Unit 2 English around the world
Background information on English Around the World
I. British English, American English and Chinese Cars and Driving British English
car park driving license flyover four way hire car motorway
parking lot driver's license overpass crossroads rental car
freeway(Western U.S.) expressway (Eastern U.S.)
petrol tyre windscreen
gasoline(gas) tire windshield
汽油 轮胎 挡风玻璃
Food British English biscuit chips crisps jacket potato jam mince porridge American English cookie French fries potato chips baked potato jelly hamburger oatmeal Chinese 饼干 炸土豆片 油炸土豆片 带皮烤的马铃薯 酱 碎牛肉；牛肉饼 稀饭
pudding sweet tin
dessert dessert can Others
布丁；甜点 餐后甜点 罐头
British English autumn bill bin liner botanic garden braces charity chemist’s cinema coach DIY dustbin
engaged (as in telephone)
American English fall check trash bag botanical garden suspenders non-profit organization pharmacy/drug store movie theater, theater bus do it yourself trash can busy tuition equip, fit out apartment soccer toll-free dress (noun) men’s room principal rent (rent a car) vacation sick
Chinese 秋天 清单 垃圾袋 植物园 吊裤带；吊杆 慈善机构 药店 电影院 长途汽车 自己动手做 垃圾箱 （电话）占线 学费 安装 单元住宅 足球 免费电话 外衣；服装 男厕 男厕 租借 假日 有病的
fee (for schooling) fit (verb) flat football freephone toll-free gents headmaster hire (hire a car) holiday ill
in future in hospital join the train jumper licence (noun) lift lorry maths nil note on stream post queue railway return rise (noun - in salary) rubber rucksack shopping trolley “sorry” stand (for election) swear word subway subway tea towel telephone box toilet torch trainers
in the future in the hospital get on the train sweater license elevator truck math zero bill on line mail line railroad round trip raise eraser backpack shopping car “excuse me”, “pardon me” run (for election) curse word underpass underpass dish towel telephone booth restroom flashlight sneakers
未来，将来 住院 上火车 毛线衫 执照 电梯 卡车 数学 零 纸币 在生产中 邮件 长队 铁路 返程 加薪 橡皮擦 背包 购物手推车 对不起 竞选 咒语 餐巾 地下道；地铁 餐巾 电话亭 厕所 火炬 运动鞋
transport (noun) trousers trolley tube underground vest waistcoat
transportation pants cart subway subway undershirt vest
运输 裤子 手推车 地铁 地铁 背心 马甲
II. Different English, different spellings
theater, center, liter
theatre, center, litre
color, honor, labor, favor, colour, honour, labour, favour, vapour vapor traveler, woolen skillful, fulfill check program story traveler, woolen skilful, fulfil cheque programme storey realise, analyse, apologise
realize, analyze, apologize defence, offence, licence defense, offense, license burned dreamed smelled spelled spoiled burnt/burned dreamt/dreamed smelt/smelled spelt/spelled spoilt/spoiled
Words and expressions from Unit 2 English Around the
Include 1. v. to be one of the parts; to make something or someone part of a larger group: Our tour party included several retired couples. The team is looking strong; especially now they have included Beckham. 2. including & included: Everyone has to go to the dentist’s, you included. There were twelve of us, including Tom and me. role: n. 1. the character played by an actor in a play or film; the position that someone has in society or an organization: Matthews plays the role of a young doctor in the film. Women are often forced into a supportive role in the family. 2. play a leading/major/key role in=be important in making changes happen: Mandela played a leading role in ending apartheid in South Africa. because of=as the result of a particular thing or someone’s action: He had to retire because of ill health. c.f. She got the job because she was the best candidate. native: 1. adj. your native country or town is the place where you were born: They never saw their native land again. 2. native language/tongue: the language you spoke when you first learned to speak. 3. n. a person who was born in a particular place： Are you a native of New York? come up: 1. to be mentioned：A lot of new questions came up at the meeting. 2. to be about to happen soon：Don’t you have a birthday coming up soon? 3. to move near someone or something by walking: Come up to the front of the room so everyone can see you. Other verbal phrases of “come” come about=to happen in a way that seems impossible to control; come across= to meet or find something or someone by chance; come along=get along; to appear at a time you don’t expect; to encourage sb. to try harder; come by=to obtain something that is difficult to find; come up with=to think of an idea; (The small word “come” has many phrasal verbs. It is better to ask the students to refer to a good dictionary.)
present: adj. 1. be present: a) to be in a particular place: How many people were present at the meeting yesterday?(opposite of “ absent”) b) to be remembered for a long time: The memory of the disaster last year is still present in her mind. 2. (only before noun) existing now: What’s your present address? c.f. What he said amused all the people present. such as: used to give an example of something; such…as/that: used to emphasize that there is a small amount of something or that it is of good quality: The local economy still relies on traditional industries such as farming and mining. c.f. Such food as they gave us was warm and nutritious. Command: 1. vi & vt. to tell someone officially to do something, esp. if you are a military leader or a king to get something such as attention or respect: The general commanded that the regiment (should) attack at once. Or The General commanded the regiment to attack at once. Dr. Young commands a great deal of respect as a surgeon. 2. get/ have a good command of English=to get/have a good mastery of English. request: 1. vt. to ask for something politely or formally request that (should) + v/ request sb. to do sth.: The staff requested that he reconsider his decision. All club members are requested to attend the annual meeting. 2. n. a polite demand for something: They have made a urgent request for international aid. recognize: vt. 1. to know who someone is or what something is, because you have ever seen them or it before: Susan came home so thin and weak that her own children hardly recognized her. 2. to accept that an organization has legal or official authority: British medical qualifications are recognized in Canada. 3. be recognized as= to be thought of as being very good by a lot of people: Jules Verne’s novel was recognized as a work of genius. Language focus: 1) even if=even though: in spite of the fact; no matter whether: He likes to help us even if he is very busy. 2) communicate with: exchange information or conversation with other people:
He learnt to use body language to communicate with deaf customers. 3) actually=in fact: used when you are adding new information to what you have just said: We’ve known for years. Actually, since we were babies. 4) be based on…: 5) make use of: use sth. available 6) Only time will tell: to say that something can only be known in the future: Will China’s national football team enter for the next finals of the World Cup? Only time will tell. Language Chunks from Unit 2 English around the world be different from, pay a role(part) in, because of, either …or…, in/on a team, the number of/a number of, than ever before, even if, comp up to, over time, communicate with, be based on, make use of, have one’s own identity, such as, Only time can tell, native speaker, as well as, solve a problem, believe it or not, no such a…, all over the world, at the top(bottom) of, pen friends, to this day, sum up, Pardon?, beg your pardon, go abroad, be used for, more of a …, encourage sb. to do sth., work on, feel like sth., from time to time,
English-speaking countries, from one…to another, do business, on the air, would like sb. to do, make notes, fight against, keep…a secret, even though, save time(money), a form of… Direct and Indirect Speech
Direct Speech simple present He said, “I go to school every day.”
Indirect Speech simple past He said (that) he went to school every day.
simple past past perfect He said, “I went to school every He said (that) he had gone to school every day.” day. present perfect past perfect He said, “I have gone to school every He said (that) he had gone to school every day.” day.
present progressive past progressive He said, “I am going to school every He said (that) he was going to school every day.” day. past progressive perfect progressive He said, “I was going to school every He said (that) he had been going to school day.” every day, future (will) would + verb name He said, “I will go to school every He said (that) he would go to school every day.” day. future (going to) present progressive He said, “I am going to school every He said (that) he is going to school every day. day.” past progressive He said (that) he was going to school every day Direct Speech Indirect Speech
auxiliary + verb name simple past He said, “Do you go to school every He asked me if I went to school every day.* day?” He asked me where I went to school. He said, “Where do you go to school?” imperative He said, “Go to school every day.” infinitive He said to go to school every day.
Direct Speech simple present + simple present He says, “I go to school every day.”
Indirect Speech simple present + simple present He says (that) he goes to school every day.
present perfect + simple present present perfect + simple present He has said, “I go to school every He has said (that) he goes to school every day.” day.
past progressive + simple past past progressive + simple past He was saying, “I went to school He was saying (that) he went to school every every day.” day. past progressive + past perfect He was saying (that) he had gone to school every day.
can could He said, “I can go to school every He said (that) he could go to school every day.” day. may might He said, “I may go to school every He said (that) he might go to school every day.” day. might He said, “I might go to school every day.” must had to He said, “I must go to school every He said (that) he had to go to school every day.” day. have to He said, “I have to go to school every day.” should should He said, “I should go to school every He said (that) he should go to school every day.” day. ought to ought to He said, “I ought to go to school every He said (that) he ought to go to school day.” every day.
1．在某些方面___________________________________ 答案：in some ways 2．或者……或者___________________________________
答案：either…or 3．起重要作用___________________________________ 答案：play an important part / role 4．走近；达到___________________________________ 答案：come up to 5．以……为基础___________________________________ 答案：be based on / base…on… 6．接近于___________________________________ 答案：be close to 7．在 17 世纪___________________________________ 答案：in the 1600's / in the 1600s… 8．利用___________________________________ 答案：make use of 9．信不信由你___________________________________ 答案：believe it or not 10．玩得快乐___________________________________ 答案：have fun 11．请求___________________________________ 答案：make a request 12．经过时间___________________________________ 答案：over time 13．即使___________________________________ 答案：even if / even though 14．……的数量___________________________________ 答案：the number of… 15．解决问题___________________________________ 答案：solve the problem 16．另一门语言___________________________________ 答案：a second language 17．带去___________________________________ 答案：take…with