History of English
十八世纪 英国启蒙时期 the Age of Reason
A review of the 17th century
? The 17th century is the period of Revolution. The Revolution contains Bourgeois Revolution and the Puritan Revolution. Bourgeois Revolution then was in progress vigorously in Europe and parts of other places over the world. They are thirst for Original capital and colony to support their development and expansion.
? Puritanism is religious doctrine of the
revolutionary bourgeoisie during the
revolution. The puritans believed in thrift,
hard work and so on, and condemned worldly
pleasure. The Puritans believed in simplicity
of life, disapproved of the sonnets and the love poetry, breaking up of old ideals.
? The 17th The "Glorious Revolution" of 1688
ended in a compromise between the
aristocracy and bourgeoisie. England became
a constitutional monarchy and power passed
from the King to the Parliament and the
the Age of Reason
A. Social background
After the Glorious Revolution, England entered a
period of a comparatively peaceful development,
(the Golden Age)
The state power passed from the king gradually to the parliament and the cabinet ministers →capitalist system was established in England.
A. Social background
2. The two main hostile parties: ? ? the liberal Whigs — safeguard popular liberty; the conservative Tories — leave as much authority as possible in the royal hands
A. Social background
3. The press became a mighty power, and any
writer with a talent for argument or satire was almost certain to be hired by party leaders. 4. The social life developed rapidly. in earlier ages: individualism in the 1st half of this century: sociability
A. Social background
5. With the advent of the 18th century, there sprang into life a public movement known as the enlightenment.
? A vast expansion of British colonies in
Asia, Africa and North America.
B. Enlightenment in English literature
The 18th century in England is known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason. The enlightenment movement was a progressive intellectual movement which flourished in France and swept through the whole Western Europe at the time. The movement was a furtherance of the Renaissance of 15th and 16th centuries.
? Why is it called enlightenment?
Its purpose was to enlighten the whole
world with the light of modern
philosophical and artistic ideas.
The enlighteners celebrated reason or rationality, quality and science. reason and rules and advocated universal education.
? They called for a reference to order,
? They repudiate the false religious doctrines about the viciousness of human nature; They prove that man is born kind and honest; if depraved, only due to the influence of corrupted social environment.
? prone to accept bourgeois relationships as rightful and reasonable relationships among people. ? writers’ closer look at the social problems and putting things to rights by criticizing the society ? the problem of man superseding all other problems in literature
? It’s an expression of the struggle of
the progressive class of bourgeoisie
In England, Enlighteners fell into two groups, the moderate group
and the radical group.
Moderate group: They supported the principles of the existing
social order and considered that the partial
reforms would be sufficient. Representatives: Alexander Pope, Joseph
Addison, Richard Steele, Daniel Defoe, Samuel
Radical group: They struggled for more resolute democratization in the management of the government, and defended the interests of the exploited masses. Representatives: Jonathan Swift, Henry Fielding, Oliver Goldsmith, Richard Brinsley, Sheridan.
? What about literature in this age?
C. Literary features
? an age of prose rather than poetry
? a balance between respect for the old and
the emergence of new forms, and between
reason and emotion
? a literature of reason, common sense, and
repudiation of enthusiasm and sentiment
Main literary trends
Realism; Sentimentalism ;
? Early 18th Century – neo-classicism
? Alexander Pope (poetry)
– prose literature ? Addison and Steele (periodicals ) – the first realistic fiction ? Defoe and Swift
? Middle 18th Century
– realistic novels
? Richardson, Fielding and Smollett
? the last decades of the 18th century
? Samuel Johnson (poetry and prose) – sentimentalism ? Edward Young and Thomas Gray (poetry)
? Laurence Sterne and Oliver Goldsmith (prose fiction )
? Richard Brinsley Sheridan
– pre-romanticism ? William Blake and Robert Burns (poetry)
? 18世纪前期 – 蒲伯 （古典主义） – 艾迪生和斯蒂尔（古典 主义\期刊文学） – 笛福与斯威夫特（现实 主义小说） ? 18世纪后期
– 撒缪尔 约翰逊 （古典 主义） – 劳伦斯 斯泰恩（感伤 主义） – 哥尔斯密 （感伤主义）
– 谢莱丹 （18世纪的最 伟大的戏剧家）
– 理查生（现实主义） – 菲尔丁（现实主义） – 斯摩莱特（现实主义）
– 格雷 （感伤主义） – 布雷克 （前浪漫主义） – 彭斯 （前浪漫主义）
? Prose had a rapid development (age of prose) ? Novel writing made a big advancement
? Poetry reached its stylistic perfection
? Why is it an age of prose？
The development of Periodicals
1. The development of British
Periodical Literature (development in terms of form, content, and audience)
? Prior to 1700 the English popular press was in its infancy.
? The first British newspaper, the Oxford Gazette（公报；报纸）, was introduced in 1645. ? Two years later the Licensing Act established government control of the press by granting the Gazette a strictly enforced monopoly on printed news.
As a result, other late 17th-century periodicals, including The Observer (1681) and The Athenian Gazette (1691), either supplemented the news with varied content, such as political commentary, reviews, and literary works, or provided specialized material targeting a specific readership.
? During this time, printing press technology was improving. Individuals could produce printed material themselves. British society
was in transition as well. The burgeoning
commercial class created an audience with
the means, education, and leisure time to
engage in reading.
? When the Licensing Act expired in 1694,
publications sprang up, not just in London,
but all across England and its colonies.
Joseph Addison and Richard Steele are generally regarded as the most significant figures in the development of the 18th century
periodical. Together they produced 3
publications: the Tatler (1709-11), the
Spectator (1711-12), and the Guardian (1713).
The 3 periodicals were great successes; none
ceased publication because of poor sales or
other financial reasons, but by the choice of their editors.
Addison has been generally seen as the more eloquent writer, while Steele has been regarded as the better editor and organizer.
Periodicals in the 18th century included social and moral commentary, and literary and dramatic criticism, as well as short literary works. They also saw the advent of serialized stories, which Charles Dickens, among others, would later perfect.
One of the most important outgrowths of the 18th-century periodical, however, was the topical, or periodical essay. Although novelist Daniel Defoe made some contributions to its evolution with his Review
of the Affairs of France (1704-13), Addison
and Steele are credited with bringing the periodical essay to maturity.
? 散文的定义： 现代散文，是指与小说、诗歌、戏剧并列的一种 文学体裁，对它又有广义和狭义两种理解。
向为较为随意的文体（primarily informal）和较为正式的 文体（primarily formal），都来自其原始起源——观察性 评论（observations）。较为随意的文体包括个性散文 （Personal Essay 或称 Familiar Essay），性格特写
正式的文体包括批评散文（Critical Essay），科学散文 （Scientific Essay），哲学或思辨散文（Philosophical Essay 或称 Reflective Essay）。
? 观察性评论 （Observations）是现代散文的雏 就人、物、事件、自然现象、书藉、艺术作品、 个人经历、风俗习惯和思维方式等，作单纯的观 察性评论；或以某一个思想或情绪为主线，串联 出一个相关的整体。
Appealing to an educated audience, the periodical essay as developed by Addison and Steele was not scholarly, but casual in tone, concise, and adaptable to a number of subjects, including daily life, ethics, religion,
science, economics, and social and
Another innovation brought about by the periodical was the publication of
letters to the editor, which permitted
an unprecedented degree of interaction
between author and audience.
Initially, correspondence to periodicals was presented in a limited,
question-and-answer form of exchange.
As used by Steele, letters to the editor
brought new points of view into the
periodical and created a sense of
intimacy with the reader.
The feature evolved into a forum for readers to express themselves, engage in a discussion on an important event or question, conduct a political debate, or ask advice on a personal situation. Steele even introduced an advice to the lovelorn column（失恋专栏） to the Tatler and the Spectator.
? What?s the social function of
Addison and Steele and other editors of the 18th century saw their publications as performing an important social function and
viewed themselves as moral instructors and
arbiters of taste. In part these moralizing and didactic purposes were accomplished through the creation of an editorial voice or persona,
such as Mr. Spectator in the Spectator.
Through witty, sometimes satirical
observations of the contemporary scene,
these fictional stand-ins for the editors
attempted to castigate vice and promote
virtue（扬善除恶）. They taught lessons to
encourage certain behaviors in their readers,
especially self-discipline. Morals were a
primary concern, especially for men in
Women, too, formed a part of the readership of periodicals, and they were instructed in what was expected of them, what kind of ideals they should aspire to, and what limits should be on their concerns and interests.
18th century London bookstore (Watkins 19)
? The impact of periodicals was both
immediate and ongoing.
? Throughout the 18th century and beyond there were many imitators of Addison and Steele's publications. These successors, which arose not
just in England, but in countries throughout
Europe and in the United States as well,
modeled their style, content, and editorial
policies on those of the Tatler, the Spectator,
and the Guardian. Some imitators, such as the
Female Spectator (1744), were targeted
specifically at women.
Addison and Steele's periodicals achieved a broader influence when they were translated and reprinted in collected
editions for use throughout the century. The epistolary（书信体） exchanges,
short fiction, and serialized stories included in the periodicals had an important influence on the development of the novel.
In addition, celebrated figures from Benjamin Franklin and Rousseau to Mark Twain have acknowledged the impact of the 18th-century periodical, particularly the
Specator, on their development as writers
2. Representative Enlighteners:
? Essayists: Joseph Addison（艾迪生） :P166
Richard Steele（斯蒂尔） ? Poet: Alexander Pope（蒲柏）
Historian: Edward Gibbon（吉本）,
the decline and fall of the Roman Empire（罗马帝国的兴衰）
1) Addison and Steele : P224 “the Tatler”(1709-11), “the Spectator”(1711-12), a wider range of subjects, in a maturer style, a gallery of vivid portraits: Sir Roger P230
? Richard Steele and The Tatler (闲谈者）
? In 18th century，the middle class citizens
tended to assemble in coffeehouses to seek the pleasures of conversation and news. Thus, coffeehouses gave them a means of exchanging ideas, forming public opinion and propagating new thoughts.
? In 1709, Richard Steele started a paper, "The Tatler", to enlighten, as well as to entertain, his fellow coffeehouse-goers. ? The paper came out three times a week. Each issue contained several essays. The contents
were diversified. Steele wrote in a
conversational style on many topics.
? Joseph Addison and
“The Spectator“( 旁观者）
? "The Spectator", a daily paper, was a collaborative project by Addison and Steele together. ? It was much more important than "The Tatler" not only because it dealt with a wide range of subjects and was written in a maturer style but because it contained a gallery of vivid portraits of the members of the so-called "Spectator Club".
? "The Spectator" is supposed to be edited by a small club headed by Mr. Spectator, who is a man of travel and learning and who often goes to London as an observer. The club also includes Sir Roger de Coverley, who represents the country gentry, Sir Andrew Freeport, Captain Sentry and Will
Honeycomb, who represent respectively
commerce, the army and the townsfolk.
? All the members of this club represent the contemporary social types.
? What is the most striking feature
of "The Spectator" ？
? The most striking features of the paper
are the character sketches of Mr. and these sketches become the
Spectator and the members of his club，
forerunner of the modern English novel。
? What is called character sketch ？
? A character sketch is an abbreviated portrayal of a particular characteristic of people. ? The term originates in portraiture（肖像画）, where the character sketch is a common academic exercise. The artist performing a character sketch attempts to capture an expression or gesture that goes beyond coincident actions and gets to the essence of the individual.
The character sketch entered into literature in the early English novel. In later literature, a character sketch became a short story or narrative presented without significant action or plot, as the purpose of the writing is solely to present a character at his or her typical.
? Character sketches of this sort are also frequently found in journalism and regionalist humor (e.g. sketches of “the country rube” （乡下佬）or “the wise Squire“（乡绅）). Each of these attempts to delineate what is believed to be a character who epitomizes a type.
? From this typological（类型的） beginning, the character sketch has come to be any portrait, graphic or written, that is an attempt to preserve the character of an individual. ? In prose and poetry, character sketches can likewise stand alone or, more frequently, be assembled into narratives at a later time.
? What is the social function of "The
? The essays in this periodical had a moral purpose．They attempted to improve manners and morals, and continued to struggle against the ideas of the aristocracy．
The contribution of Addison and Steele 1. Their writings shaped a new code of social morality for the rising bourgeoisie 2. They gave a true picture of the social life of England 3. They made English essay a literary genre completely. Using essay as a form of character sketching and story telling, they ushered in the dawn of modern novel.
2） Alexander Pope（蒲柏）
? Alexander Pope (1688-1744) was the most important English poet in the first half of the 18th century.
A representative of the Enlightenment, one of the first to introduce rationalism to England.
“ Essay on Criticism”
? Nature to all things fix'd the Limits fit, And wisely curb'd proud Man's pretending Wit: As on the Land while here the Ocean gains, In other Parts it leaves wide sandy Plains; Thus in the Soul while Memory prevails, The solid Pow'r of Understanding fails; Where Beams of warm Imagination play, The Memory's soft Figures melt away. One Science only will one Genius fit; So vast is Art, so narrow Human Wit; Not only bounded to peculiar Arts, But oft in those, confin'd to single Parts. Like Kings we lose the Conquests gain'd before, By vain Ambition still to make them more: Each might his sev'ral Province well command, Wou'd all but stoop to what they understand.
? 蒲柏提出“自然”是检验艺术的最终标准，因此， 判断一件艺术作品的优与劣，关键在于考察它是否 合乎“自然”。蒲柏认为，对于美学与艺术的思考
合格批评家的标准就是要集各种品质和谐地于一身， 这就与艺术审美的标准相一致了。道德与艺术在 “和谐”的视域里合二为一。
“ Essay on Criticism” : Didactic poem written in heroic couplets a) It sums up the art of poetry as upheld and practiced by the ancients like
Aristotle, Horace, Boileau, and the
eighteenth century European classicists.
b) Exert great influence upon Pope?s
Many lines from this poem have become proverbial maxims（格言）, as: ? "For fools rush in where angels fear to tread.” 天使不敢涉足之处，蠢材蜂拥而至 ? "To err is human, to forgive, divine.” 犯错者为人，谅错者为神 "A little learning is a dangerous thing.“ 浅学误人；一知半解，害己误认
Workmanship and Limitation
? Pope was an outstanding enlightener and the
greatest English poet of the classical school
in the first half of the 18th century.
? Pope was a master in satire, epigram and
heroic couplet .
? As a man of letters, he had his ugly side. His
satire was not always just, often caused by
3) Samuel Johnson: the first English dictionary “Oats n. a grain, which in England is generally given to horses, but in Scotland
supports the people.”
C. Classicism (neo-classicism)
An attitude to literature or a movement that is guided by admiration of the qualities of formal balance,
proportion, decorum（端庄得体）, and
restraint（适度） attributed to the
major works of ancient Greek and
Roman literature (?the classics?)
These qualities include restraint, restricted scope, dominance of reason, sense of form, unity of design and aim, clarity, simplicity, balance, attention to structure and logical organization, chasteness in style, severity of outline, moderation, self-control, intellectualism, decorum, respect for tradition, imitation, conservatism, and "good sense". It was, at least in part, the result of a reaction against the fires of passion which had blazed in the late Renaissance, especially in the metaphysical poetry.
standards of drama
? Rimed couplet（偶句诗） instead of
blank verse, the three unities of time, place and action（三一性）, regularity in construction（结构的规律性）, and the presentation of types rather than individuals（表现类型而非个体）.
standards of poetry& prose
? Poetry, following the ancient divisions,
should be lyric, epic, didactic(教诲诗）, satiric（讽喻诗）or dramatic, and each class should be guided by some peculiar principles. ? Prose should be precise, direct and flexible.
Difference between 17th and 18th Classicism
? The basic difference between Dryden
and the 18th century enlighteners lies in the fact that the former wrote to please the declining aristocracy during the Restoration period while the latter wrote for the rising bourgeoisie to tidy up the capitalist social order.
(Enlightenment) Classicism ; Sentimentalism ;
D. Sentimentalism in poetry and
Background Sharp social contradictions began to take shape and to threaten the short-lived social stability in the early decades of the 18th century.
The continuous, large-scale enclosures of
land resulted in rural bankruptcy.
The poverty and misery of the exploited
and unemployed labouring masses in the
The Enlightenment which believed in educating the people to be kind and righteous and upheld reason as the cure-all for all social wrongs and miseries declined.
All this led to skepticism and disbelief in the myth about the bourgeois society as the best of all possible worlds
Lack of a better or more sound substitute for reason as the instrument to reform the highly unsatisfactory society, sentiment or even an over-dose of sentiment was indulged in as a sort of relief for the grieves and heart-aches. dissatisfied with reason appealed to sentiment---“to the human heart”, turned to the countryside sincere sympathy for the poverty-stricken peasants
? ? ? ?
2. The nature of Sentimentalism
? Along with a new vision of love, sentimentalism presented a new view of human nature which prized feeling over thinking, passion over reason, and personal instincts of "pity, tenderness, and
benevolence" over social duties. ? Literary work of the sentimentalism wrote
the "simple annals of the poor”.
? Writers of sentimentalism justly criticized the cruelty of the capitalist relations and the gross social injustices brought about by the
? But they attacked the progressive aspect of this great social change in order to eliminate it and sighed for the return of the patriarchal times which they idealized.
? Sentimentalism embraces a pessimistic outlook and blames reason and the Industrial Revolution for the miseries and injustices in the aristocratic-bourgeois society. ? It indulges in sentiment, hence the definite signs of decadence (颓废) in the literary
works of the sentimental tradition.
? Where can we find sentimentalism？
特点是以人物的情绪、感受、心理为主体， 关心普通人的不幸和痛苦，允许显现出文 学的主观性和情感性的审美特质，成为19 世纪浪漫主义文学的先导。
3. Literary Forms in Sentimentalism ? In English poetry of the 18th century,
sentimentalism first found its full expression
in the 40s and the 50s; In the later decades
of the century, strains of sentimentalism
may still be found in a number of the poems
of William Cowper. ?
? In English drama of the century, the true
founder of sentimental comedy has often been traced back to Richard Steele whose comedies "The Lying Lover" (1703) and "The
Conscious Lovers" contained elements of
sentimentalism as a sort of reaction to the immoral comedies of manners of the Restoration period.
? In the field of prose fiction that
sentimentalism had its most outstanding expression, Oliver Goldsmith's "The Vicar of
Wakefield" may be considered as
representative works of this category.
a. Sentimentalism in poetry: 1. Thomas Gray: P249-251 “ Elegy, written in
a country churchyard”
a model of sentimentalist poetry.
写在乡村教堂墓园的挽歌 托马斯· 格雷（1716-1771） 王道余 译 沉沉暮钟鸣，霭霭白日远， 牛群哞哞吟，草上逶迤缓， 犁人步履艰，疲惫把家返， 此世唯留下，黑暗作我伴。 山水方明灭，此时渐黯淡， 四周空气紧，安静似庄严， 唯有甲虫飞，嗡嗡在盘旋， 昏昏铃铛响，远处羊群安。 唯有在那边，高塔青藤满， 忧郁猫头鹰，对月发怨言， 怪他游荡近，冲撞其闺苑， 多年独处惯，如今遭冒犯。 嶙峋榆树下，紫杉投影暗， 堆堆腐朽上，草皮波浪翻， 各有狭窄间，永远躺里面， 小村粗鄙祖，其中享安眠。
墓志铭 地母膝弯上，青年把头放， 一生未聚财，亦未名声扬。 出身诚微贱，学识未弃放， 忧郁关注他，引为知己样。 灵魂既真诚，心胸且大方， 上天详体察，亦遣同样偿： 一滴苦眼泪，尽数付悲伤， 上天赐一友，正为他所望。
德操或尚有，缺陷又何妨， 何必深处寻，皆已入大荒， （到此无所异，唯愿安息躺，） 天父上帝胸，其中得安详。
墓志铭 此地有青年，头枕大地眠， 默默无名声，坎坷又贫贱。 家境虽寒微，才华却超凡， 忧伤度青春，碌碌送年华。 ……
晚钟殷殷响，夕阳已西沉， 群牛呼叫归，迂回走草径， 农夫荷锄犁，倦倦回家门， 惟我立旷野，独自对黄昏。 暮色何苍茫，景色渐朦胧， 四野俱寂静，无声亦无风， 唯有小甲虫，纷飞声嗡嗡， 远处玎玲响，羊群进圈中。
Gray presents in this poem his contemplation on death, the sorrows of life, and the mysteries of human life with
a touch of his personal melancholy.
? In this poem, the poet compares the common folk with the great ones, revealing his sympathy for the poor and the unknown, but mocking the great ones who despise the poor and bring havoc on them.
? 托马斯· 格雷（Thomas Gray, 1716-1771）
的《墓园哀歌》（Elegy Written in a
Country Churchyard）表达诗人对时代纷乱 状态的厌恶和对“自然简朴安排”的向往，吐 露了他们的内心感受。 ? 英国诗歌开始逐渐摆脱新古典主义的束缚，理 性的优势地位为感情或感受所代替。
b.Sentimentalism in novel:
1) Oliver Goldsmith:
a versatile writer P258
the most lovable character
“The Deserted Village”: 《荒村》 the poet laments a state of society where “wealth accumulates and men decay”
“The Vicar of Wakefield” 《威克菲尔德的牧 师》p259
? 奥利弗· 哥尔德斯密斯（Oliver Goldsmith, 1730-1774）的长诗《荒村》 （The Deserted Village）是感伤主义
? “The Vicar of Wakefield”: the depravity of the landed gentry and the corruption of the town life are contrasted to an idyll of quiet family happiness in the bosom of nature and the peaceful manners of the village
2) Samuel Richardson理查逊: P168 3) Laurence Stern 斯特恩: p 169
4) George Grabbe克雷布: p170
? Samuel Richardson?s Pamela (epistolary)
? Do you want to know what it is about?
Pamela（帕米拉）or, Virtue Rewarded 1740
? A girl named Pamela Andrews,
whose master, Mr. B, is
infatuated(迷恋) with her but can not propose for his high rank. He attempts to seduce and rape her. She resists his temptation and
gradually falls in love with him.
Her virtue is eventually rewarded when he sincerely proposes an marriage to her.
Pamela（帕米拉）or, Virtue Rewarded 1740 ? 既有言情的情节,又有严肃的道
? make the Epistolary novels extremely popular during the eighteenth century
? The subtitle, Virtue Rewarded, of
Samuel Richardson's Pamela, may
explain why this novel received both
warm welcome and satire after its
? 《克拉麗莎· 哈洛， 或一位小姐的故事》
Clarissa, the History of a Young Lady (1784）
? epistolary novel ? It tells the tragic story of a heroine whose quest for virtue is continually thwarted （反对）by her family ? longest real novel in the English language.
? Clarissa Harlowe, the tragic heroine of Clarissa, is the extremely beautiful and virtuous young lady whose family has become very wealthy only in recent years and is now eager to become part of the aristocracy by acquiring estates and titles through advantageous pairings.
? After Clarissa's grandfather's death, she inherits a substantial sum of money. Her family, noticing that this lady could be their way to entering aristocratic society, attempt to force her to marry a rich but highly uncultured and unrefined man (Roger Solmes) against her will and, more importantly, against her own sense of virtue.
? Desperate to remain free, she is tricked by a young
gentleman of her acquaintance, Lovelace, into escaping with
him. Joseph Lehman, the Harlowes' servant, shouts and makes noise so it may seem like the family has awoken and
they have discovered that Clarissa and Lovelace are about
to run away. Scared of the aftermath, Clarissa goes with Lovelace. Clarissa remains Lovelace's prisoner for many months. She is kept at many lodgings, and even a brothel where the women are disguised as high-status ladies by Lovelace himself. However, she refuses to marry him on many occasions, longing — unusually for a girl in her time — to live by herself in peace. She eventually runs away but is discovered by Lovelace and is tricked into going back to the brothel.
? Lovelace, who means to marry Clarissa in order to avenge
the treatment begot to him by the Harlowe family, wants to
possess Clarissa's body as well as her mind. He believes that if she does not have her virtue anymore, she will be forced to marry him on any terms. However, as he is more and more impressed by Clarissa, he finds it difficult to keep convincing himself that truly virtuous women do not exist. ? The continuous pressure he finds himself under, combined
with his growing passion for Clarissa, drives him to
extremes and eventually he rapes her by drugging her. Through this action, Clarissa must accept and marry Lovelace.
?founder of the English domestic novel,
?Forerunner of the stream-of consciousness
?his type of novel is called the epistolary
novel（书信体小说）(written as series of
?His Chief object is to teach people to learn virtue and good deportment.(举止)
?his emphasis on detail, his psychological insights into women have earned him a prominent place among English novelists.
? Laurence Stern
Laurence Sterne (1713-1768),
《项狄传》 全名为《绅士特 里斯舛· 项狄的 生平与见解》
? 劳伦斯· 斯特恩（Lawrence Sterne, 17131768）的《项狄传》（The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy）打破传统小说叙述模式，