? Japanese gardens are traditional gardens that create miniature idealized landscapes, often in a highly abstract and stylized way.The gardens of the Emperors and nobles were designed for recreation and aesthetic pleasure, while the gardens of Buddhist temples were designed for contemplation and meditation. They were developed under the influences of Chinese gardens,but gradually Japanese garden designers began to develop their own aesthetics, based on Japanese materials and Japanese culture.
? It is said that the Japanese generate “the best of nature?s handiwork in a limited space.”Some basic characteristics and principles are: ? Miniaturization 微型. The Japanese garden is a miniature and idealized view of nature. Rocks can represent mountains, and ponds can represent seas. ? Concealment 隐趣. Features are hidden behind hills, trees, groves or bamboo, walls or structures, to be discovered when the visitor follows the winding path. ? “Borrowed” Scenery 借景.Smaller gardens are often designed to incorporate the view of features outside the garden as part of the view,which makes the garden seem larger than it really is. ? Asymmetry 不对称. Japanese gardens are not laid on straight axes, or with a single feature dominating the view.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? Water Rock and sand Garden architectures Garden bridges Stone lanterns and water basins Garden fences, gates, and devices Plants
? Along with the development of history,Japanese gardens have formed several different styles and types.
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Dry Rock Gardens（karesansui 枯山水） Pond Gardens （Chisen-shoyū-teien 池泉园） The Paradise Gardens（净土庭院） Tea Gardens（roji 茶庭） Promenade Gardens（kaiyū-shiki-teien 漫步花园） Courtyard Gardens（tsubo-niwa） Hermitage gardens（隐士园林）
Styles—— Dry Rock Gardens（karesansui ）
? Dry Rock Gardens or Zen Gardens often have white sand or raked gravel in place of water, carefully arranged rocks, and sometimes rocks and sand covered with moss. Their purpose is to facilitate meditation, and they are meant to be viewed while seated on the porch of the residence.
Ryōan-ji Temple 京都龙安寺
Styles——Pond Gardens （池泉园）
? These gardens had large lakes with small islands, where musicians played during festivals and ceremonies worshippers could look across the water at the Buddha.
Daikakuji Temple 大觉寺
Styles——The Paradise Garden（净土庭院）
? The Paradise Garden was created by nobles belonging to Buddhism,meant to symbolize the Pure Land （极乐净土）, where the Buddha sat on a platform contemplating in a lotus pond. These gardens featured a lake island, where the Buddha hall was located, connected to the shore by an arching bridge.
Phoenix Hall of Byōdō-in Temple
The arching bridge
? The style of garden takes its name from the path to the teahouse,which is always kept moist and green. There is an outer garden, with a gate and covered arbor where guests wait for the invitation to enter. Then they pass through a gate to the inner garden, where they wash their hands and rinse their mouth, preparing themself for the ceremony and meditation.
Traditional teahouse at the Rustic gate of the tea garden Kenroku-en Garden（兼六园）
Styles——Promenade Gardens（kaiyū-shiki-teien ）
? These gardens are meant to be seen by following a path clockwise around the lake from one composed scene to another. They used two techniques to provide interest. ? 1. Borrowed scenery（借景） which took advantage of views of scenery outside the garden, such as mountains or temples. ? 2. Hide-and-reveal（隐趣） which used winding paths, fences, bamboo and buildings to hide the scenery so the visitor would not see it until he was at the best view point.
Shugaku-in Imperial Villa（修道院离宫）
Two hills represent Mount Lu in China
? These small gardens were designed to give a glimpse of nature and some privacy to the residents of the rear side of the building. These tiny gardens were meant to be seen, not entered, and usually had a stone lantern, a water basin, stepping stones and a few plants.
a water basin
Differences between Chinese and Japanese gardens
? The gardens made by Chinese and Japanese may differ greatly in many . Choose three of them for comparison.
Chinese Gardens Japanese Gardens
elaborate, with much ornament, simple, with very little Architecture occupying a large part of the decoration garden space Viewpoint designed to be seen from the inside, from the buildings and pavilions in the center of the garden rocks were selected for their extraordinary shapes or resemblance to animals or mountains designed to be seen from the outside,or from a path winding through the garden rocks were smaller and placed in more natural arrangements integrated into the garden
Use of Rocks
Thank you for attention!