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高三英语一轮复习 :构词法 (共18张PPT)_图文

高三英语一轮复习 :构词法 (共18张PPT)_图文

厦大附中高三英语备课组 专题讲座系列 构词法 ? 英语构词法主要有三种方法。 ? 派生(Derivation) ? 合成(Compound) ? 转换(Conversion) 三种构词法: 1.派生(Derivation): 通过加前缀或后缀构成另外一个词: eg. happy---- unhappy ( 加前缀) happy---- happiness ( 加后缀) 2.合成(Compounding): 由两个或更多的词合成一个词 eg. wood( 木)+ cut( 刻)----woodcut( 木刻) 3.转化(Conversion) 由一个词类转化为另一个词类: eg. water ( n.)水 --- water ( v.)浇水 三个词语的含义: 构成词义的最小单位,不可再分。 词根: 词缀: 前缀;后缀 词类: 十大词类 派生法 ? 派生法(也称词缀法),即由一个词根加 上前缀或后缀,构成另一个单词的构词法, 添加在词根前面的构成部分叫前缀,它一 般不改变原词的词性,只改变其词义。添 加在词根后面的构成部分叫后缀,它改变 了原词的词性,有时可改变其词义。 前 dis- 缀 (否定) (不 ) 例 disappear 词 unin- unknown indirect (常用在adj.后) (不) (不 ) (不) (不) (非 ) (误 ) imirabil- impossible(用在b,p,m 开头前) irregular abnormal illegal misnon- ( 不 ,非 ) misunderstand nonsmoker 前 缀 例 词 a-构成形容词,副词 over过度 asleep, alone,abroad oversleep international recover inter- 相互 re再,又 使…… en- enrich 后 缀 例 词 -er;- or;-ee ….. 者 名 -ess 女的 -ese …. 地方的人 employer,actor,employee waitress, hotess Chinese, Japanese musician, Russian -ian 精通…的人, …地方人 -ist 专业人员 pianist 词 --ment 性质,状态;运动、 movement kindness 结果 -- ness 性质, 状态 --tion 表示动作,过程,结果 suggestion 形容词后缀: ? - al ; – an ; – ern; -ble ; –ish ; –ive; -ful ; - less 表示具有…的性质, 或与…有关 – y; e.g. practical , American, southern , possible, foolish, native, rainy, careless,careful 动词后缀: –en(使…) -fy (使…化) ; -ize (使…成为) ; e.g. satisfy , beautify; realize , symbolize, deepen, lengthen 副词后缀: ? - ly 表示方式,程度 : freely ,happily ? -ward (s) 表示方向 : westwards 数词后缀: ?- teen 十 fourteen ?-ty整十位数 forty ?-th序数词 fifth Practice 一. 用所给单词的正确形式填空 1… Mr Chen has taught me English since Junior 1, and to show my appreciation (appreciate) I decided to get her a present. 2. … Fortunately (fortunate), I then noticed that I had just10 minutes to complete the rest. 3. Some people were now waiting for her service and the waitress grew a bit_________ impatient (patience). 4. “Thirty-five cents,” she said rudely (rude). 5. I must know how to care for others and try not to misunderstand(understand) them. 6. …you have done well and made great achievement in the entertainment (entertain) field. 7. These people have made great __________ contributions (contribute) to China with their work. newly 8.The storm damaged several_________ (new) built buildings 9.Numerous studies have shown that free play is very beneficial (benefit). It can help children become creative 10…. they can see plays, films, operas, and shows of every kind, not to mention the latest _______ exciting (excite) football match. Sum up: 1.

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