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自考英语语言学课件 Chapter 3 -

自考英语语言学课件 Chapter 3 -

Chapter 3 -- 4
现代语言学

Chapter 3 Morphology

1.Definition: ? Internal structure of words; rules of wordformation ? Sub-branches: Inflectional morphology: inflection Derivational morphology: word formation 2. Morpheme: 1) definition----word ? Meaning of morpheme: grammatical ~ ; lexical ~

2) Types of morpheme
Free morpheme: word independent unit of meaning, be used freely by itself ? Bound morpheme: not ? Root: basic part with clear definite meaning. Ex. ? Affix: Inflectional ~: grammatical relation number, tense, degree, case Derivational ~: creat a word---derivative stem
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Derivational affix:
Prefix: beginning of the stem; modify the meaning of stem ? Suffix: end of the stem; change the part of speech
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3. Compounding
Derivation: addition of affix to stem ? Compounding: combination of two or more words ? Types: according to parts of speech n./a./v.adv.+ n./v./a./adv. ? Feature: Orthographically: one word, hyphen, separate words Syntactically: part of speech---second element Semantically: idiomatic Phonetically: stress on the first element
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Chapter 4 Syntax
1. syntax as a system ? A set of abstract rules that allow words to be combined with other words to form grammatical sentences. ? Syntactic rules:finite ? Sentences: endless / infinite

2. Sentence Structure
1) Basic components of a sentence: ? Subject: the referring expression, noun / noun phrase ? Predicate: the part which says something about the subject. ? finite verb./ verb phrase

2) Type of sentences
Simple sentence: single clause---a subject and a predicate ? Coordinate / compound sentence: equal two clauses joined by coordinating conj. ? Complex sentence: unequal status embeded clause, matrix clause
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3) Linear & hierarchical structure
Linear structure: sequential order of words Words are arranged/ produced one after another ? Hierarchical structure: Sentences are organized with words of the same syntactic category.
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3. Syntactic categories 1) Lexical categories: part of speech ? Major ~ : n./v./adj./adv. open categories, new words are added ? Minor ~ : det./aux./prep./pron./conj./int. closed categories, fixed number

2) Phrasal category: combinational properties ? Np, Vp, Pp, Ap 4. Grammatical relations : subject/ object ? Structural subject ; structural object ? Logical subject; logical object
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5. Combinational rules 1) phrase structure rule ? S→NP VP 2) X-bar theory ? A general and more abstract schema which include all phrasal structural rules in to a single format. ? XP → (specifier) X (complement)

3) Recursiveness
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Recursive properties: The ability to generate more constituents and to repeat syntactic constiuents

6. Movement rules
1) Syntactic movement A constituent in a sentence movers out of its original place to a new position. 2) Types: ? NP-movement: active voice---passive voice postposing, preposing ? WH-movement: affirmative—interrogative preposing: statement—question 3) Move α ? Certain constituent can move to only certain positions

4) Levels of Syntactic structure
D-structure: before movement takes place S-structure: after movement takes place ? Transformational-generative rules: Phrase structure rule+ lexicon generate deep structure---- movement rule transformed to surface structure
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