manager suggested an earlier date for the meeting. (全国I) ______

17. Some people choose jobs for other reasons besides money these days.(全国II) _________ 18. Some students often listen to music between ______ classes to refresh themselves. (四川) 19. The open-air celebration has been put off of the bad weather. (浙江) because ______ 20. Sorry, Madam. You’d better come tomorrow beyond because it’s _________the visiting hours. (福建) beyond me why such things 21. It’s quite__________ have been allowed to happen. (安徽)

22. —It’s a top secret. between —Yes, I see. I will keep the secret ________ you and me.(上海) about 23. People have always been curious ______ how living things on the earth exactly began. (辽宁) 24. After the earthquake, the injured were for in the local hospitals or taken to cared ______ the hospitals in the neighboring cities. (江西) 25. I would like a job which pays more, but on the other hand I enjoy the work I’m ______ doing at the moment. (浙江)

26. More and more young people are fond __________ playing tennis nowadays. (上海) of in 27. Leave your key with a neighbor ______ case you lock yourself out one day. (北京) 28. Villagers here depend on the fishing without which there won’t be industry, __________ much work. (上海) 29. For many cities in the world, there is no of which New room to spread our further, ______ York is an example. (四川)

30. By nine o’clock, all the Olympic torch bearers had reached the top of Mount Qomolangma, _________which appeared a rare above rainbow soon. (福建) since 31. The book was written in 1946, ______ when the education system has witnessed great charges. (山东) 32. He was educated at the local high school, ______ after which he went on to Beijing University. (江苏)

33. Human facial expressions differ from those of animals in the degree ______which they can be controlled to on purpose. (重庆)

二、语篇模拟:用适当的介词填空。 Fathers Day occurs on the 3rd Sunday in June. for The idea for creating a day [1]______children to honor their fathers began in Spokane, by Washington. A woman[2]______the name of Sonora Smart Dodd thought[3] ______ of the idea for Father's Day while listening to a Mother's Day sermon [4]______ in 1909.

Having been raised [5]______ by her father, Henry Jackson Smart, after her mother died, Sonora wanted her father to know how special he was [6]______her. It was her father that made all the to parental sacrifices and was,[7] ______the eyes of in his daughter, a courageous, selfless, and loving man. Sonora's father was born in June, so she chose to hold the first Father's Day celebration [8]______ in Spokane, Washington [9]______the on 19th of June, 1910.

In 1924 President Calvin Coolidge announced the third Sunday in June [10]______Father's Day. as Roses are the Father's Day flowers.


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