虚拟语气 The Subjunctive Mood
在英语中随着说话人意图的不同，动词需用 不同的形式，称为语气。英语语气有三种： ①陈述语气(indicative mood) ②祈使语气(imperative mood)
? 陈述语气：表示动作或状态是现实的、 确定的或符合事实的，用于陈述句、疑 问句和某些感叹句。 I went to the theatre yesterday. Jack hasn’t come back home yet. ? 祈使语气：表示说话人对对方的请求、 邀请、命令、警告或劝告等。
Let’s go. Don’t touch anything on the table.
? 虚拟语气: 表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事 要求、有时是一种非真实的假设、料想，或是
要用于if条件状语从句, 也可用于名词性从句等。 ①If I were you, I would not leave her alone. ②Our teacher suggested that we (should) go to the library this afternoon.
条件句表示主句的条件, 分真实条件句和 虚拟条件句两种。 a. 真实条件句表示条件是真的或有可能实 现的, 采用陈述语气。 b. 虚拟条件句/非真实条件句表示条件是无 法实现或几乎无法实现的, 采用虚拟语 气。
The volleyball match will be put off if it ___. A. will rain C. rained B. rains D. is rained
If I were a boy, I would join the army.
If I had known the truth, I would have told you.
If you succeeded/should succeed/were to succeed, everything would be all right.
形式情况 与现在 事实相反
if条 件 从 句
一般过去时 (be用 were)
would (should, could, might)+ 动词原形 would (should, could, might)+ have+过去分词
与将来 一般过去时/were; would (should, 事实相反
should+动词原形; could, might) were to+动词原形 +动词原形
had got (get) here five minutes earlier， If you _______ you __________________ would have caught (catch) the bus .
2.如果我现在不忙，我就来帮你了。 would help (help) you If I were ____ (be) not busy, I __________ now. 3.如果明天下雪了，我们怎么办？ should we do if it ____________ were to snow What ______
If I ____________(be) busy last night, had not been I ________________ would have gone (go) to see the film with you .
If he_________(drive) more carefully, had driven he _________________(not have) would not have had the car accident yesterday.
If he got up early,
he would be on time.
If I _________ had learnt (learn) how to swim,
I __________________ would not have been (be) trapped
in this island.
What would you do if you won the lottery? If I won the lottery, I would…
If I won the lottery, I would buy an expensive car.
If I had a lot of money, I would buy a villa.
Fill in the blanks a. If they were ____ (be) here, they
__________ would take (take) your advice.
b. If the world-war _____ burst (burst) out again, what would _____________ happen (happen) to our people on earth?
a. If Tom ________ had been (be) more careful in
the exam, he would ________________ have passed (pass)
it already. b. If I _______ had met (meet) you yesterday, have gone (go) to the we would ______________ concert together.
a. If there __________ should be (be) no natural
resource any more, we should ____________ make
(make) use of nuclear power. b. What would _____________ happen (happen) if you
should get up (get up) too late _______________
c. If Robots _____________ were to control (control) the world some day, there _________ would be (be)
含有虚拟语气的条件状 语从句中如果有had, should, were三个词， 可以将if 省略，并将这 三个词提至句首，从而 构成部分倒装。
If it should be fine, we would go for an outing.
Should it be fine, we would go for an outing.
If they had had time, they would have come and helped us.
Had they had time, they would have come and helped us.
If it were to rain tomorrow, the football match would be put off.
Were it to rain tomorrow, the football match would be put off.
当条件状语从句表示的行 为和主句表示的行为所发 生的时间不一致时，被称 为“错综时间条件句”， 动词的形式要根据它所表 示的时间作出相应的调整。
If the staff had been more careful,
the mall would not be on fire now.
If he had set out earlier, he would be home now.
If you had taken my advice, you would be much better now.
怎么做了。 If you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now. 如果我是你，我昨晚就不会错过那场电影。 If I were you, I wouldn’t have missed the movie last night.
有时可用介词短语代替条件状 语从句．常用的介词有with, without, but for (要不是,若非) 等。
What would you do with a million dollars? (=if you had a million dollars)? We could not have finished the work ahead of time without your help. (=if we hadn’t got your help). But for the rain we would have finished the work. (=If it hadn’t been for the rain),
? 含蓄条件句 有时为了表达的需要，在虚 拟语气中并不是总是出现if 引导的条件句，而是通过其 他手段来代替条件句。
I was ill that day. Otherwise , I would have taken part in the sports meet.（副词） =If I had not been ill that day, I would have taken… He telephoned to inform me of your birthday, or I would have known nothing about it.（连词） =If he had not informed me of your birthday, I would have known nothing about it. I might have given you more help, but I was too busy.（连词） =I might have given you more help, if I had not been too busy.
1. You could have passed the exam. could have done should have done/shouldn’t have done ought to have done/oughtn’t to have done 2. If my grandmother were with me! 3. If only she had not left.
If it were not for … / If it had not been for…
要是没有…, 要不是… / 当时要不是… If it were not for the rain, the crop would die. If it had not been for your help, I wouldn’t have made so much progress.
=Were it not for … / Had it not been for… 要是没有…, 要不是…/当时要不是…
用于宾语从句 1. 用于wish 后面的宾语从句中。 wish后面的宾语从句一般用虚拟语气，表示 一种不能实现的愿望。其谓语动词形式为： 对现在情况虚拟 一般过去时/were
I wish I were as tall as Yao Ming.
I wish I were a bird.
I wish every day were my birthday.
I wish I hadn’t eaten so much watermelon.
The party was terrible, I wish I had never gone to it.
I wish it would rain tomorrow.
I wish I could travel in space some day.
2. 表示要求，命令，建议的虚拟语气。 常见动词： 一个坚持，两个命令，三个建 议，四个要求。即: 1. insist 2. order, command 3. advise, suggest, propose (recommend) 4. demand, require, request, desire 这些动词后面的宾语从句要使用虚拟语 气。即从句中的动词使用should+动词原形, 其中should可以省略。
①我们建议Tom 休息一下。 ②他坚决要求我到场。 ③国王命令囚犯明天要实施死刑。 ④他们要求我们派他们去那儿工作。
We suggested that Tom (should) have a rest. He insisted that I (should) be present. The king ordered that the prisoners (should) be killed the next day. They requested that we (should) send them to work there.
注意：suggest 表示“暗示、表明”讲时， insist 表示 “坚持认为(坚持事实)”之意时， 应用陈述语气而不用虚拟语气。
The smile on his face suggested that he was satisfied with our work. 那个人坚持说他没有偷钱。 The man insisted that he had never stolen the money.
? Her pale face suggested that she _____ was (be) ill, so her mother suggested that she __________ should see (see) a doctor.
? The old man insisted that the guy __________(steal) his wallet and had stolen should send insisted that he ___________(send) the guy to the police station.
1. 她坚持认为自己是对的。 She insisted that she was right. 2. 他的叔叔坚持要求他不要待在旅馆里。 His uncle insisted that he should not stay in the hotel.
1. 他脸上的表情表明他不开心。 The look on his face suggested that he was unhappy. 2. 我建议老师们的工资应该增加哦。 I suggested that the teachers’ wages (should) be increased.
1. It is suggested／desired / ordered / requested / demanded/required/ proposed that…
It is suggested that the meeting (should) be put off.
It is ordered that the work (should) be done at once.
2. It is vital/essential /important/necessary/ natural/strange/surprising/unthinkable/ impossible that….(should) do… It is a pity/a surprise/an honor/a shame that…(should) do… It is necessary that you (should) clean the room after work. It is important that he (should) work harder at his lessons.
1. 真可惜他竟然如此粗心． It is a pity that he should be so careless. 2. 他离开时没有说再见是很奇怪的． It is strange that he should have left without saying good-bye. 注意：以上句型也可用陈述语气．
It is strange that he didn’t come yesterday.
It is a pity that you can’t dance.
在suggestion / proposal / order / advice / request / demand/ desire/ requirement/idea/ plan等名词后 的表语和同位语从句中也要用“should＋动词原 形”，should可以省略． My suggestion is that we (should ) think it over 表语从句 before accepting it. My suggestion that we (should) have a meeting has been accepted by others. 同位语从句
We all agree to his suggestion that the meeting (should) be put off. 同位语从句
一般过去时 It’s (about/high) time + that… should +V原 你该走了。 It’s high time that you went.
It’s high time that you should go. 我们该去睡觉了。 It’s time that we went to bed. It’s time that we should go to bed.
If only 引导的感叹句(要是…该有多好啊!)
对将来情况虚拟 would/could＋动词原形 If only I knew the answer! If only I had seen the film yesterday! If only I could have my own house some day!
would rather + 从句, 从句用虚拟语气 对现在或将来情况虚拟 一般过去时/were
I would rather you told me the truth. Don’t come. I would rather you came tomorrow. I would rather you had been present yesterday. 我倒宁愿你昨天在场。
as if/as though从句中的虚拟语气 对现在情况虚拟 一般过去时/were 对过去情况虚拟 过去完成时
对将来情况虚拟 would/could＋动词原形 He treats me as if I were his own daughter. He spoke as if he had known about it. She talks and talks as if she would never stop.
如果从句有明显的迹象表示可能发生或为 事实时，as if / as though从句用陈述语气。 It is so cloudy. It looks as if it is going to rain.
He behaves as if he owned the house.
She talks about Rome as though she had been there herself.
even if ( even though) 即使 Even if he were here, he could not solve the problem.
Even if I had been busy then, I would have
在In case和 for fear that “万一；惟恐” 引导的状语从句中，谓语动词多用 (should)+动词原形
Take an umbrella in case it should rain / rains. In case I should fail, I would try again. I daren’t tell you what he did for fear that he should be angry with you.
在in order that和 so that 引导的状语 从句中，谓语动词多用 may/might/can/could+动词原形
Let’s hand in the exercises earlier so that the teacher may have time to correct them.
The teacher spoke slowly in order that the students could/might hear clearly.
从A、B、C、D四个选项中，选出可以填 入空白处的最佳选项。 1. — Have you ever been to Beijing? — No, but I wish I ______. A. have B. will C. do D. had 2. If there were no water in the world, everything ______. A. will die B. would die C. would have died D. have died
3. I wish that I ______ with you last night. A. had gone B. could go C. have gone D. went 4. If I ______ you, I ______ more attention to English idioms and phrases. A. was; shall pay B. am; will pay C. would be; would pay D. were; would pay
5. I wish that you ______ such a bad
headache because I’m sure that you would have enjoyed the concert. A. wouldn’t have B. didn’t have C. hadn’t had D. haven’t had
6. When a stick is partly in a glass of water, it looks as though it ___. A. breaks B. has broken C. were broken D. had been broken 7.--- “Are you going to the ball tonight?” ---“It’s too late now. How I wish ____ about it earlier!” A. I’ll know B. I’ve known C. I know D. I’d known
8. The guard of the meeting insisted that everybody _______ the rules. A. obeys B. obey C. will obey D. would obey 9. ---“Jack’s been ill for some weeks.” ---“I know. I wish ____ see a doctor.” A. he should B. he can C. he’ll D. he would
10. “You should have gone to the cinema with us yesterday. The film was very good.” “I wish I ____ yesterday off. I’d have gone with you.” A. have had B. had C. have D. had had 11. It is time that we _____ this practice. A. stop B. stopped C. will stop D. have stopped
12. I wish I _____ as healthy as my cousin. A. were B. am C. was D. will be 13. The two strangers talked as if they ___ friends for years. A. have been B. are C. were D. had been