9299.net
大学生考试网 让学习变简单
当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >>

高三英语暑期自主学习讲义1-2惠丽英

高三英语暑期自主学习讲义1-2惠丽英


班级

姓名

日期 2014 年





高三英语暑期自主学习定语从句讲义(1-2)
编写:惠丽英
【易错点梳理】 (一)关系代词和关系副词的功能 关系代词和关系副词可作定语从句的一个成分。关系代词可作主语、宾语、定语;关系副词可作状语。 主语 who 人 that 宾语 who whom that that 物 which that which which Whose = of which whom 介+宾 定语 Whose = of whom where(地方) when(时间) why(原因) 状语

审核:严海燕

(二)关系代词的特殊用法 1. 用关系代词 that 的情况 ①当先行词是不定代词或被它们修饰时。 all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little 等不定代词时。 To get the job started, all that I need is your permission. Is there anything that I can do for you? ②当先行词被形容词最高级或序数词修饰时。 This was one of the most interesting books that were sold in this book store. The first thing that should be done is to get some food. ③当先行词有 the very,the only, the last 等修饰时。 That’s the only thing that we can do now. Those are the very words that he used. ④当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时。 They talked for about half an hour of things and persons that they remembered in the school. ⑤当先行词在主句中作表语、且引导词作定语从句的表语时常用 that。 She isn't the little girl that she used to be. ⑥当要避免与疑问词 which 或 who 重复时。 Which is the car that was made in Beijing? Who is the girl that is standing under the tree? 2. 用关系代词 which 的情况 ①引导非限制性定语从句。 Football, which is an interesting game, is played all over the world. Carol said the work would be done by October, which personally I doubt very much. ②直接放在介词后作宾语时。 Language is the most important tool without which people can't communicate with each other. 3. 用关系代词 as 的情况 ①as 引导限制性定语从句通常构成 such...as、the same...as、so…as、as…as 等固定搭配,as 在从句中可 作主语、表语或宾语。 I should like to use the same tool as you used yesterday. Don’t read such books as are not worth reading. ②such / so?that?与 such / so?as…的区别
1

“such / so?that?”表示“如此??以致??” ,引导结果状语从句;而“such / so?as?”表示“像?? 这样的??” ,引导定语从句,as 在从句中充当主、宾或表语。 He is such an honest man that we respect him.= He is so honest a man that we respect him. He is such an honest man as we respect.= He is so honest a man as we respect. ③as 引导非限制性定语从句 as 引导非限制性定语从句,可以代替一个单词或句子,as 引导的句子可放在句首、句中或句末。 The moon, as is known to everybody, travels round the earth once every month. As is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. The moon travels round the earth once every month, as is known to everybody. 注意:as 引导非限制性定语从句的一些固定结构如:as we know/as is known to all(众所周知),as we all can see(正如我们大家都能看到的那样),as has been said before/above(正如前文所述),as has been pointed out(正 如所指出的那样), as might be imagined(可以想象得到),as might be expected(正如所预料的那样),as is often the case(情况常常是这样)等。 as 与 which 在非限制性定语从句中的用法区别 ①as 引导非限制性定语从句时,放在句首、句中或句末,而 which 只能位于主句之后。 ②which 引导的从句在意义上相当于一个并列句,相当于 and this;as 引导的从句表达说话人的观点、看 法,并指出主句内容的根据或出处等。 He sold his bicycle, which surprised me. (=He sold his bicycle, and this surprised me.) ③which 引导的非限制性定语从句可以是否定句。 Mummy treats me like a baby, which I can't bear. The result of the experiment was very good, which we hadn't expected. (三)关系副词的用法 英语中的关系副词有 where,when,why 等。 1. when 的用法 when 指时间,修饰表时间的先行词或“模糊的时间” ,如:occasion(时刻), stay 等,在定语从句中 作时间状语。time (次数)在从句中作状语,用关系代词 that 或省略;time(一段时间、时代)在从句中 作状语,用关系副词 when 或介词+ which。 I’ll never forget the days when I worked together with you. Occasions are quite rare when I have the time to spend a day with my kids. 2. where 的用法 where 指地点, 修饰表地点的先行词或“模糊的地点”, 如: point, situation, case, stage, activity, job, race, occasion(场合)等,在定语从句中作地点状语。 After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town where he grew up as a child. Today, we’ll discuss a number of cases where beginners of English fail to use the language properly. 注意:先行词为表示时间、地点的名词时,如果关系词在定语从句中作主语或宾语,用关系代词 which 或 that。 This is the factory that/which we visited last year. I won't forget the time that we spent in the countryside. 3. why 的用法 why 指原因,修饰名词 reason,在定语从句中作原因状语。 Do you know the reason why he left early? (四)“介词+关系代词”用法 关系代词指人时用 whom,指物时用 which。介词的选择与主句中先行词的搭配、定语从句中的动 词或形容词的搭配以及句子所表达的意思密切相关。
2

That’s the reason for which he was late for school. This is the book on which I spent 8 yuan. 1.不定代词或数词+of+ which(指物)/whom(指人),形容词最高级/比较级+of+关系代词,在关系分句 中作主语,说明整体中的部分。 There are a lot of students here,none of whom like the film. China has thousands of islands, the largest of which is Taiwan Island. 2.介词+关系代词+名词 He spent four years in college, during which time he studied medicine. In the office, I never seem to have time until after 5:30 p.m., by which time many people have gone home. 【巩固训练】 一、单项选择 1. In June 2000, Hanks was offered a scholarship to study in New York City ______ he could have supported his family, but he refused it. A. by which A. in his honor A. that; that ran all the way home. A. after which A. who career this evening. A. who A. which A. in whom A. which A. that surroundings. A. where A. where; that A. that B. as B. which; that B. which C. why C. that; where C. what D. when D. where; which D. when 12. Was it in the village ______ we used to live in ______ the accident happened? 13. That evening, ______I will tell you more about later, I ended up working very late. 14. After the flooding, people were suffering in that area, ______ urgently needed clean water , medicine and shelter to survive.
3

B. through which B. in whose honor B. as; as

C. with which C. in which honor C. as; that

D. in which D. in honor of him D. that; as

2. The famous scientist, ______ a dinner party will be held tonight, is to arrive soon. 3. It is such a good place _____ everybody wants to go and visit _____ it is well known all over the world. 4. Hearing the sound, the animal disappeared into the bushes, ______ Mrs. Stone picked up her bag and B. after what B. which C. after that C. what D. after when D. that

5. Lin Dan has become the best badminton player, _____ he wanted to be. 6. Mr. Luke, in _____ supermarket we bought an i-Pad last week, will give us a report on how to choose a B. which B. that B. in them B. where B. which C. whose C. what C. of whom C. what C. where D. who’s D. how D. of them D. why D. when

7. We all like the way ______ the teacher gives his lessons. 8. In our class there are 46 students, _______ half wear glasses. 9. A housing bubble is an economic situation _______ occurs when house prices rise much too fast. 10. When deeply absorbed in work, ______ he often was, he would forget all about eating or sleeping. 11. Parents should pay attention to the cases _______ their children have difficulty adapting to new

A. which A. which lives A. that A. show off A. have broken down A. set off and learning. A. cares for 二、完成句子

B. where B. where lives B. which B. turn out B. have broken out B. broken off

C. what C. where live C. for that C. bring out C. have broken in C. worn off

D. who D. who live D. from which D. take in D. have broken up D. called off

15. We are going to spend the Spring Festival in Guang zhou, _____ my parents. 16. This is the very information ______ we learn what sells best in the market. 17. Can you make a sentence to _______ the meaning of the phrase? 18. News reports say peace talks between the two countries _____with no agreement reached. 19.The sports meet, originally due to be held last Friday, was finally _____ because of the bad weather. 20. This article _____ more attention to the problem of cultural interference in foreign language teaching B. applies for C. allows for D. calls for

21.在英国上了一年的中学对我来说是一段非常令人愉快和兴奋的经历。 ______________________ for one year was a very enjoyable and exciting _____________ for me. 22.成长可能是很艰难的。很多青少年感到好像没有人理解他们以及他们正在经历的变化。 _________ can be difficult. Many teenagers feel as if no one understands them and the changes they _______________. 23.显得美丽对女性来说很重要,因此大部分年轻女性拼命想减肥。 _____________ is important to women , so most young women ________________ lose weight. 24.美国警方现已加紧对一名男孩的搜索,该男孩三天前在 Dover 市失踪。 Police in America ___________their search for a boy _________________ three days ago in Dover. 25.我们将于 7 月 15 日离开伦敦,坐飞机去 Morocco。我们要骑着骆驼穿越撒哈拉沙漠(the Sahara Desert)。 We _____________ on 15 July, and we ____________ a flight to Morocco. We ___________ camels through the Sahara Desert. 【能力拓展】 三、拓展阅读 A A new study has found evidence of aggressive (攻击性的) behavior in children who drink four or more servings of soft drinks every day. Information for the study came from the mothers of 3,000 5-year-olds. Researchers asked the women to keep a record of how many servings of soft drinks their children drank over a two-month period. They were also asked to complete a checklist of their children’s behavior. The researchers have found that 43 percent of the children drink at least one daily serving of soda, and 4 percent of the youngsters have even four or more sodas to drink every day. Shakira Suglia, a famous expert, says they’ve found that children who drink the most soda are more than twice as likely as those who drink no soda to show signs of aggression. “For the children who consume four or more soft drinks per day, we see more withdrawn behaviors, which make them hard to get along well with others.” The aggressive behaviors include destroying possessions belonging to others, taking part in fights and
4

physically attacking people. The researchers have determined the link after considering factors like the child’s age and sex. They have also considered other possible influence, such as whether the boys and girls are eating sweets or giving fruit drinks on a normal day. In addition, the researchers have examined parenting styles and other social conditions that may be taking place in the home. Researches are trying to find why young children who drink a lot of soda have behavior problems. An ingredient often found in soft drinks is caffeine, which helps to make people feel energetic. Doctor Suglia suggests that caffeine could cause the 5-year-olds to be more aggressive. Earlier studies of adults have found the highest sugar levels in those who carry weapons (武器) and show signs of negative social behavior. 26. What section of a newspaper is the passage probably taken from? A. Scientific Technology A. backward B. Science Fictions B. unsocial C. Social News C. generous D. Health Report D. friendly 27. The underlined word “withdrawn” in paragraph 4 can probably be replaced by the word ______. 28. According to the research, which of the following is right? A. Mothers were asked to keep a record of how many servings of soft drinks their children drank over a three-month period. B. 4 percent of the youngsters have even four or fewer sodas to drink every day. C. Children who drink no soda show fewer aggressive behaviors. D. Children with the highest sugar levels tend to carry weapons and show signs of negative social behavior. 29. After a further study on ingredients in soda, Shakira Suglia implies that the direct cause of the aggressive behaviors may be ___________. 30. 请翻译以下两个句子: ① Shakira Suglia, a famous expert, says they’ve found that children who drink the most soda are more than twice as likely as those who drink no soda to show signs of aggression. ____________________________________________________________________________________。 ② For the children who consume four or more soft drinks per day, we see more withdrawn behaviors, which make them hard to get along well with others. ____________________________________________________________________________________。 B I was puzzled! Why was this old woman making such a fuss about an old copse which was of no use to anybody? She had written letters to the local paper, even to a national, protesting about a projected by-pass to her village, and, looking at a map, the route was nowhere near where she lived and it wasn't as if the area was attractive. I was more than puzzled, I was intrigued. The enquiry into the route of the new by-pass to the village was due to take place shortly, and I wanted to know what it was that motivated her. So it was that I found myself knocking on a cottage door, being received by Mary Smith and then being taken for a walk to the woods. "I've always loved this place," she said, "it has a lot of memories for me, and for others. We all used it. They called it 'Lovers lane'. It's not much of a lane, and it doesn't go anywhere important, but that's why we all came here. To be away from people, to be by ourselves," she added. It was indeed pleasant that day and the songs of many birds could be heard. Squirrels gazed from the branches, quite bold in their movements, obviously few people passed this way and they had nothing to fear. I could imagine the noise of vehicles passing through these peaceful woods when the by-pass was
5

built, so I felt that she probably had something there but as I hold strong opinions about the needs of the community over-riding the opinions of private individuals, I said nothing. The village was quite a dangerous place because of the traffic especially for old people and children, their safety was more important to me than an old woman's strange ideas. "Take this tree," she said pausing after a short while. "To you it is just that, a tree. Not unlike many others here." She gently touched the bark. "Look here, under this branch, what can you see?" "It looks as if someone has done a bit of carving with a knife," I said after a cursory inspection. "Yes, that's what it is!" she said softly. She went on, "He had a penknife with a spike for getting stones from a horse's hoof, and I helped him to carve my initials. We were very much in love, but he was going away, and could not tell me what he was involved in the army. I had guessed of course. It was the last evening we ever spent together,because he went away the next day, back to his Unit." Mary Smith was quiet for a while, then she sobbed. "His mother showed me the telegram. 'Sergeant R Holmes ... Killed in action in the invasion of France.' "'I had hoped that you and Robin would one day get married,' she said, 'He was my only child, and I would have loved to be a Granny, they would have been such lovely babies' - she was like that! "Two years later she too was dead. 'Pneumonia(肺炎), following a chill on the chest' was what the doctor said, but I think it was an old fashioned broken heart. A child would have helped both of us." There was a further pause. Mary Smith gently caressed the wounded tree, just as she would have caressed him. "And now they want to take our tree away from me." Another quiet sob, then she turned to me. "I was young and pretty then, I could have had anybody, I wasn't always the old woman you see here now. I had everything I wanted in life, a lovely man, health and a future to look forwards to." She paused again and looked around. The breeze gently moved through the leaves with a sighing sound. "There were others, of course, but not a patch on my Robin!" she said strongly. "And now I have nothing - except the memories this tree holds. If only I could get my hands on that awful man who writes in the paper about the value of the road they are going to build where we are standing now, I would tell him. Has he never loved, has he never lived, does he not know anything about memories? We were not the only ones, you know, I still meet some who came here as Robin and I did. Yes, I would tell him!" I turned away, sick at heart. 31. The main purpose of this passage is to ______________. A. draw attention to the damage that wars cause. B. persuade people to give up private interest. C. arouse the awareness of being environmentally friendly. D. introduce a touching but sad love story. 32. The underlined sentence “I felt that she probably had something there” means _____________. A. I thought there might be something hidden in the woods by Mary Smith. B. I guessed there might be a story related with Mary Smith. C. I thought there might be some reason for Mary Smith’s protest. D. I guessed there might be a secret purpose of Mary Smith. 33. What was probably the carving on the wounded tree? A. Their names and a heart with a sign of arrow through it. B. Their wish that this place and tree would last long. C. The date when Robin Holmes would leave for army. D. Their protest against the war which tore them apart.
6

四、任务型阅读 注意:每个空格只填 1 个单词。 How to Build Confidence Everybody in this world wants to be rich and successful. But, the big question is HOW? How can you turn yourself into a popular personality? Well, you need to have confidence. Confidence is the feeling of certainty and trusting in one’s own ability. Start your journey to become successful by following these seven confidence-building steps. Recognize what makes you feel inferior -- Let’s accept the fact that no one in this world is perfect. Everyone has some shortcomings and it is natural. So, if there is something that makes you feel ashamed of yourself just make a note of it. Instead of being upset over your shortcomings, you need to figure out ways to overcome them. Dress smartly and look more attractive -- Yes, you are right that a person should be beautiful at heart but you ought to work on your looks too. You might have not realized but dressing up nicely can increase your confidence. Work hard to improve your looks and you will definitely notice a positive change in your personally. Don’t worry about what others say -- Those who think about others car never succeed in their lives. So, if you really wish to increase your confidence levels, stop thinking about the world right away. Have faith in your capabilities and show the world that you are a leader. And just in case you are afraid of criticism, your dream of becoming successful person will always remain a dream. Stay happy – Happiness plays an important part in a successful life. So, try to find out what makes you happy and keep yourself involved in those activities only. Be a curious learner -- Learning is part of our life. It is a continuous process which lasts till the last breath. Knowledge not only makes you superior but enriches your personality altogether. Express yourself -- There are many people who don’t express their feelings and opinions at all just because they are afraid of being laughed at. Well, don’t be afraid and express yourself wherever possible, it will make people realize your presence and you may get the response. So, the next time you have something on your mind, say it aloud. Self esteem and confidence are some of the most important things you need to be successful in life. How to become _ 34___ Realize the 36 of your 43 Confidence is the feeling of certainty and trusting in one’s own ability. 37 down what makes you upset and overcome it. frustration Dress smartly and look more We like warm-hearted persons of course, but you ought attractive 39 ___35 __ worrying about what others say Stay happy Be a leader of express yourself 41 to work on your looks as 38 . Believe in your capabilities and show the world that you are a leader. Only 40 in the activities which make you happy. Knowledge not only makes you superior but enriches your personality altogether. People will find you are 42 response. 36. __________ 41. __________
7

and you may get the

34.___________ 39. ___________

35. __________ 40. __________

37. ___________ 42. ___________

38. ____________ 43. ____________


推荐相关:
网站首页 | 网站地图
All rights reserved Powered by 大学生考试网 9299.net
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit325@qq.com