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book8 unit2语言点[1]

book8  unit2语言点[1]


短语检测
1.与…… 不
differ from … ______________ to be exact/precise _______________ undertake to do st _________________

2.准确地说
3.承诺做某

pay off 4.取得成功;偿清 _____________

5.取得突破

make breakthroughts ________________

be cast down 6.沮丧;不愉快 ______________

7.与…… 不同

8.准确地说
9.承诺做某事

_________________ object to (doing)sth forbid sb from doing _________________ sth/to do sth _________________

_________________ in favor of owe sb sth 10.取得成功;偿清 _________________ /owe sth to sb

bother to do sth ________________ be bound to do sth 12.沮丧;不愉快 _________________
11.取得突破

strike…into one?s heart 13.与…… 不同 ____________________ 14.准确地说 15.承诺做某事 _________________ from time to time bring back to life _________________

in vain 16.取得成功;偿清 _________________ 17.取得突破 resist doing sth _________________

good/ bad condition 18.沮丧;不愉快 in_________________

佳句再现 came the disturbing news 1 Then ______________________________ (传来了坏消息) that Dolly had become seriously ill. (come) that she seemed to develop normally 2 The fact ___________________________ (她似乎在正常地成长着) was very encouraging. (seem) 3 Diversity in a group means having animals arranged in different ways with their genes______________________ (以不同方式排列). (arrange) The advantage is that (其优点是) if 4.___________________ there is a new illness some of these animals may die…(advantage)

Based on (根据) what we know now, 5._________ you cannot clone animals that have been extinct longer than 10,000 years. (base) Compared with her family (与她的家 6.________________________ 人相比), and especially her nephew, her niece Daisy is very honest about her opinions. (compare) 7.All efforts of cloning an animal will be in vain ________________ (终将徒劳) if there is not enough diversity in the group to overcome illnesses. (vain)

单词点睛

1 differ v.(to disagree;
to have another opinion)

不同;相异;使……相异

(1) differ from

与……不同

differ in (size, color, age,etc.) 在(尺寸、颜色、年龄等)方面不同

differ on/about (sth.) 对(某问题)持不同意见
differ with 不同意(某人或某种意见) 有/有些/没有作用或影响

(2) make a/some/no difference be different from…in… 在……方面与……不同

【活学活用】 (1) 用in, with, about/on或from填空 with each other ①The two sides still differ _____ over the question of pay. on/about the ②The committee differed _________ question of appointing the next chairman. in their judgment ③The two brothers differ __ of this piece of music. ④I think that the desk in the shop differs _____ from the one I have at home.

have differed (2)①Seoul and Washington ____________ (有分歧) over the past few years on how to deal with Pyongyang. ②It is for the fact that cultures differ from one country to another _____________________________________ (国与国之间的文化差异) that some misunderstanding may arise between foreigners.

2 undertake vt. (to make oneself
responsible for or start a piece of work)

着手;从事;承担;保证,答应
undertake sth. undertake that… 着手/从事/承担某事 保证……

undertake to do sth. 保证/答应做某事
undertake responsibility/a task/a project 承担责任/承担任务/承揽工程

【活学活用】 (1)I'd like to let him know that the editing is being undertaken (正在做) so task __________________ that I can give him the final version very soon. (that were) undertaken (2)Most projects ____________________ (承揽的) by the young engineer on his own turned out to be very successful. (3)________________________ If you undertake this task (如果你承 担这项任务),you must be ready to suffer from hardship.

3 objection n.
(disapproval; opposition; feeling of dislike) 不赞成;反对;异议 (1) raise an objection 提出异议 have an objection to 反对 an objection to 反对 (2) object to sb./sth. 反对某人/某事 object to doing sth. 反对做某事 object that… 反对……

【温馨提示】
(1)object to中的to为介词,后接名词、代

词或动名词。
(2)object表示“反对”,为不及物动词, 接宾语时需加介词to;oppose表示“反 对”,为及物动词,接宾语时不需加介 词to。 be opposed to…表示“反对…; 和…相反”。

【活学活用】 (1)You must realize that I object to being kept waiting ____________________ (等待).(keep) which she may object (她可 (2)The plan to ____________________ 能反对的) that we will go shopping this

afternoon is finally cancelled. (object)

objection to the plan (对该 (3)My main ___________________
计划的反对) is that it costs too much. (objection) (4)On the other hand,Dolly's appearance raised a storm of objections (引起了一 __________________________ 阵强烈的反对) and had a great impact on

the media and public imagination.

4 forbid vt.(forbade; forbidden)
(to say that sb. mustn't do sth.; not to allow sb. to use) 禁止;不准;阻止;妨碍 forbidden adj. 禁止的 forbid doing sth. 禁止做某事 forbid sb. to do sth. 禁止某人做某事 It?s forbidden to do sth. 做某事是被禁止的

【温馨提示】
forbid sb. to do sth.禁止某人做某事, forbid sth./doing sth.禁止做某事。 它们只是结构上的区别,前者是接不定式 作宾语补足语,后者接非谓语动词作宾语 时只能是动名词形式,它们在含义上其实 并没有多大区别。类似的动词还有allow, permit, advise等。

【活学活用】

(1)In my family mother makes an
regulation to us ______________________________ that we are forbidden to stay out (不准我们呆在外边) after midnight. (2)A great number of students have joined in trying to persuade the university to forbid smoking (禁止抽烟). ______________

(3)Orders are issued that photos (should) be forbidden (禁止 ______________________________ 拍照) by visitors in the museum. does father forbid me (爸爸 (4)Seldom ____________________ 禁止我) to play computer games except

when I am busy with my study.

5

owe vt. (to have to pay; to be in debt for; to have to give) 欠(债,钱,人情等);应当给予; 感激;把…归功于 (1)owe…to… 把……归功于…… owe thanks to sb. 感谢某人 owe it to sb. that… 多亏某人…… owe sb. sth.=owe sth. to sb. 欠某人某物;把…归功于某人 (2) owing ___ to =because of 幸亏, 由于, 因为

【温馨提示】 如果owe的宾语是不定式或名词从句,

可使用it作形式宾语,将充当真正宾语
的不定式或名词性从句放在句尾。如:

He owes it to his doctor's care that he
is quite well again. 他再次痊愈是靠医生的关怀。

【易混辨析】

owing to,because of,due to与thanks to
这一组短语都表示“由于”的意思,在使 用时应该注意以下几点:

(1)owing to意思是“由于,因为”,常用作状 语,修饰整个句子,可放在句首或句末,与 其他成分常用逗号隔开。如: Owing to bad weather, the plane had to change its course. 由于天气恶劣飞机不得不更改航线。 (2)because of意为“由于,因为”,强调因果 关系,在句中作状语时可置于句首或句末, 与其他成分不用逗号隔开;有时也可以作表 语。如: The children had to stay at home because of a heavy rain. 由于一场大雨,孩子们不得不呆在家里。

(3) due to引出造成后果的原因,在句中作表语、 状语。作状语时与owing to同义,一般不与其 他成分隔开。如: He was injured due to/owing to a car accident. 由于一起汽车事故他受了伤。 此外,be due to do sth.表示“预定的,约定的, 预定要到达或发生的”。 (4) thanks to表示“幸亏,多亏”,多用于表达 正面意思,相当于感谢,在句中作状语时,大 多放在句首。如: Thanks to your help,I passed the driving test. 幸亏有你的帮助,我通过了驾照考试。

【活学活用】
owe it to you that (1)I ___________________ (多亏你帮助) I finished my work in time. (owe) owing it to himself (2)It was altogether _________________ (是靠他自己) that James won the prize.

(owe)

(3)It expects prices to change little during owing to the rest of the year, _______________

(由于) the economic climate. (owe)
couldn't/wouldn't have owed (4)I _______________________________

(不会欠) the bank so much money if I
hadn't bought the house last year. (owe)

(5) The sports meet, originally be held last Friday, was finally delayed because of the bad weather. A.thanks to B.due to C.owing to D.according to
[解析] B 考查短语辨析。句意:运动会原 定于上周五举行,结果因为天气不好被推迟 了。due to作“因为”讲时,to 是介词; 而 此处due表示“预期的”,构成be due to do 表示“预定做某事”。thanks to“多亏了, 因为”,owing to“因为”,according to“按 照”中的to均是介词。

6、strike
(1) vt. & vi. (to hit)打,击 (2) vt. (to attack, especially suddenly) (指疾病、火灾、自然灾害等)突然袭击 (3) vt. & vi. (to make or put into action by hitting) 敲响; 报时; 擦出 (4) vi. (to stop working because of disagreement) 罢工

(5) vt. (to occur to sb?s mind) (突然)产生于(某人的)脑海中 (6) vt. (to have an effect on; to affect with) 给……以(深刻)印象 be struck by/with 被…击中;(引申义)被…打动,迷恋… It strikes sb. that(=It occurs to sb. that) ……某人突然想到 strike…into one?s heart ……使某人刻骨铭心

【活学活用】 (1) When the strong earthquake struck ______ (袭击) Haiti and the areas around it on January 12, many people felt their building shaking a lot. (2) One of the thieves ____________ was struck by (被击中) a heavy statue, but he was too busy helping himself to diamonds to notice any pain. (strike) (3) ________________ It struck me that (我突然想到) the man was not telling the truth. (strike)

(4) Located in the Pacific Ring of Fire, this island country is often struck by strong earthquakes __________________________________ (经常发生强烈地震). (strike) struck (打动了) by the (5) Greatly ______ beauty of the language, I thought how even today Shakespeare's writing remains powerful and true.

7 bother v.(to give trouble to)
打扰,麻烦 n.(trouble, inconvenience) 烦恼;麻烦,不便 (1) bother sb. about/with sth. 麻烦某人某事 can?t be bothered (to do sth.) (口语)懒得去做,嫌麻烦而不做 bother to do sth. 麻烦去做…… (常用于否定句) (2) have no/much/little bother (in) doing… 做……不费力/很费力/几乎不费力

【温馨提示】 (1) 表示“因某事麻烦某人”,一般用介词 with 或 about。如: Don't bother with/about it. 不要为此事费心(烦恼)。 (2) 其后接动词时,通常用不定式。如: He didn't even bother to say “thank you”. 他甚至连说声“谢谢”都不肯。

(3)在口语中说 don?t bother, 主要用于谢 绝对方主动提出的善意帮助,意为“不 用费心了,不用麻烦了”。如: —Shall I help you with the washing up? 要不要我帮你洗碗碟? —Don't bother. I'll do it later. 不必麻烦了,我等一会儿再洗。

【易混辨析】 bother, disturb与annoy 这些动词均有“使人不安或烦恼”之意。 (1)bother指使人烦恼而引起的紧张不安或 感到不耐烦。如: Don't bother yourself about the arrangements for our holiday; I'm organizing it. 别为我们假日的安排犯愁,我正在安排 呢。

(2) disturb为较正式用词,多用于被动语态。 指扰乱,使人不能平静或妨碍别人工作、思 维或正常秩序,是程度较深的烦恼。如: She opened the door quietly so as not to disturb the sleeping child. 她轻轻地开门,以免惊扰了睡着的孩子。 (3) annoy强调因被迫忍受令人不快、讨厌的事 而失去平静或耐心,多指一时的打扰或恼怒。 如: The sound of the footsteps on the floor annoyed the downstairs neighbours. 楼上地板上的脚步声吵得楼下住户心烦。

【活学活用】 (1) 用bother, disturb或annoy的适当形式填空 bother to ①Unfortunately he didn’t _______ check the exact wording of the contract before he signed it. ②Living in a noisy environment for a long disturb one’s biorhythm. time might _______ ③You need an appropriate time and occasion to tell a joke, or it’ll ______ annoy others.

(2) Since last week my painful ear has been bothering me (一直 _________________________ 困扰我).(bother) (3)The market isn't open tonight. If I wouldn't have bothered had known, I ____________________ (就不会费事) to drive over there.

(4)—When will you come home for dinner?I'll prepare it for you. —Don't it. I'll eat out with my friends. A.care about B.worry about C.bother about D.talk about
[解析] C 考查动词短语辨析。答句句意:别 费事了,我和朋友在外面吃饭。care about“关心”;worry about“担忧”;talk about“讨论”;bother about“花费时间精力 (做某事)”。结合句意可知选C项。

短语储存 1 pay off 得到好结果, 取得成功(常用 为…付款;为…付出代价 还钱,报复

主动语态); 偿清债款;付清工资后解雇

for pay ____
pay back

pay a visit to

拜访

pay attention to 注意

【活学活用】
(1)指出pay off在句中的不同含义

①Did your plan pay off?

(计划等)取得成功 ②Her debts were not fully paid off until last year. 还清(债务) ③ When the building was completed, he paid off 付清工资后)辞退 the workers ④ His hard work in college paid off at last. He (工作等)得到回报 has become a famous scientist.

(2)用适当的介词/副词填空
① The supermarket _____ to which he had

ever paid a visit,was burnt to the
ground. back for all your ② How can I pay you ______ kindness? ③ Well, after these years, we've at last paid ______ off all our debts.

2 cast down vt. 扔掉;推翻;使下降;使沮丧
(1) cast down one?s eyes 垂下眼帘 be/feel cast down 感到沮丧 (2)cast _____ away 扔掉,浪费; 因船只失事而漂流到某地 cast up 计算,相加 cast ____ 驱逐 out cast sb. into prison 把某人投进监狱 cast light upon=throw light on 使……容易理解

【活学活用】 has been cast down (一直很沮丧) (1)Sylvia _________________ ever since her mother became so ill. (2)If you are always by such kind of failures, you will never succeed. A.turned down B.cast down C.made down D.put down [解析] B 考查动词短语辨析。句意: 如果你总是为这种失败感到沮丧,你就 永远不会成功。be/feel cast down 意为 “感到沮丧”。

(3) 用cast相关短语的正确形式填空 ①Standing timidly before the teacher, the girl __________ her eyes. cast down ②For some months they were ________ cast away on a desert island. ③I'll _______ cast up these figures and tell you the total. ④If she were to give consideration to all kinds of situation, she would ____________ cast light upon this problem in a new way.

3

in favour of
赞成;支持;有利于;主张

in sb?s favour do sb. a favour

对某人有利 帮某人忙

【温馨提示】 in favour of表示主动,与for同义,与 against相对;in favour with则表示被动, 即受到或得到某人的好评、重视或支持。如: Are you in favour of this new project? 你赞成这项新计划吗? The chief executive officer is now in favour with the people. 现在首席执行官受到人们的爱戴。

【相关拓展】
“in+名词+of”常见短语

in praise of
in honor/memory of

表扬
纪念

in case of
in charge of in possession of in consequence of

如果,假使
掌管 拥有 由于,作为…的结果

【活学活用】 用“ in+ 名词+ of ”短语填空 (1) All his family are ___________ in favour of his decision to work in the western area after graduation. (2) While reading, _________ in case of coming across new words, you'd better guess their meanings rather than refer to the dictionary.

(3) Mary told me that she was in possession of some lovely jewels. __________________

(4) They had to move to another city
in consequence of the typhoon. __________________

4 be bound to do sth.
一定/注定做某事

be bound to sth.
受……的约束

be bound for somewhere
前往某地

【温馨提示】 (1) bound用作形容词时,意思是“被捆 绑的,被束缚的”,常引申为 “受约束 的”,形成短语be bound to sth.“受……约 束”,to为介词。 (2) bound还可作“一定的,必定的”讲, 只用作表语,形成短语be bound to do sth.“一定/注定做某事”, to为不定式; bound亦作“去;准备去”讲,形成短语 be bound for“前往某地”, for表示目的地。

【活学活用】 (1)However hard they try, they are bound to lose the game/match _________________________________ (他们注定要输掉比赛). (2)Only if a man does his best is he bound to be successful/succeed ____________________________________ (他才一定会成功). (3)They boarded the ship, ____________________________( which was bound for Canada 前往加 拿大的).

5

bring (sth.) back to life (=come back to life)
使复生;使恢复生机

bring back to health
come to life

使恢复健康

变得活跃;苏醒过来

【活学活用】 (1) Only by hard work can we bring our hometown back to life ____________________________________ (才能使我们的家乡恢复生机). (bring) (2)The company was reported to be brought back to life (恢复生机) _______________________ after the new manager was in power. (bring) (3) I couldn?t understand why yesterday?s didn't come to life party ____________________ (没有生气, 死气沉沉).

句型透视 1 It is a difficult task to undertake. 这是一个很难承担的任务。 句型公式

主动表被动的“形容词+不定式”结


【句式点拨】
句中的to undertake是不定式的主动形式,但 却表示被动意义。在某些“形容词+不定式” 结构中,不定式多用主动形式表示被动意义。 常用于此类结构的形容词有:light, heavy,

difficult, easy, comfortable, interesting, bitter,
fit等,它们主要用来描述主语或宾语的性质,

在句中作表语或宾语补足语。如:

The box is heavy to carry.

这个箱子搬起来很重。
That question is difficult to answer. 那个问题不容易/很难回答。 Your handwriting is so cursive that it is very difficult to make it out. 你的笔迹潦草得难以辨认。

【活学活用】 (1) I believe that everybody likes the person who is ______________________ easy to get along/on with (容易相处的). (2) This helps to explain why cancers are hard/difficult todeal with (难治愈). so ______________________ (3) The difference in thickness and weight from the earlier version makes more comfortable to hold the iPad 2 ________________________ (拿着更舒服).

2 The fact that she seemed to develop normally was very encouraging. 她看来是在正常地成长着,这个事实 非常令人鼓舞。

句型公式 The fact that… 事实是……

【句式点拨】
此句中the fact之后的句子是同位语从句,用以

说明或解释前面的先行词the fact的内容。同位
语从句与前面的名词是同位关系,用以解释说

明它前面的抽象名词(如news, fact, promise,
word, idea等)的内容,其中that虽不充当任何 成分但不能省略。引导同位语从句的词有that, who, whether, when, where, how等。如:

The idea that computers can recognize
human voices surprises many people. 计算机能够识别人的声音,这一想法使许 多人感到惊奇。 The news that he had won the Nobel Prize

spread all over the world.
他获得诺贝尔奖的消息传遍全球。

【活学活用】 (1) His suggestion _____________________ that we (should) protect (我们要保护) the environment while developing economy is highly thought of by the government. (2)The news ________________________ that the housing price will fall (房价将要下跌) has caused many people to sell their houses at lower prices.

3 The advantage is that if there is a new illness some of these animals may die, but others will survive and pass on the ability to resist that disease to the next generation. 其优点是,如果发生了某种新的疾病,这类动 物可能会死去,而另外一些却能存活下来,并 且把这种免疫力传给下一代。

句型公式 The advantage is that…其优点是……

【句式点拨】 本句的主句是that引导的一个表语从句。

类似的结构还有:The chance is that…有
可能……;The problem is that…问题 是……;The drawback is that…缺点

是……等。如:

The chance is that one smoker in four will die from smoking. 每四个吸烟者中可能有一人死于吸烟。 But the drawback is that the subway is more expensive than the bus. 但缺点是乘地铁比坐公共汽车费用要高。 The advantage is that we know more about medicine today. 现在的优势是我们对医学懂得更多了。

【活学活用】 (1)__________________________________ The disadvantage of shopping online is that (网上购物的弊端是) if you bought a poorly made goods on the Internet, it is impossible for you to change it. The advantage of getting up early is that (2)________________________________ (早起的优势是) we will have the opportunity of enjoying the fresh air and calmness of the morning.

补充学案

1. resist v.
① 反对;抵制;抵抗;不受……损害 resist (doing) sth. resist diseases/ invasion/ arrest The bank strongly resist ____________ cutting (down) interest rates. 银行强烈反对降低利率。

②(通常用于否定句)忍住,抵挡 can?t / couldn?t resist doing sth.

禁不住干某事
resist the temptation/ urge (to do sth) 抵制诱惑

you resist the urge to (2011 山东) Make sure _________________

answer every message you receive, and
consider leaving your mobile phone behind occasionally when you go out. (urge) 确保你能抵制住逢短信必回的冲动,并且在 外出时考虑偶尔不带手机。 to resist buying these books He found it hard ______________________. 他发现忍住不买这些书很难。

③resistant adj. 抵抗的,有抵抗力的 resistance n. 抗拒,反对
disease resistance 抗病能力

2 . obtain v. 获得,取得
At Oxford, he obtained his Master?s degree in electrical engineering. 在牛津大学,他获得了电气工程硕士学位。 (襄樊五中高三年级5月调研)Honey, look at your mistake in spelling this word, or you could have obtained ___________________________ (就能得到) full marks in this exam. (obtain)

【易混辨析】 acquire/ obtain/ earn/ gain/ attain acquire获得;取得;学到,强调通过 不断的、持续的努力而获得(知识、 技能、荣誉等),也指日积月累地、 渐渐地获得; obtain正式用语,含有“如期达到目 的或获得所希望的东西”之意;

earn表示经过艰苦努力而得到报酬,其 宾语多为金额、荣誉等; gain指通过斗争、竞争或付出劳动而达 到某种目的,其宾语多为经验、优势、 好处等; attain较正式,多指经过努力得到珍贵 的东西或达到完美的境地,也可指达到 某水平、年龄、状况等。

[活学活用] acquired ①He is dishonest and has ________ a bad reputation. earns ②He ______wages of 800 yuan a month. ③Few people could ever hope to ______ attain an acceptable standard of living. ④We wish to ________ obtain the first-hand information.

⑤He _______rich teaching experience gained after ten-year hard work. ⑥ Although at present human egg cells and embryos needed for cloning research are difficult to ________, newspapers wrote of evil obtain leaders hoping to clone themselves to _________their ambitions. attain

3. vain

adj.

徒劳的;虚荣的;自负的

in vain
枉费心机;徒劳无益;白费力气 (vainly)

(2010 江苏) I have tried very hard to to find but in vain a solution to the problem, _____________. 我曾苦苦探求解决问题的办法,但都是徒劳。
(2009 湖北) His efforts to raise money for his were in vain because no one program ______________ showed any intention to take a cent out of their pockets. 因为没人打算从荷包里掏出一分钱,他为自 己的方案筹钱的努力白费了。

句子补充 Scientists believe human cloning is just a mater of time, but the assumption that human clones have already been born hasn?t been proved yet. 科学家们相信人类的克隆只不过是时间 问题,但是克隆人已经问世的说法还没 有被证实。

[知识提炼]
the assumption that… ……的假想/设想, that引导同位语从句。

[句式仿写]
这一项目是以经济发展的设想为依据的。 The project was based __________________ on the assumption that ______the economy was expanding. The fact that ______________________________ he has failed (for) several times (他失败了几次) makes him very upset. (fail)

1.Be __________—you can?t expect me to finish all this work in so little time. (2012山东) A.reasonable B. confident C.creative D.grateful 2.The officer insisted that Michael did not follow the correct ________in applying for a visa. (2012 湖北) A. pattern B.procedure C.program D.perspective

3.The athlete?s years of hard training _______when she finally won the Olympic gold medal. (2012安徽) A.went on B.got through C.paid off D.ended up 4.Betty?s __________reaction to finding a parking ticket on her car was one of annoyance, until she found it. (2013 黄冈质检) A. previous B.fundamental C.initial D.marvelous

Not being able/ Being unable to use 5. _________________________________ (不会用)a computer makes it more difficult for him to do this academic research. (use ) (2010湖北) 6.Our understanding of education, work is different from that and society _______________________ of the earlier generation. (2012 湖北) 我们对教育工作和社会的认识和我们上 一代人的不同。


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