说理议论（阅读理解）由 (2011 陕西,D)改编 Ever since they were first put on the market in the early 1990s,genetically modified (GM, 转基因 ) foods have been increasingly developed and marketed in many countries in the world,mainly on the basis of their promise to end the worldwide food crisis.But can GM technology solve world hunger problems?Even if it would,is it the best solution? Despite what it promises,GM technology actually has not increased the production potential (潜力) of any crop.In fact,studies show that the most widely grown GM crop,GM soybeans,has suffered reduced productivity.For instance,a report that analysed nearly two decades of research on major GM food crops shows that GM engineering has failed to significantly increase US crop production. Something else,however,has been on the rise.While GM seeds are expensive,GM companies tell farmers that they will make good profits by saving money on pesticides (杀虫剂).On the contrary,US government data show that GM crops in the US have produced an overall increase in pesticide use compared to traditional crops.“The promise was that you could use less chemicals and boost production.But neither is true,” said Bill Christison,President of the US National Family Farm Coalition. At the same time,the authors of the book World Hunger:Twelve Myths argue that there actually is more than enough food in the world and that the hunger crisis is not caused by production,but by problems in food distribution and politics.These indeed deserve our efforts and money.Meanwhile,the rise in food prices results from the increased use of crops for fuel rather than food,according to a 2008 World Bank report. As a matter of fact,scientists see better ways to feed the world.Another World Bank report concluded that GM crops have little to offer to the challenges of worldwide poverty and hunger,because better ways out are available,among which “green” farming is supposed to be the first choice. 1.The author develops the second paragraph mainly .
A.by classification B.by comparison C.by example D.by process )
2.What does the underlined word “boost” in the third paragraph probably mean?( A.Control. B.Evaluate. C.Obtain. D.Increase. .
3.GM companies promise farmers that they will benefit from A.practising “green” farming B.use of less chemicals C.fair distribution of their crops D.using more crops for fuel
4.Which of the following best describes the attitude of the author towards GM technology?( A.Optimistic. ) B.Defensive.
C.Disapproving. D.Casual. 语篇解读:本文为议论文。转基因食品自 20 世纪 90 年代早期上市以来获得较快发展,在 市场上占的份额也大为增加 ,但转基因食品真的能解决世界粮食危机吗 ?即便能解决,这是最 好的方法吗? 答案及剖析:1.C 推理判断题。第二段主要说明转基因技术并未增加世界粮食产量,作者 列举了一份报告来证明此论点,根据 For instance 也可得知,作者本段采用的写作手法为“举 例说明”。 2.D 猜测词义题。由上文可概括出,转基因公司承诺转基因技术会增加粮食产量,还可使 农民节省买杀虫剂的费用,故 boost 为“增加”之意。根据第二段首句“...increased the production potential (潜力) of any crop.”也可得知答案。 3.B 事实细节题。第三段提到“...GM companies tell farmers that they will make good profits by saving money on pesticides (杀虫剂). ”,由此可知,转基因公司告诉农 民,他们可以节省买杀虫剂的费用,以此获得更多利润。故答案为 B 项。 4.C 推理判断题。作者首先提出问题,然后论证转基因食品无法增加粮食产量,无法减少 杀虫剂的使用量,无法解决世界粮食危机。因此,作者对转基因技术的态度是“反对的或不赞 成的(disapproving)。” 【长难句子分析】
虽然转基因种子价格高 ,但转基因公司告诉农民 ,他们可以节省买杀虫剂的费用 ,以此来获得 更多利润。 while 意为“虽然;尽管”,引导让步状语从句,主句中 that 引导宾语从句,介词 by 在句中表示 方式。
阅读理解。 The literal meaning of philosophy is “love of wisdom”. But this meaning does not tell us very much. Unlike the other disciplines（学科）,philosophy cannot be defined by what you study ,because it is actually unlimited. Anything can be the subject matter of philosophy: are, history, law, language, literature, mathematics, and in fact, the other academic disciplines are directly related to philosophy. For this reason you get a Doctorate（博士学位）of Philosophy (Ph. D.) in biochemistry, or computer science, or psychology. Two broad sub-fields of philosophy are logic and the history of philosophy. Logic is the science of argument and critical thinking. It provides sound methods for distinguishing good from bad reasoning .The history of philosophy involves the study of major philosophers and period in the development of philosophy. Of what use is philosophy? First it is useful in educational advancement. It is necessary for understanding other disciplines. Only philosophy questions the nature of the concepts used in a discipline, and its relation to other discoveries. And through the study of philosophy, one develops sound methods of research and analysis that can be applied to any field. There are a number of general uses of philosophy. It strengthens one’s ability to solve problems, to communicate, to organize ideas and issues, to persuade, and to
take what is the most important form a large quantity of data. These general uses are of great benefit in the career field, not necessarily obtaining one’s first job after graduation, but for preparing for position of responsibility, management and leadership later on. It is very shortsighted after all, to take a course of studies only for the purpose of getting one’s first job. The useful skills developed through the study of philosophy have significant long-term benefits in career advancement. No other discipline systematically follows the ideals of wisdom, leadership, and capacity to resolve human conflict. 1.According to Paragraph 1. Philosophy can best be described as the study of A.social sciences C.both social and natural sciences 2.With the study of philosophy, you can A.become a great leader C.find a good job soon after graduation B.natural sciences D.the subject matter of politics . .
B.succeed in everything D.make progress in your career development
3.According to the passage, which of the follwing statements is TRUE? A.Philosophy is an independent discipline. B.Logic helps you to become a better thinker. C.The study of philosophy brings you immediate benefits. D.The meaning of philosophy is too limited to define. 4. From the passage, we can conclude A.not all the subjects have to do with philosophy B.a person will get a Ph. D. if he/she studies philosophy C.philosophy can be helpful for the study of any other subjects D.philosophy is the only solution to all the problems in the world 【参考答案】C D B C
阅读下列短文，从每题所给的 A.B.C 和 D 项中，选出最佳选项。 After inventing dynamites(炸药), Swedish-born Alfred Nobel became a very rich man.
However, he foresaw its universally destructive powers too late. Nobel preferred not to be remembered as the inventor of dynamite, so in 1895, just two weeks before his death, he created a fund to be used for awarding prizes to people who had made worthwhile contributions to mankind. Originally there were five awards: literature, physics, chemistry, medicine, and peace. Economics was added in 1968, just sixty-seven years after the first awards ceremony. Nobel’s original legacy of nine million dollars was invested, and the interest on this sum is used for the awards which vary from $ 30,000 to $125,000. Every year on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel’s death, the awards (gold medal, illuminated diploma, and money) are presented to the winners. Sometimes politics plays an important role in the judges’ decision. Americans have won numerous science awards, but relatively few literature prizes. No awards were presented from 1940 to 1942 at the beginning of World War II. Some people have won two prizes, but this is rare; others have shared their prizes. (from www.nmet168.com) 1. What did the first award ceremony take place? A. 1895. B. 1901. C. 1962. D. 1968.
2. The Nobel prize was established to ________. A. honor the inventor of dynamite humanity C. resolve political differences D. spend money B. recognize worthwhile contributions to
3. In which area have Americans received the most awards? A. Literature. B. Economics. C. Peace. D. Science.
4. Which of the following statement is NOT true? A. Awards vary in money value. B. Ceremonies are held on December 10 to commemorate Nobel’s invention. C. Politics can be of importance in selecting the winners. D. A few individuals have won two awards. 1. B 计算题。根据文中第一段最后一句“Economics was added in 1968, just sixty-seven years after the first awards ceremony.”计算可得。
2. B 细节题。根据短文第一段第二句“?for awarding prizes to people who had made worthwhile contributions to mankind”可得(from www.nmet168.com)。 3. D 细节题。根据短文第三段“Americans have won numerous science awards”一句可得。 4. D 事实判断题。根据短文第四段“Some people have won two prizes, but this is rare” 一句判断可得。
阅读下列短文，从每题所给的 A.B.C 和 D 项中，选出最佳选项。 Without most people realizing it, there has been a revolution in office work over the last ten years. Before that time, large computers were only used by large, rich companies that could afford the investment. With the advancement of technology, small computers have come onto the market, which are capable of doing the work that used to be done by much larger and expensive computers, so now most smaller companies can use them. The main development in small computers has been in the field of word processors (处理器) , or WPS as they are often called. 40% of British offices are now estimated to have a word processor and this percentage is growing fast. There are many advantages in using a word processor for both secretary and manager. The secretary is freed from a lot of daily work, such as re-typing letters and storing papers. He or she can use this time to do other more interesting work for the boss. From a manager’s point of view, secretarial time is being made better use of and money can be saved by doing daily jobs automatically outside office hours. But is it all good? If a lot of daily secretarial work can be done automatically, surely this will mean that fewer secretaries will be needed. Another worry is the increasing medical problems related to work with visual display units (显示器). The case of a slow loss of sight among people using word processors seems to have risen greatly. It is also feared that if a woman works at a VDU for long hours, the unborn child in her body might be killed. Safety screens to put over a VDU have been invented but few companies in England bother to buy them.
Whatever the arguments for and against word processor are, they are a key feature (特征) of this revolution in office practice. 1. Ten years ago, smaller companies did not use large computers because_________. A. these companies had not enough money to buy such expensive computers B. these computers could not do the work that small computers can do today C. these computers did not come onto the market D. these companies did not need to use this new technology 2. According to the writer, the main feature of the revolution in office work over the last ten years is __________. A. the saving of time and money B. the use of computers in small companies C. the wide use of word processors D. the decreasing number of secretaries 3. It is implied but not directly stated in the passage that with the use of word processors _________. A. some secretaries will lose their jobs B. daily jobs can be done automatically outside office hours C. medical problems related to work with a VDU have increased greatly D. the British companies will make less money 4. Which of the following statements is NOT true? A. There are both advantages and disadvantages in using a word processor. B. The British companies care much for the health of the people using word processors. C. The technology in the field of computers has been greatly advanced over the last ten years. D. Using word processors, secretaries can get more time to do more interesting work for their bosses. 5. It can be concluded from the passage that ________. A. safety screens are of poor quality B. working at a VDU for a long time is good for one’s health
C. more and more British offices will use word processors D. British companies will need fewer and fewer managers 【参考答案】1—5、ACABC