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几种特殊句式讲解及练习-倒装句、强调句、反意疑问句、祈使句

几种特殊句式讲解及练习-倒装句、强调句、反意疑问句、祈使句


几种特殊句式讲解及练习 倒装句、强调句、反意疑问句、祈使句

倒装 Inversions 1 倒装句之全部倒装 全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。 此结构通常只用与一般现 在时和一般过去时。常见的结构有: 1) here, there, now, then, thus 等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用 be, come, go, lie, run。 There goes the bell. Then came the chairman. Here is your letter. 2) out, in, up,down,away 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运 动的动词。 Out rushed a missile from under the bomber. Ahead sat an old woman. 注意: 上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词 则不能完全倒装。 Here he comes. Away they went. 2 倒装句之部分倒装 部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。如果句 中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词 do, does 或 did,并将其置于 主语之前。 1 ○ 句首为否定或半否定的词语,如 no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no

time, in no way, not until… 等。 Never have I seen such a performance. Nowhere will you find the answer to this question. Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room. 当 Not until 引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装。 注意: 如否定词不在句首不倒装。 I have never seen such a performance. The mother didn't leave the room until the child fell asleep. 典型例题 1) Why can't I smoke here? At no time___ in the meeting-room A. is smoking permitted B. smoking is permitted C. smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit 这是一个倒装问题。 当否定词语置于句首以表示强调时,其句中的主谓须用 倒装结构。 这些否定词包括 no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until 等。 本题的正常语序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time. 2) Not until the early years of the 19th century ___ what heat is.
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A. man did know know

B. man know

C. didn't man know

D. did man

看到 Not until…的句型,我们知道为一倒装句,答案在 C,D 中选一个。 改写为正常语序为, Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 现在将 not 提前,后面就不能再用否定了,否则意思就变了。 2 以否定词开头作部分倒装 ○ 如 Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender. Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her. No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her. 典型例题 No sooner___ than it began to rain heavily. A. the game began B. has the game begun C. did the game begin D. had the game begun 答案 以具有否定意义的副词放在句首时,一般采用倒装句(谓语前置)。这 类表示否定意义的词有 never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及 not only…but (also), no sooner…than, hardly… when scarcely… when 等等。 注意:只有当 Not only… but also 连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装 结构。如果置于句首的 Not only… but also 仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结 构。 Not only you but also I am fond of music. 3 ○ so, neither, nor 作部分倒装

以 so/neither 起首的倒装句,结构为 so/neither+谓语(助动词/be 动词/情 态动词)+主语,用于说明上文所描述的情况也同样适用于下文的人或物。该结 构中谓语动词的选择在形式上要和上文的谓语保持一致, 数要由下文的主语来决 定。 注意,在“so+谓语+主语”的结构中,主语是另外的人或物,而在“so+主语 +谓语”的结构中,主语仍是上文的人或物,表示对 上文所讲事实的肯定或强 调,如,She can play the piano, so she can.(她会弹钢琴,她的确会。 ) (1)He can sing a lot of English songs, so can she.他会唱很多英语歌曲,她也是。 (2)She speaks English very well, so do I.她英语说得好,我也是。 (3)Li Lei hasn’t read this book, neither has Lin Feng.李蕾没看过这本书,林风也没 看过。 She went to school just now. So did I . 她刚才去学校了,我也是 She has finished the work. So have I . 她已经完成了工作,我也完成了。 She will go to school. So will he. 她将去学校,他也是。 典型例题 ---Do you know Jim quarreled with his brother? ---I don't know, _____. A. nor don't I care B. nor do I care C. I don't care neither D. I don't care also 答案:B. nor 为增补意思"也不关心",因此句子应倒装。A 错在用 don't 再
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次否定, C neither 用法不对且缺乏连词。 D 缺乏连词。 注意: 当 so 引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或肯定时,不可用倒 装结构。意为"的确如此"。 Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did. ---It's raining hard. ---So it is. 4 only 在句首要倒装的情况 ○ Only in this way, can you learn English well. Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting. 如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装 Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed. 其他部分倒装 1) so… that 句型中的 so 位于句首时,需倒装。 So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch. 2) 在某些表示祝愿的句型中: May you all be happy. 3) 在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有 were, had, should 等词,可将 if 省 略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。 Were I you, I would try it again. There be 句型 是一种特殊的句子,真正的主语在后面,含义为“有……” ① 谓语动词和主语保持一致: There is a television in the sitting room. ② 有两个或更多的主语时,动词一般和最近的一个保持一致: There are two girls and a boy dancing in the hall. ③ 主语的后面有时有修饰语: There are a lot of difficulties facing us. There were many things to be done. (此处也 可以使用 to do). ④ 谓语动词 be 可以有时态的变化: There will be a concert in the park tonight. There was little change in him. ⑤ 谓语也可以有不定式构成的复合谓语。 There used to be a cinema here. There seems to be something the matter with her. Is there going to be any activity tonight? ⑥ there be 句式变疑问句,把 be 提前;变反意疑问句也要借助 there。 Is there any hope of getting the job? There is nothing wrong with your watch,is there?
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⑦ there be 句型中也可以使用诸如:live,follow,come,stand,sit,exist 等不 及物动词: Once upon a time, there lived a fisherman on the island. There came a knock at the door. At the top of the hill there stands an old temple. ⑧ 用于非谓语的情况下,有时用不定式的复合结构 there to be 或动名词的复合 结构和独立主格结构 there being: You wouldn't want there to be another war. (不定式的复合结构) The teacher was satisfied with there being no mistakes in his homework. (动名词的 复合结构) There being nothing else to do,we went home. (独立主格结构) 强调句 强调句型是英语中常用句子结构,又是高考中的常见考点,其基本结构为: It + be+ 被强调部分+that+句子其余部分。现将其用法归纳如下: 1. 强调句型中,能够被强调的句子成分通常为主语、状语、宾语等,不能用来 强调谓语动词、表语、补语、让步状语、条件状语等。 例如 It was in the park that I met my old teacher yesterday. (强调地点状语) It is Mr. Smith that thinks Tom is a clever boy. (强调主语) 2.强调句型中,连接词一般用 that,如被强调的部分是人,也可用 who/whom, 其他一律用 that,不能用 which, where, when 等,即使被强调的是物、时间状语 或地点状语。 例如 It was at the gate that we met the inspectors this morning. It is our head-teacher that/ who/whom we often turn to for help. 3.强调结构中,无论被强调的是人还是物,单数还是复数,be 动词一律用单数 is/was 形式,如果原句的谓语动词是一般过去时,就用 was; 是一般现在时,就 用 is。也可以用"情态动词+be"形式。 例如 It was the farmers that lived a hard life before liberation. It might be yesterday that John bought a book for Mary. 4强调句型也有疑问句形式,包括一般疑问句、特殊疑问句和反意疑问句。一般 疑问句的强调形式, 只需将 is/ was 提前, 移至句首即可, 即: Is/ Was it … that … 。特殊疑问句的强调形式,须将陈述句变成一般疑问句,再在句首加上疑问词, 即:疑问词(被强调部分)+is/was + it + that + 句子其余部分。
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例如 Was it last year that the building was completed? Where was it that you met your English teacher? It was the day before yesterday that you lost the money, wasn't it? 5. not … until…结构在强调句型中的运用:until 引导的时间状语从句,也可以 用在强调句型中,但主要是其否定形式,如用在强调句型中,必须将 not 前移, 写成 It is/was not until … that … 。 例如 It was not until the class began that he came in. It was not until last Friday that he finished reading the book. 6当强调的是主语时,其谓语动词应和被强调的人和物保持人称、数的一致。 例如 It is I who am going to attend the meeting. 7. 强调句型最容易与定语从句、主语从句和状语从句一起考查,应是学习和复 习的重点。一般说来,如果把句子中的 It is/ was … that 去掉,稍加调整语序, 能还原成完整句子,并且句子意思依然完整,则为强调句型;否则,应为其他句 式。 例如 It was a small house that I used to live in. (定语从句) It was at the school gate that I met an old friend of mine.(强调句型)

参考答案 语法练兵场 1-5. ABDBA 6-10. CADBB 11. Read it 12. Listen to 13. shall we 14. Don’t be 15. Don’t sit 16. will you 17. Don’t move 18. will / won’t you 19. broken glass / cup 20. crying girl

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祈使句 祈使句指的是表示命令、请求、建议或劝告的句子。其主语 you 常省略,谓语动 词用原形,句末用感叹号或句号,读降调。 1. 肯定的祈使句 (1)动词原形+其他 Stand up, please. = Please stand up. 请起立。 (2)Be + adj. Be careful! = Look out! = Take care! 小心 / 当心! (3)Let's + 动词原形 Let’s go to school together. 咱们一起上学去吧。 2. 否定的祈使句 (1) Don't + 动词原形 Don't stand up. 别站起来。 Don't be careless. 别粗心。 Don't let them play with fire. 别让他们玩火。 (2)Let's ( let sb ) + not + 动词原形 Let's not say anything about it. 对于这件事,咱们什么也别说。 Let them not play with fire. 别让他们玩火。 3.祈使句的反意疑问句 (1) 肯定祈使句的反意疑问句反问部分用 will you 或 won't you。 Please open the door, will/ won’t you? 请把门打开,好吗? (2) 否定祈使句的反意疑问句反问部分只用 will you。 Don't be late again, will you? 别再迟到了,行不行? (3) 以 let's 开头的祈使句反意疑问句反问部分用 shall we。 Let's turn on the TV, shall we? 我们把电视打开,好吗? <特别注意> 只有以 let's 开头的祈使句的反意疑问句的反问部分才用 shall we, 而 let us 开头的祈使句的反意疑问句的反问部分应为 will you 或 won't you.如: Let us stay here, will/ won't you? 请(你)让我们留在这好吗? 语法练兵场 单项选择 1. The TV is too loud. Please________. A. turn it down B. to turn it down C. turn down it D. to turn down it 2. _______ late again, Bill! A. Don't to be B. Don't be C. Not be D. Be not 3. _______ cross the road until the traffic lights turn green. A. Not B. Won't C. Doesn't D. Don't 4. Please help me carry it, ______? A. will I B. will you C. shall I D. shall we 5. Don't make so much noise, ______? A. will you B. won't you C. shall we D. do you
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6. Do you know the girl ______under the tree? A. stand B. to stand C. standing D. stood 7. Kate, _______ your homework here tomorrow. A. bring B. brings C. to bring D. bringing 8. ________ me the truth, or I'll be angry. A. Telling B. To tell C. Told D. Tell 9. I've kept the dog _______Maomao for a long time. A. Name B. named C. naming D. to name 10. Don't you know that _______ is good for our health? A. swim B. swimming C. swam D. swims 句型转换 11. Will you please read it again more slowly? (改为祈使句) _____ _____ again more slowly, please. 12. If you don't listen to me, I'll go. (改为同义句) _____ _____ me, or I’ll go. 13. Let's watch the sports games. (改为反意疑问句) Let's watch the sports games, _____ _____? 14. The teachers often tell the students not to be careless. (改为祈使句) _____ _____careless, please. 15. Please sit next to Nancy. (改为否定句) _____ _____ next to Nancy. 16. Don't forget to turn off the lights, please. (改为反意疑问句) Don't forget to turn off the lights, _____ _____? 17. If you move, you'll die. (改为同义句) _____ _____, or you'll die. 18. Come to my house tomorrow. (改为反意疑问句) Come to my house tomorrow, _____ _____?

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反意疑问句 这类句型和它的名字一样, 是表示反问别人的, 带有很浓的感情色彩, 表示惊奇, 愤怒,讽刺,不服气等。例如:You call this a day's work,don't you?你说这就叫 一天的活儿,不是吗? 一、 当陈述部分是祈使句时: 1、肯定祈使句时,疑问部分用 will you 或者 won’t you.. Close the door, will you / won’t you? 2、否定祈使句时,只用 will you. 3、以 let’s 开头的祈使句用 shall we. 4、以 let us 开头的祈使句用 will you. 5、以 let me 开头的用 may I / will you. 二、 当陈述部分为并列句时,附近疑问句应采用就近原则,与最后一个分句相 一致。 I help Lucy with her Chinese ,and she helps me with my English, doesn’t she? 三、 当陈述部分为主从复合句时: 1、疑问部分须与主句保持一致: He says his mother didn’t feel well, doesn’t he? 2、当陈述部分是 I think I believe I guess 等主句后跟 that 从句时(主句的主语必 须是 I) 疑问部分应和从句保持一致,并且要注意否定的转移: I believe he will pass the exam, won’t he? I don’t think he will pass the exam, will he? 四、 部分特殊简单句的反意疑问句:

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1、 陈述部分是 I am 时,后面用 aren’t I. 2、陈述部分含有否定前、后缀构成的词时,作肯定句处理,疑问部分用否定: Tom is unhappy today, isn’t he? She is careless ,isn’t she? 3、 陈述部分含有 never nothing hardly neither little few no nobody none too…to… no one 等表示否定意义的词时, 疑问部分用肯定形式: She has no money to pay for it, does she ? 4、以 there 开头的陈述句有两种情况: (1)、there be 句型时,疑问部分的主语用 there, There are some books on the table, aren’t there? ( 2)、当以表示“地点”的 there 引导时,要用陈述句真实主语的相应代词形式 作疑问部分的主语, 常有这两个句型:There live…… There stand…… There stand two trees on the hill, don’t they? There lived a poor old man in the woods, didn’t he? 5、陈述部分出现 had better 句式时,后面仍用 had 构成疑问部分。 She’d better stay in bed, hadn’t she? 6、陈述部分的主语为不定式、动名词、或从句时,疑问部分的主语用 it . Reading in bed is bad for your eyes, isn’t it? 7、陈述部分的主语是 this/that 时,疑问部分的主语用 it , 陈述部分的主语是 these/those 时,疑问部分的主语用 they. 8、当陈述部分的主语为 everybody nobody somebody anybody everyone 等指代人 的不定代词时,疑问部分的主语 用 he 或者 they. 当陈述部分的主语为 everything sth nothing anything 等不定代词 时,疑问部分的主语用 it 9、当 neither….nor…. either….or…. both…and… not only… but also… 连接并列
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主语时,附加部分的主语常用 复数代词。 Neither you nor I am wrong, are we? Not only Tom but also Bob has been there, haven’t they? 除此之外, 该句型的回答也是考试中的重点,它的回答方法和普通的问句是不一 样的, 这也是考试中经常会迷惑大家的地方,所以对于它的回答原则也是大家必 须要掌握的: 回答该句型通常应根据实际情况来确定,如有人问你 You are asleep, aren’t you? 你应回答 No, I’m not. 因为既然你能回答,肯定你还没有 asleep。但如果别人 问你 You aren’t asleep, are you?(你还没有睡着,对吗),你也只能回答 No, I’m not.(是的,还没有睡着),而不能回答为 Yes, I’m not. 也不能回答成 Yes, I am. “It is a beautiful flower,isn't it?” “It isn't a beautiful flower,is it?” 上述两句句子的回答肯定均为“Yes,it is."否定为“No,it isn't." 由上述例子可知, 该句型的回答与句子本身所包含的中文肯定与否的含义并无太 大关联,只需注意事实,肯定即用 yes,否定用 no,无需考虑句子原本是前否后 肯或是前肯后否。 建议在答题时,先按照实际写后面的答句,再根据前后一致原则写 Yes 或 No。 口诀 反意疑问并不难,陈述疑问句中含。 前后肯否恰相反,否定词缀不能算。 主谓时态要一致,特殊情况记心田。 实际情况来回答,再把 yes 和 no 练。 综上所述,该句型的回答就是按实际情况回答。 对该句型的回答,无论问题的提法如何,如果事实是肯定的,就用 yes,事实是 否定的,就要用 no。要特别注意陈述句部分是否定结构,反意疑问句部分用肯 定式提问时,回答 yes 或 no 与汉语正好相反。这种省略回答的 yes 要译成“不” , no 要译成“是” 。 例:—He likes playing football, doesn’t he? 他喜欢踢足球,不是吗? —Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t. 是的。/ 不是。 —His sister didn’t attend the meeting, did she? 他妹妹没有参加会议,是吗?
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—Yes, she did. / No, she didn’t. 不,她参加了。/ 是的,她没参加。

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