9299.net
大学生考试网 让学习变简单
当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >>

2013版英语全程复习方略课件(江苏):选修7 Unit 4(译林牛津版)

2013版英语全程复习方略课件(江苏):选修7 Unit 4(译林牛津版)


Unit 4 Public transport 公共交通

Ⅰ. 单词盘点 根据词性和汉语意思写出词汇

convey 1. ________(vt. ) postpone 2. __________(vt. ) interval 3. _________(n. ) choke 4. ________(vt. &vi. )
(n. )

运送,输送;表达 延迟,延期 间隔,间隙 (使)窒息;(使)哽咽;塞满,堵塞 哽咽声,呛住的声音

undertake 5. __________(vt. & vi. ) enlarge 6. ________(vt. & vi. ) split 7. ______(vi. & vt. ) annual 8. ________(adj. ) departure 9. ___________(n. ) punctual 10. __________(adj. ) arise 11. _______(vi. ) fine 12. ______(vt. )

承担,从事;承诺,答应

扩大,扩展,增大
分割,(使)分开;撕开,割破

每年的,一年一次的
离开,出发;背离,违反

准时的,守时的
出现,产生

处以罚金

load 13. ______(n. ) (vt. )

负荷,负载;大量,许多
装载,装上,装入

unfortunately 14. _______________(adv. )遗憾地,不幸地,可惜地 fortune fortunate →__________ (adj. )幸运的→ _________(n. )幸运 unbelievable 15._____________ (adj. )非常坏(或非常好、非常极端)的,令人 believe belief 难以置信的→ __________(v. )相信→ ________(n. )信仰 enquiry enquire 16. ________(n. )询问,咨询;调查,查究,探究→________ (v. )询问,打听

reception receptionist 17. ______________(n. )接待员→ _________(n. )接待处→ receive ________(vt. )接待,招待 reserve 18. reservation __________(n. )预订,预约;保留意见→ _______(v. )预

订,预约
aggressive 19. __________(adj. )好斗的,挑衅的,富于攻击性的→ aggression ___________(n. )好斗情绪,攻击性→ aggressor ________(n. )侵略者, 挑衅者

violate violation 20. __________(vt. )违犯,违反;侵犯→ ___________(n. )违反

crossing 21. __________(n. )人行横道;十字路口,交叉点;穿越→ cross _______ (vt. )穿过

【品词自测】根据所给词的适当形式填空 fortune ①He wanted to make a _________in the USA, but unfortunately ______________, he died halfway. (unfortunately)

believed ②Most people __________that he would die. It was
unbelievable _______________that he came to life again. (unbelievable)

Ⅱ. 短语回放 1. 中途下客或卸货 2. 联合,连接 3. 每隔??距离或时间 4. 依靠,依赖 5. 提出,想出 6. 理解,明白 7. 给某人接通(电话);使经历 drop off ____________ link up __________

at(. . . )intervals ______________
rely on _________ come up with ______________ make out ___________ put through ______________

8. 决定,选定 9. 推迟,拖延;使反感

decide on/upon ______________ put off ___________ turn up __________ fill in _________ a handful of ______________

10. 出现,到来;调高(音量等)
11. 填写(表格);消磨(时间)

12. 少数的,少量的
13. 分组,分解;分离

split up __________
speed up _________ arise from ____________

14. (使)加速
15. 起因于,由??引起

Ⅲ. 句式扫描 1. However, most trains to London only went to the outer city limits, because building railway tracks into the city would have damaged _____________________(会损坏)many old buildings. As better ways for digging tunnels were developed 2. ______________________________________________(随着更 好的挖掘隧道方法的研制), the first railway tunnel under the River Thames was dug in 1884.

Having seen the situation 3. _______________________(看到这种情况), a wealthy American businessman, Charles Yerkes, undertook improving the system in 1902 by obtaining ownership of the many different lines and setting up the Underground Electric Railways Company of London.

Below are some of the major causes of road accidents 4. ______________________________________________(下面是 交通事故的一些主要原因)in connection with vehicles such as

cars, minibuses and lorries, and what drivers should do to
prevent them.

5. If you are with someone who has been drinking alcohol,
even if it is just a couple of beers ____________________________(即使只是几杯啤酒), do not

allow them to drive.

【仿句自测】根据下面句式仿写句子

①as 引导时间状语从句
仿写:随着年龄的增长她的信心增强了。 As she grew older she gained confidence. __________________________________________________ ②现在分词作状语

仿写:他点燃蜡烛后,就出去了。
Having lit the candles, he went out. __________________________________________________

③below 引起的全部倒装句 仿写:下面是对一个简单科学实验的描述。

Below is a description of a simple scientific experiment. ______________________________________________________
④even if引导的让步状语从句 仿写:即使下雨,我们也要去那里。 Even if it is raining, we’ll go there. ______________________________________________________

核 心

arise load speed up

三年1考 三年1考 三年2考




1. convey vt. 运送,输送;表达,传达 convey one’s feelings/meanings 表达某人的感情/意思 convey sth. to sb. convey sb. /sth. from A to B 把某人或某物从A地运送到B地 convey that. . . 传达,表明?? 向某人表达/传递??

①Eyes can convey one’s feelings. 眼睛可以传情。 ②The ship conveys oil from the Middle East. 这艘船从中东运输石油。 Convey to ③ ________ my best wishes ___ him, please. 请向他转达我最美好的祝愿。

2. choke vt. &vi. (使)窒息;(使)哽咽;塞满,堵塞 n. 哽咽声,呛住的声音 choke back choke off 控制住,忍住 阻止;制止;限制;打断;停止

choke to death
choke sth. Down

窒息而死
硬咽,硬吞

choke up

(因感情激动而)哽咽

①High prices choked off demand. 高昂的价格制约了需求。

②He didn’t like the food but he managed to choke it down. 他
不喜欢那些食物, 但还是勉强吞咽下去。

choked back ③Hearing the bad news, she _______ _____her tears.
听到这个坏消息,她强忍住眼泪。

3. undertake vt. & vi. 承担,从事;承诺,答应 ①He undertook to finish the job by Friday. 他答应在星期五之前完成这项工作。 ②I cannot undertake that you will make a profit. 我不能担保你会获利。 【归纳】 undertake to do sth. undertake that. . .

答应做某事 ______________________
同意/答应/担保?? ______________________

4. reservation n. 预订,预约;保留意见

(1)make a reservation
have/express reservations about

预订,预约
对??怀有疑问

with/without reservation
(2)reserve v.

有/毫不保留地
保存;保留;预订

reserve sth. for sb.
be reserved for

给某人保留
留给

①I had serious reservations about his appointment as captain. 我对任命他为船长深表疑惑。

②Customers are advised to make seat reservations well in
advance. 建议顾客提前订好座位。

介词填空 for ③These seats are reserved ____ the elderly and the disabled.
with ④He accepted the plan ______ breservation.

5. arise vi. 出现,产生;(由??)引起;起身;起床 arise from =arise out of 由??引起/产生;起源于; 从??升起,上升 ①These changes arise from differences in climate and nature.

这些变化是由气候和自然不同引起的。
②事故往往起因于粗心。(一句多译) arise from Accidents often ______ _____ carelessness. result from =Accidents often _______ _____carelessness.

6. load n. 负荷,负载;大量,许多
vt. 装载,装上,装入 (1)take a load off one’s mind loads of(=lots of)=a load of 打消某人的顾虑 很多的

(2)load up with
load. . . with. . .

把??装上??
用??装载??

load sth. into/onto

把某物装入/上

take a load off my mind ①I’ll ____ __ ____ ___ ____ ______to leave the child in your charge. 把孩子托给你照顾我就放心了。

②There are loads of great places to see in Australia.
澳大利亚有很多特别棒的地方值得一看。

③The table was loaded with delicious food of many different kinds.
餐桌上摆满了各式各样的美味食品。

【点津】与load有关的合成词: overload 超载; unload 卸货 ;download 下载; upload上传;carload车载量;workload 工作量

7. link up 联合,连接
①The two highways link up here.

两条公路在这里连接起来。
②The two spacecraft will link up with each other in orbit. 两艘

宇宙飞船将于轨道上互相连接。
【拓展】翻译以下短语

link. . . to/with. . .
be linked with/to

将??和??连接或联系起来 _________________________

和??有联系 ___________________

8. put through 给某人接通(电话);使经历;使成功 put sb. /sth. through (to sb. /. . . )给??接通(电话) put sth. through完成(工作、计划等);使成功 ①If she’s not in, can you put me through to her secretary?

如果她不在,请帮我把电话接到她秘书那里好吗?
②These reforms in education are likely to be put through in a

few months.
这些教育改革大约在几个月以后可以完成。

【拓展】根据汉语意思补全以下短语
aside put _____ away put _____ down put ______ put _________ forward 把??放在一边; 储存??备用 把??收起来,放好;储存??备用 放下;记下;平定,镇定 提出

off put ___ out put ___

推迟,拖延;使反感

扑灭; 生产,制造
举起;建造;搭起(帐篷等);为??提

up put ___

供食宿;张贴
up with put ________ 忍受

9. decide on/upon 决定,选定

(1)decide that. . .
decide for/against (2)decision n. make a decision

决定??
做出对??有/不利的判决 决定 做出决定

come to /arrive at/reach a decision 做出决定

①I decided that I would tell her the truth.
我决定要告诉她真相。 ②They didn’t come to any decision at the meeting. 在会议上他们没有做出任何决定。 ③最后他决定在海边度假。(一句多译) In the end, he _______ ___spending the holidays by the sea. decided on

made a decision =In the end, he _____ ___ _______to spend the holidays by the sea.

10. turn up 出现;到场;到达;把??开大一点;(机会等)到

来,找到;竖起(衣领);卷起(裤腿)
根据语境写出下列加黑短语的汉语意思 ①I was expecting him at ten, but he didn’t turn up. ( 到场 ) ②Turn up the radio a little, for I can hardly hear the program me. ( 调大 ) ③He turned the collar of his coat up because of the strong wind. ( 竖起 )

【拓展】 turn down turn off turn out turn over turn round turn to 关小;拒绝 关掉 结果是,证明是,原来是 翻转,翻身;倒转 转向;面对另一面;采取新方法 转向,开始工作,着手某事;求助于

11. fill in 填写(表格);消磨(时间)

①To order,fill in the coupon on Page 54.
订货填写54页上的订货单。

②He filled in the rest of the day watching television.
他看电视打发了那天余下的时光。

【拓展】翻译以下短语

fill up

充满;填满 ______________

fill sth. with sth. (be filled with sth. ) 用??充满?? ______________ fill out 填写 ______________

12. speed up (使)加速
at high/low/full/top speed at a speed of. . . 以高/低/全/最高速 以??速度

with all speed
reduce speed

以全速,开足马力
减速

pick up speed

加速

speeded up ①The heat _______ ___the reaction. 热量加快了反应。 ②At the turning, the car reduced speed. 在拐弯处,汽车减慢了速度。 ③The police car is running at a speed of 100 miles per hour to chase after the truck ahead of it.

警车正以每小时100英里的速度追赶前面那辆卡车。

【真题链接】 [2011山东,25]They are broadening the bridge to _____ the flow of traffic. A. put off B. speed up C. turn on D. work out

【解析】选B。考查动词短语辨析。句意:他们在加宽桥面,
用以加快交通速度。speed up加快速度;put off 推迟;turn on 打开; work out解决,锻炼,算出。

13. Having seen the situation, a wealthy American businessman, Charles Yerkes, undertook improving the system in 1902 by

obtaining ownership of the many different lines and setting up
the Underground Electric Railways Company of London. 看到 这种情况,美国富商查尔斯?耶基斯于1902年承担起了改善地 铁系统的工程,他买下许多不同的地铁线,创立了伦敦电力地 铁公司。

having seen the situation是现在分词短语的完成式,在句中作
时间状语,表示动作发生在主句的谓语动作之前。

①Not having got any news from her family, she was worried. 没
有得到家人的任何消息,她非常担心。

Having finished his homework ②______ _______ ___ __________, he went to bed.
完成作业后,他睡觉了。

【真题链接】

[2010湖南,26]Dina,______ for months to find a job as a
waitress, finally took a position at a local advertising agency. A. struggling C. having struggled B. struggled D. to struggle

【解析】选C。考查非谓语动词。句意:几个月以来,Dina一 直努力寻找一份女服务员的工作,最后她在当地一家广告代理 处谋到了一个职位。空格处需要表示主动的现在分词作状语表

示时间,struggle动作又先于谓语动作发生,故用现在分词的
完成式。

【想一想】

分词作状语是高考的重点所在,也是考生很难掌握的语法点,
动脑想一想,何时使用现在分词的一般式,何时使用现在分词 的完成式呢?

【拓展延伸】

(1)如果分词和主语之间是主动关系且分词的动作和句子谓语的
动作同时发生,用现在分词的一般式。

Hearing the phone ringing, Mr. Black put down the book he was
reading and picked up the receiver. 听到电话铃响,布莱克先生 放下正在看的书,拿起了听筒。

(2)如果分词和主语之间是被动关系,而且强调动作先于句子的 谓语动作而发生,则要用现在分词的完成被动式。 Having been warned of the typhoon, people had little loss in it. 关于这次台风人们已经得到了警告,所以人们的损失很少。

(1)punctual与其他形容词的辨析 (2)postpone后跟动名词的用法 (3)drop off 的用法

1. [2012吉安模拟]—Jenny is always ______ for

appointments. Why is she late today?
—She might have got trapped in a traffic jam in the rush hour.

A.patient

B. grateful

C. punctual

D. available

【解析】选C。考查形容词的辨析。句意:——詹妮约会总是

很准时,今天为什么迟到了呢?——在高峰时刻她可能陷入了
交通阻塞。punctual准时的;patient耐心的;grateful感激的; available可得到的。

2. As a result of the weather, they postponed ________ the sports

meeting.
A. to hold B. to have C. holding D. taking place

【解析】选C。考查非谓语动词。句意:由于天气原因,他们
推迟举办运动会。postpone“推迟”,其后接名词、代词、动 名词作宾语;take place是不及物动词词组,不能接宾语。

3. 完成句子 ①推迟兴建新医院是不受欢迎的决定。 postpone building a new It was an unpopular decision to______________________ hospital _________. ②请让我在车站下车。 drop me off Just _______________ at the station, please.

意测观点态度题 作者的态度和立场一般分为三大类:(1)支持、赞同、乐观; (2)客观、中立;(3)反对、批评、怀疑、悲观。我们除了可以

通过在文中寻找带有感情色彩的词来判断作者的态度外,有时
还需要综合运用一些阅读方法,如:根据文章中与问题相关的 细节做出判断,根据作者提供的例证推断其暗示的态度、观点, 根据文章的主旨最后做出正确选择。

1. 常用的褒义词有:positive,

support,

useful,

interesting,

enthusiasm, admiring, great, wonderful, beautiful, fantastic, approval, optimistic。

2. 常 用 的 贬 义 词 有 :

disgusting( 令 人 作 呕 的 , 极 坏 的 ),
negative( 消 极 的 , 怀 疑 的 ),

critical( 批 评 的 , 批 判 的 ),

tolerant(容忍的), disappointed, awful(糟糕的),opposed(反对
的), doubtful, unconcerned(不关心的),defensive(生气的;防 御性的),disapproving(反对的,不赞成的)。

3. 常 用 的 表 示 中 性 的 词 有 : indifferent( 冷 淡 的 , 中 立 的 ), impassive( 无 动 于 衷 的 ), uninterested, neutral( 中 立 的 ) ,

reserved(含蓄的),casual(随意的)。

【真题连连看】 [2011陕西]Ever since they were first put on the market in

the early 1990s, genetically modified(GM,转基因)foods have
been increasingly developed and marketed in many countries in the world, mainly on the basis of their promise to end the worldwide food crisis. But can GM technology solve world hunger problems? Even if it would, is it the best solution?

Despite what it promises, GM technology actually has not increased the production potential(潜力)of any crop. In fact,

studies show that the most widely grown GM crop,

GM

soybeans, has suffered reduced productivity. For instance, a report that analysed nearly two decades of research on major GM food crops shows that GM engineering has failed to significantly increase US crop production.

60. Which of the following best describes the attitude of the
author towards GM technology? A.Optimistic. B. Defensive. C. Disapproving. D. Casual.

【步步精析】 60. 选C。观点态度题。文章开头提到转基因食品在20世纪90年

代初上市,承诺能够解决世界粮食危机。接着,作者以两个问
题表示质疑。在第二段作者接着说:“转基因技术实际上并没 有提高任何农作物的生产潜力。”在后面的几段中作者还引用 其他人的话来证明自己对转基因食品的看法。因此,作者对转 基因食品的态度是反对的。

名词、数词和冠词 名词、冠词是高考必考内容,数词在高考中涉及较少。主 要考查名词的词义辨析,也有的年份考查名词的所有格; 冠词 的用法也是考查的重点所在。复习时应注意以下几个方面:1.

掌握考纲内名词的含义;2. 熟知冠词的用法。

1. [2011四川, 13]Always remember to put such dangerous things as knives out of children’s__________. A. touch B. sight C. reach D. distance

【解析】选C。考查名词词义辨析。句意:一定要记住把小刀 这一类危险的物品放到孩子们够不到的地方。reach名词,伸 手可达到的距离,out of one’s reach 手不能及。touch名词,触 摸, out of touch 与 ??无联系。sight名词,视力; out of sight 看不见。distance 名词,距离。故选C。

2. [2011山东, 34]There’s a ______ in our office that when it’s somebody’s birthday, they bring in a cake for us all to share.

A. tradition
C. concern

B. balance
D. relationship

【解析】选A。考查名词词义辨析。句意:在我们办公室有一
个传统,当某个人过生日时,他们就会拿来一个蛋糕与我们一

起分享。tradition 传统;balance 平衡;concern 关心,担心;
relationship 关系,关联。

3. [2011江西, 31]What’s the ______, in your opinion,
helping him if he doesn’t make an effort to help himself? A. sympathy B. theme C. object D. point

of

【解析】选D。考查名词词义辨析。句意:在你看来,如果他 不努力帮助自己 ,我们帮他又有什么意义呢 ?the point of doing sth. “ 做 某 事 的 意 义 ” , sympathy 同 情 ; theme 主 题 ; object物体,根据句意应选D。

4. [2011浙江, 18]Anyway, I can’t cheat him—it’s against all
my __________. A. emotions C. regulations B. principles D. opinions

【解析】选B。考查名词词义辨析。句意:不管怎么样,我不 能骗他——这有违我的(做人)原则。A项:情绪;B项:原则; C项:规章制度;D项:意见,观点。

5. [2011江苏, 27]Teachers have to constantly update their
knowledge in order to maintain their professional _______ . A. consequence C. competence B. independence D. intelligence

【解析】选C。考查名词词义辨析。句意:教师要不断地更新 他 们 的 知 识 以 保 持 他 们 的 专 业 技 能 。 consequence 结 果 ; independence独立;competence技能,技巧;intelligence智能,

智慧。

6. [2011福建,26]The lack of eco-friendly habits among the
public is thought to be a major _______ of global climate change. A. result B. cause C. warning D. reflection

【解析】选B。考查名词词义辨析。句意:公众环保习惯的缺 乏被认为是全球气候变化的一个主要原因。cause着重指产生 或造成某事发生的原因, 往往造成不好的影响;result结果; warning警告;reflection反射。由句意知选B。

7. [2011四川, 18]Dr. Peter Spence, _______ headmaster of the school, told us, “_______ fifth of pupils here go on to study

at Oxford and Cambridge. ”
A. 不填;A C. the; The B. 不填;The D. a; A

【解析】选A。考查冠词。句意:校长彼得?斯宾斯博士告诉我
们:“这里五分之一的学生会进入牛津或者剑桥大学学习。” 第一个空后的headmaster是Dr. Peter Spence的同位语,又表示 独一无二的职务,故之前不用冠词。第二个空a fifth=one fifth 五分之一,用不定冠词。

8. [2011全国卷Ⅰ, 33]It is generally accepted that _____ boy

must learn to stand up and fight like ______ man.
A. a; a B. a;the C. the; the D. a;不填

【解析】选A。考查冠词。句意:人们普遍认为男孩子一定要
学会站起来像男子汉一样战斗。此处boy和man都是可数名词, 并且泛指一类人,所以前面都加不定冠词a。

9. [ 2011 山 东 , 21 ] Take your time—it’s just _____ short

distance from here to ________ restaurant.
A. 不填;the B. a; the C. the; a D. 不填;a

【解析】选B。考查冠词。句意:别着急——从这儿到饭店仅
有很短的一段距离。第一个空中加a表示一段距离;第二个空 后的restaurant在句中为特指,用定冠词the。

10. [2011江西, 22]—It’s said John will be in a job paying over $60, 000 ________ year. —Right, he will also get paid by _____ week. A. the; the B. a; the C. the; a D. a; a

【解析】选B。考查冠词。句意:——据说John将会有一份年 薪超过60 000美金的工作。——没错,他也将会以每周的方式 得到薪水。表时间单位每年,用不定冠词a,后一句by后面接 具体的计量方式用定冠词the,表示“按周”的意思。所以选B。

11. [ 2011 浙 江 , 2 ] Experts think that ______ recently discovered painting may be ______ Picasso. A. the; 不填 B. a; the C. a; 不填 D. the; a

【解析】选D。考查冠词。句意:专家认为,最近发现的这幅 画可能是毕加索的一幅作品。根据句意可以知道,第一个空格 应该是特指的,所以用the;第二个空格为毕加索的一幅作品,

表示“一个”,所以用a。

12. [ 2011 陕 西 , 13 ] As is known to all, ______ People’s

Republic of China is _____ biggest developing country in the
world. A. the; 不填 C. the; the B. 不填; the D. 不填; 不填

【解析】选C。考查冠词。句意:众所周知,中华人民共和国 是世界上最大的发展中国家。the People’s Republic of China为 专有名词;后一个空为形容词的最高级,加定冠词the。

13. [2011全国卷Ⅱ, 16]As he reached _____ front door, Jack saw _____ strange sight. A. the; 不填 C. 不填;a B. a; the D. the; a

【解析】选D。考查冠词。句意:当杰克到前门时,他看见了 一个奇怪的景象。这里的前门是特指杰克到的那个前门,故用 the; 第二空指一个奇怪的景象,是泛指,故用a。

14. [2011重庆, 26]In communication,

a smile is usually

_______ strong sign of a friendly and _______ open attitude. A. the; / B. a; an C. a; / D. the; an

【解析】选C。考查冠词。句意:在交流沟通时,微笑通常是 表达友好坦诚态度的一种明显的体现。sign是可数名词单数, 此处表示泛指,因此应用不定冠词a;句中friendly and open同 时修饰同一个名词attitude,因此open前面不能再加冠词。

15. [2010安徽,25]I haven’t seen Sara since she was a little

girl, and she has changed beyond _________.
A. hearing B. strength

C. recognition

D. measure

【解析】选C。考查名词词义辨析。句意:从Sara还是个小女

孩时起,我就没再见过她,她现在已经变得让人认不出了。
hearing 听觉;strength强度,力气,力量;recognition 认出, 承认; measure 大小,度量单位,范围,程度。

16. [2010江苏,21]The visitors here are greatly impressed by
the fact that _______ people from all walks of life are working hard for _______ new Jiangsu.

A. 不填; a
C. the; a

B. 不填; the
D. the; the

【解析】选A。考查冠词。句意:使这儿的来宾印象非常深刻
的是,来自各行各业的人都在为建设一个新江苏而努力工作。 本题中第一空指“来自各行各业的人”,集体名词people表示 泛指,所以其前面不用冠词;第二空指“一个新江苏”,专有 名词Jiangsu 前有形容词new,加不定冠词表示泛指,指具有某 种性质的物(或者人)。所以选择A项。

17. [2010北京,35]First impressions are the most lasting. After all, you never get ______ second chance to make _____ first impression.

A. a; the

B. the; the

C. a; a

D. the; a

【解析】选C。考查冠词。句意:第一印象是最持久的。毕竟,

你不会再一次得到机会留下一个第一印象的。“a+序数词+单
数可数名词”表示“又一??,再一??”;后面是短语make a first impression,表示“留下一个第一印象”。

表1 名词的所有格 要点归纳 一 般 加 “ ’ s” 。 典句例示

It is my brother’s bag.
It is the workers’ club. ①He likes to read Dickens’/Dickens’s books. ②He is reading Ross’s book.

表示 以-s或-es结尾的复数名词的所 有生 有格加“’”。 命的 东西 以-s结尾的专有名词的所有 的名 格,若以读音[z]结尾,一般 可在名词右上方加“’”, 词 也可加“’s”;但若不以读 音[z]结尾,则仍用“’s”。

要点归纳

典句例示

复 合 名 词 的 所 有 格 的 词 尾 These are two sons-in表示 law’s photos. “’s”加在后面名词之后。 有生 命的 如果一样东西为两个人所共有, ①This is Jane and 东西 则只在后一个名词后加“’s”; Mary’s room. 的名 如果不是共有的,两个名词后 ②These are Jane’s 词 都要加“’s”。 and Tom’s books.

要点归纳

典句例示

Please wait for me at 表示无 通常采用“of+名词”的结构。 the gate of the school. 生命的 东西的 有些表示时间、距离、国家、 Is there today’s 城市、团体、机构等的名词也 名词 newspaper? I’d like 可加“’s”来构成所有格。 to read it.
当表示所属物的名词前有冠词、数词、 I’d like you to meet 不定代词或指示代词时,常用“of+ two friends of my brother’s. 名词’s”的形式来表示所有关系。

表2 几组常见易混名词用法辨析 易混词 辨析 cause起因,引起某种后果 的直接起因, 后跟介词of。 典句例示 Drunken driving is often the cause of accidents.

cause/
reason

reason理由,决定某一件 事或采取某一行动的理由, 后跟介词for。

The reason for my absence was that I was ill.

custom强调社会、团体长 Social customs vary greatly custom/ 时间形成的风俗、习俗。 from country to country. habit habit指个人长期养成的、难 He has formed the good
以改变的习性、习惯。

habit of saving money.

易混词

辨析 cost耗费,成本,包括对某 事所付出的一切费用及时 间、精力。 charge给予服务后索要的 费用。 expense 多 用 复 数 , 多 指 大量的花费、支出,如求 学、旅游、战争等费用。

典句例示 Living costs are higher in cities than in the country. How much is the charge for this coffee? His parents decided to cut down his expenses at college. It must be done at any price.

cost/ charge/ expense/ price

price价格,代价。

易混词

辨析

典句例示

fault/ mistake

fault多指性格上的弱点, 行为上的过失,强调过失 应负的责任。常见搭配: at fault有错,有毛病; find fault with找毛病, 找错。

①It’s all the fault of our
old system. ②My memory was at fault.

①The teacher found mistake指“错误、误会、 several spelling mistakes 误解”,多指缺乏正确理 in the pupils’ written 解造成行动上或认识上的 answers. 错误。 ②It’s your fault to make such a mistake.

易混词

辨析 典句例示 force 指 “ 暴 力 ” 、 “ 说 服 The robber took the old

力”、“法律、道德”等的 man’s money by force. He returned to his 力量。 force/ hometown where his health and strength体力; 强项;优点。 mental strength/ strength gradually got better. power power指做某事的能力或能发 Knowledge is power. /energy 挥出的力量、政权、权力。
energy指“人的精力或自然界 的能源”。 Oil is a form of energy.

易混词

辨析

典句例示

scene/
view/ scenery/ sight

scene强调戏剧、电影、小说 The boats in the 或其他叙述性事件的发生地、 harbor make a 舞台场景,指“展现在眼前 beautiful scene. 的风景、景色、景象”等。 The speaker stood view指“能看到的在视野之 内的事物”。还表示“观 点”。

in full view of the
crowd.

易混词
scene/ view/

辨析

典句例示

scenery 尤 指 乡 村 中 的 自 然 景 He likes enjoying the varied mountain 色,是不可数名词。 scenery.
sight指眼睛所看到的景象,可

scenery/ 以指美丽的风景,也可指悲惨 I caught sight of an empty seat at the 的 景 象 , 常 用 复 数 形 式 sights sight back of the bus. 表示名胜古迹、人文景观等。

表3 冠词用法注意事项一览表 类别 要点归纳 用于coffee, food, tea, fruit, fog, rain, snow, wind等物 质名词前,表示“一种, 一杯,一场”之意。 用于某些抽象名词前, 冠 表示具体的人或事。 典句例示 A heavy yesterday. rain fell





They regard overpopulation as a danger to society.



The medicine is to be 表示“一”这个数量, 但数的概念没有one强烈。 taken three times a day.

类别

要点归纳 典句例示 用于专有名词之前表示类似 A John called during your absence. 的一个或某一个。 book is too 不定冠词用在形容词比较级、This 最高级前时,有时并无比较 expensive for me. I want to look at a cheaper one. 含义。 在表示季节、月份、日期、 We had a very cold winter 三餐等的名词前有修饰词时。 last year. 用于序数词前,表示“再, Can you give me a second chance?

不 定 冠 词

又”。

类别

要点归纳 用在世界上独一无二的 人或物、自然现象、表 示方位或表示发明物等 的名词前。

典句例示 ①The moon turns round the earth. ②Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876.

定 冠

用在序数词和形容词最高
词 级前以及由普通名词构成 的专有名词前。

①Yang Liwei is the first man who has been into space in China. ②That was the happiest day in her life.

类别

要点归纳

典句例示 ①The Greens are watching TV now. ②The wounded were treated well. As a rule, domestic servants doing odd jobs are paid by the hour. The more we are together, the stronger we will be.

用在某些形 容词前表示 一
类人/物或用在姓氏前表一 定 冠 词 家人。 用在表示计量的名词和乐器 名词前。

用在the+比较级的句型中。

类别

要点归纳 用在表示某世纪、年代、

典句例示 It is not rare in the 1990s that people in their fifties are going to university for further education.

定 冠

时期或朝代的名词前。



用在形容词比较级前, 表示“两者更??的”。

The boy is the taller of the twins.

用于短语“动词+sb. +介词 He took the thief by the +the+身体的某一部位”。 arm.

类别

要点归纳 表示季节、月份、星期和 节日的名词前和学科、语 言、三餐、球类运动、棋 类游戏的名词前不用冠词。

典句例示
①He was born in December. ②I like physics though it’s a bit difficult. ③He is playing chess with his friend on a stone. ①Has he turned scientist? ②She has turned a


冠 词

系动词turn后作表语的单 数可数名词前不用冠词, 但名词前若有形容词作定 语时,必须加冠词。

successful singer.

类别

要点归纳 当 school, hospital, church 等 词表示建筑物的用途时 ,常 不用冠词; 但是,当这些词表 示场所时,要加冠词。

典句例示 ①He is very ill and he has to go to hospital. ②I am going to the hospital to visit a sick friend.

零 冠 词

as/though引导的让步状语从句 Child as he is, he knows 中,如果作表语的名词置于句 首,习惯上单数名词前不用冠 much about the world. 词。

类别

要点归纳 一人兼多种身份的情况 ,只在 第一个名词前使用冠词 ,其他 名词前不再使用冠词。

典句例示 A clerk and writer is coming here. The teacher came in, book in hand. father and son, knife and fork, hand in hand, from door to door, at noon, catch fire, come to power, watch TV

零 冠 词

在某些独立主格结构,如“单 数名词+介词短语”中,名词 前不用冠词。

在某些固定词组、习惯用 法中,不用冠词。

1. 表示语言的名词之后有language时则要加定冠词, 如the English language 特别

2. 如果表示季节的名词指具体某年的某个季节,需
提醒 加定冠词

in the spring of the year 2012 在2012年的春天

3. 有些词组中,有无冠词意义大不相同:
sit at table吃饭 特别 提醒 sit at the table坐在桌旁 be of age成年 be of an age同龄 in charge of负责?? in the charge of由??负责;在??掌管之下 by day在白天 by the day按日计算 on watch值班 on the watch留神

3. 有些词组中,有无冠词意义大不相同:
in possession of拥有 特别 提醒 in the possession of为??所有 in place of代替 in the place of在??的地方 in hospital住院 in the hospital在医院(参观或工作)

3. 有些词组中,有无冠词意义大不相同:
in front of在??(外部)的前面 特别 提醒 in the front of在??(内部)的前面\ in prison在坐牢 in the prison在监狱里 at church在做礼拜 at the church在教堂 in future今后 in the future将来 by sea乘船 by the sea在海边

表4 数词注意事项

考点

主要用法
1)表示确指数字时,用单

典句例示 six hundred students; five million men hundreds of soldiers tens of thousands of children

ten, 数形式,不能加“s”。 hundred, thousand, 2)表示概数的习语中, million 要加“s”。

考点

主要用法 3)hundred of, thousand of, million of被a few, some, several, many等 表示不确指数字的词修 饰时,用单数或复数形 式均可。

典句例示

①Several hundred(s) of
ten, hundred, thousand, million workers attended the meeting. ②Many million(s) of

birds fly to the south in

winter.

考点

主要用法

典句例示 two dozen eggs three score(of) people dozens/scores of people

1)与基数词或several, many连用 时,要用单数形式, score可与of dozen 连用,dozen通常不与of连用; 而表示不确定的数字时,要用 (十二) 复数形式,且与介词of连用;常 用结构: dozens/scores of+复数 score 名词。 (二十) 2)两词与of连用(of不省略)时, 可用于人称代词宾格或指示代 词修饰的名词前,表示所属关 系。

many dozen of those pencils four score of them

考点

主要用法 1)以-ty结尾的逢整十的基数 词的复数形式可以表示某年 代或某人几十几岁。
2)分数(百分数)of+名词作主 语时,谓语动词的形式根据 名词确定。

典句例示
in the 1990s(1990’s) in one’s twenties Two-thirds of the students are from America.

其 他 用



1. [2012宜昌模拟]The China-Arabic Economic and Trade
Forum was held in Yinchuan because Ningxia has a large Muslim population, and ______ region has played a significant role in Sino-Arabic relationships over _______ history. A. a; / B. the; / C. a; the D. the; the

【解析】选B。考查冠词。句意:中阿经贸论坛在银川举行, 因 为宁夏穆斯林人口多,这个地区历史上在中阿关系上发挥着重 要作用。第一空用the表示特指,第二空不用冠词为固定搭配。

2. Wang Hao and Chu Yafei led China to _____ gold and silver finish in ______ 20-kilometer walk, the first athletic event at the Asian Games. A. a; the B. the; a C. /; a D. /; the

【解析】选A。考查冠词。句意:王浩和褚亚飞在20公里竞走 中为中国夺得了金牌和银牌,这是亚运会的第一个比赛项目。 第一空处泛指一种结果,第二空处特指20公里竞走这个比赛项

目。

3. [ 2012 日 照 模 拟 ] With ______ successful launching of

Tiangong-1,China’s space dream has taken _____ step closer
to reality. A.the;a C.a;the B./;a D.the;/

【解析】选A。考查冠词。句意:随着天宫一号的成功发射, 中国的太空梦朝着现实又近了一步。第一个空表示特指,故用 the, 第二空表示数量“一”的概念,故用a。

4. I have finished ______ health-care course and learned many

tips on _______ good health.
A. /; / C. a; / B. the; the D. a; a

【解析】选C。考查冠词。第一空course是可数名词,空处表 示“一门保健课程”,故用a表示泛指;而第二空health是不可 数名词,且表示泛指,故用零冠词。所以选C。

5. [2012西安模拟]Lorry, ______ university student from
America, teaches us _________ history of Western art. A. an; the B. a; the C. the; / D. the; a

【解析】选B。考查冠词。Lorry是“一个”来自美国的大学生, 是泛指,且university以辅音音素开头,所以用a;后一个空格 处特指西方艺术史,用定冠词the。

6. [2012合肥模拟]This area experienced ________ heaviest

rainfall in ________ month of May.
A. /; a B. a; the C. the; the D. the; a

【解析】选C。考查冠词。形容词最高级前用定冠词,故第一 个空用the;后一空处有of结构表示限定,故也要用定冠词。

7. [2012福州模拟]—Hi, Wang Xin! What attracts you so much in today’s Jinling Evening News? —I’m quite impressed by ________ latest news that _______ senior citizens can enjoy free fares. A. a; the B. /; the C. the; / D. the; the

【解析】选C。考查冠词。latest是形容词最高级,且此处表特
指,前面应使用定冠词;senior citizens 是复数名词表示泛指, 前面不用冠词,因此选C。

8. Mary told me ________ news about the sports meeting was

reported by _______ school girl without giving her name.
A. the; the B. a; the C. /; the D. the; a

【解析】选D。考查冠词。第一空处特指关于运动会的消息,
故用定冠词;第二空处指的是一个没有透露姓名的女学生,表 示泛指,故用a。

9. The education of _______ young is always _____ hot and serious topic in modern society.

A. the; /

B. a; the

C. /; the

D. the; a

【解析】选D。考查冠词。第一空是the + 形容词,这里表示

“年轻人”;第二空表示“一个热门而严肃的话题”,表泛指,
故用不定冠词a,选D。

10. [2012宝鸡模拟]It is ______ great honor for China to develop ________ fastest computer in today’s world. A. an; an B. an; the

C. a; the

D. a; a

【解析】选C。考查冠词。句意:中国研发当今世界上最快的

电脑,这真是一件引以为荣的事。第一空为抽象名词具体化,
要加不定冠词,又因为great是以辅音音素开头的单词,应该用 a;第二空形容词最高级前要加定冠词。

11. [2012济宁模拟]_______ strong earthquake struck ____ eastern coast of central Japan on March 11th, 2011. A.A; a C.The; a B.The; the D.A; the

【解析】选D。考查冠词。句意:2011年3月11日,日本中部东 海岸发生了一次强烈地震。第一空表示一次强烈地震,故用a;

第二空有后置定语of central Japan,故用the表示特指。

12. [2012杭州模拟]The State Oceanic Administration has asked ConocoPhillips( 康 菲 ) China to make a thorough investigation of the ______ of oil spills to prevent similar cases.

A. reason

B. aim

C. cause

D. purpose

【解析】选C。考查名词辨析。句意:国家海洋局已要求康菲

中国公司彻查漏油的原因以防类似事件再次发生。cause与of连
用,reason 与for连用,aim目的;purpose目的。

13. The speech that Mr. Smith made today gave a strong _______ on the students. A. expression C. reputation B. impression D. expectation

【解析】选B。考查名词词义辨析。句意:史密斯先生今天所 作 的 演 讲 给 学 生 们 留 下 了 深 刻 的 印 象 。 give/leave/make an impression on sb. 表示“给某人留下印象”。 expression表情, 表达;reputation声誉,名声;expectation期望,指望。

14. [2012福州模拟]—Pardon? Who will come? —___________________. A. The friend of Mr. Green’s B. A friend of a teacher’s C. The aunt of Tom’s

D. A cousin of my father’s
【解析】选D。考查名词所有格的表达形式。双重所有格中, 带有’s的,名词必须是明确限定的指人名词,同时of 前面的 名词必须不确指,故A、B、C三项错误,D项正确。

15. Two ______________ died of cold last winter.
A. scores of old people C. scores of old peoples B. score of old people D. score of old peoples

【解析】选B。考查数词。句意:去年冬天40位老人死于严寒。 score由具体数字修饰时不能加s,people为集合名词,不能加s。

16. [2012抚州模拟]—Tom,

did you see _______ house in

front of the tall tree?
—Yes. I know whose house it is. It’s _______.

A. the; Mary’s and Jim’s
C. a; Mary and Jim’s

B. a; Mary’s and Jim’s
D. the; Mary and Jim’s

【解析】选D。考查冠词和名词所有格。句意:——汤姆,你
看见大树前面的那个房子了吗?——是的,我知道是谁的家。 是玛丽和吉姆的家。第一空后有后置定语in front of the tall tree,因此用the表示特指;表示某人所共有时,在最后一个名 词后加’s变成所有格。

17. Exam-takers’ “virtue” was taken into ______ in the 2012

national civil servant exam.
A.focus B.target

C.consideration

D.contribution

【解析】选C。考查名词的辨析。句意:考生的道德将在2012

年的国家公务员考试中被考虑进去。take. . . into consideration
把??考虑进去;focus焦点;target靶子,目标;contribution 贡献。

18. [2012襄阳模拟]Countries across Asia and beyond are reporting small amounts of radiation from the disabled nuclear reactors in Japan. But officials say these levels are not a ______ to public health. A.threat B.mess C.thrill D.panic

【解析】选A。考查名词词义辨析。句意:亚洲各国和更远的 地方报道有来自日本核反应堆的少量辐射物。但是官员说这种

程度对公众健康不构成威胁。 threat 威胁; mess肮脏,杂乱;
thrill 兴奋,激动; panic 恐慌。

19. [2012荆州模拟]It’s reported that Steve Jobs passed away
on Wednesday Oct. 5, 2011. What’s your _________ of the loss that his death has brought about to Apple? A. association C. assessment B. assumption D. appointment

【解析】选C。考查名词的辨析。句意:据报道,2011年10月5 日乔布斯去世了,你估计他的去世给苹果公司造成的损失是什

么?assessment估计;association联系;assumption假定,设想;
appointment约会。

20. [2012南充模拟 ]—Do you have anyone particular in

______ for the job?
—In my opinion, Tom is the right person. A. heart B. head C. mind D. brain

【解析】选C。考查名词的固定搭配。句意:——你心中有适 合这个工作的特殊人选吗?——依我看,汤姆很合适。have. . . in mind心中有适当人选(或想做的事等)。heart 心脏; head头; brain大脑。

21. [2012宜宾模拟]Putin will run for president in March 2012 in an election that could open the way for him to stay in _________ for 12 more years.

A. power

B. force

C. energy

D. work

【解析】选A。考查名词的辨析。句意:普京在2012年3月要竞

选总统,这次选举有可能使他再执政12年。 in power执政;
force暴力;energy精力;work工作。

22. ____________ of the students in our class are from the north. A. Two ninths B. Two ninth

C. Second ninths

D. Second ninth

【解析】选A。考查分数表达法。句意:我们班九分之二的学

生来自北方。分子用基数词,分母用序数词,分子大于1时,
分母用复数形式。

23. [2012西安模拟]It is not rare in _____ that people in

_____fifties are going to university for further education.
A. 90s; the C. 90s; their B. the 90s; / D. the 90s; their

【解析】选D。考查数词。句意:在90年代,50多岁的人去大 学深造的现象并不少见。表示在90年代,用in the 90s; 在某人 50多岁时,用in one’s fifties。

24. [2012北京模拟]—As a result of the heavy snow, the
highway has been closed up until further _______. —Does that mean we can do nothing but wait? A. news C. notice B. information D. message

【解析】选C。考查名词词义辨析。句意:——由于大雪,高 速公路已禁行,开放时间另行通知。——这意味着我们只能等 待吗?further notice另行通知; news新闻;information信息; message口信。

25. If you play with electricity, __________. A. strike B. beat

you may get an electric

C. shock

D. knock

【解析】选C。考查名词词义辨析。句意:如果你玩电的话, 就会触电。shock电击;strike用木棒、石头等敲打;beat连续 的撞击或心脏的跳动;knock用力撞击。


推荐相关:
网站首页 | 网站地图
All rights reserved Powered by 大学生考试网 9299.net
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit325@qq.com