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高中英语阅读理解常见问题解答及2014高考英语阅读理解高分技巧

高中英语阅读理解常见问题解答及2014高考英语阅读理解高分技巧


高中阅读理解常见问题解答及 2014 高考英语阅读理解高分技巧
阅读理解是高考英语科的必考题型, 约占试卷总分值的三分之一。 这部分的 成绩直接关系到考生能否在英语科考试中取得高分。因此,大家都想知道,高考 阅读理解的关键是什么?如何提高答题能力?是否有应试技巧?本文将结合高 考题回答这些问题,介绍快速阅读、精确捕捉信息、抓住中心大意、归纳事实、 推理猜测等英语阅读应试技巧。 一、为什么高考阅读材料与课文感觉不一样? 两者的感觉是不一样的。 课文像是修剪过的 “盆景” 。 它要考虑到循序渐进、 词汇量、语言点的复现率和话题的趣味性等教学因素,编者在编写教材时,要对 选中的文章进行调整处理。 例如, 为控制生词量, 编者或把生词删除, 或用熟悉、 常见的词语替换;遇到非正式的表达,编者要进行改写,使之正式和规范;长句 和复杂句也要被分割,改成简单句。 高考阅读理解中的阅读材料直接从英文报刊、杂志和网络文章中精选,稍作 修改,原汁原味。好比“野花野草”。此外,高考阅读理解中的文章大多是说明 文和议论文,趣味性不大,句子的平均长度和复杂程度远远高于课文,语言结构 趋于复杂,出现长句、特长句。长句中包括一个或多个从句,而且夹杂多种语法 现象,如插入语、倒装句、省略句、被动句、双重否定句等。实践证明,句子长 度和句子结构复杂程度是影响考生阅读理解速度和准确度的重要因素之一。 下面 让我们不妨看一看高考英语北京卷阅读理解 D 篇,体会一下它的语言特色。 ①However obvious these facts may appear at first glance, they are not actually so obvious as they seem except when we take special pains to think about the subject. ②Symbols and the things they stand for are independent of each other, yet we all have a way of feeling as if, and sometimes acting as if, there were necessary connections. ③For example there are people who feel that foreign languages are unreasonable by nature; foreigners have such funny names for things, and why can’t they call things by their right names? ④This feeling exhibits itself most strangely in those English and American tourists who seem to believe that they can make the natives of any country understand English if they shout loud enough. ⑤Like the little boy who is reported to have said: “Pigs are called pigs because they are such dirty animals.” They feel that the

symbol is inherently(内在地)connected in some way with the things symbolized. 本段阅读材料论说的话题比较抽象, 趣味性不强。 全文约有 160 个英文单词, 却只有 5 个句子,句子的平均长度达 32 个词,而一般英文报纸中文章的句子的 平均长度为 20 个词左右。 一篇文章的易度性(readability)是以词和句子的平均 长度来衡量的,越短越容易读懂。这篇阅读材料的语言结构比较复杂。以第②句 为例,其句子长度为 29 个单词,包括 1 个并列句,1 个定语从句,1 个方式状 语从句和 1 个插入语。 二、做好高考语阅读理解需要多少词汇量? 影响阅读理解程度最大的因素就是考生的词汇量。按照阅读速度的标准来衡 量,如果一篇阅读文章的生词超过 5%,就属于比较难的阅读材料。其实,上面 的高考阅读材料很难读懂还有另外一个原因,就是生词的比例高,达到了 5.7% (生词用下划线标出)。 一般性的阅读理解读者必须掌握大约 3,000 个词族 ( word families) 或者 5,000 个单词的词汇量,这是因为这些词汇量能覆盖任何语言材料的 90--95%的 单词。低于这个水平线,任何阅读策略或技巧都是效果不佳的。所以许多学者就 把 3,000 个词族或 5,000 个单词称为一个“门槛”,是阅读理解的一个转折点。 有统计发现,从 5,000 个单词的词汇量 到 10,000 个单词的词汇量之间,读 者每增加 1,000 个单词的词汇量,理解率大约增长 7 个百分点。所以说,新的英 语课程标准提高了对词汇方面的要求,把高中毕业的词汇量定在 3,000-5,000 之间。 三、阅读理解部分在考试中应该占多长时间? 英语课程标准对中学生提出的阅读速度标准是每分钟 70-80 个单词。一般来 说。高考阅读理解部分的总词数(包括阅读材料、设题和选项)在 1900-2600 词之间(见表 1),参考考试时间为 35 分钟。但是影响考生阅读速度的因素有 很多,主要包括:总词汇量,所设问题的难度、读者的背景知识、材料本身的特 点(包括句子平均长度、话题、体裁、行文风格)等。 在每年高考中,考生反映阅读理解最多的问题就是时间不够。有时侯,他们 甚至要牺牲用于短文改错和书面表达的部分时间。要有效利用考试时间,考生首 先要明确高考阅读理解是为了快速捕捉相关信息并解答问题。 它不同于课文教学

中的精读,没有必要百分之百读懂,因为每篇文章后所附的 3--5 个问题不可能 覆盖文章中的每一句话、每一个细节。其次,考生在高考前要科学地、有计划地 进行适应性阅读训练, 在保证一定正确率的情况下,尽快提高自己的阅读和答题 速度。 四、考试时,是先阅读文章还是先浏览一下问题? 这个问题没有绝对的答案。 比较传统的方法是,读文章——看问题——再看 文章找答题依据( Passage —Questions—Passage)。这实际上综合了略读、跳 读和查读等阅读方法。在第一遍阅读时,考生先以跳读或略读的方式阅读全文, 不必注意细节或具体事实, 只求对文章有一个总体印象,了解中心思想和作者的 基本观点,并记住文章的信息方位,如什么地方是作者的观点。用这种方法时, 考生必须要把文章阅读两遍,相比较而言,有点费时。 先浏览问题再阅读文章可以让考生带着问题,有的放失地在文章中查找解答 问题的依据,避免毫无目的地阅读文章,浪费宝贵的考试时间。许多局部性问题 都可以通过原文中的一两句话就可以直接找到答案。下面是 NMET 高考北京卷阅 读理解部分 B 篇,大家可以用这种方式尝试一下。 Good tool design is important in the prevention of overuse injuries. Well-designed tools and equipment will require less force to operate them and prevent awkward (别扭的) hand positions. They will allow the worker to keep the elbows (肘)next to the body to prevent damage to the shoulder and arm. Overuse injuries can therefore be prevented or reduced if the employer provides, and the workers use: ? power tools rather than having to use muscle (肌肉) power. ? tools with specially designed handles that allow the wrist (手腕) to keep straight. This means that hands and wrists are kept in the same position as they would be if they were hanging relaxed at a person’s side. ? tools with handles that can be held comfortably by the whole hand. This means having a selection of sizes --- remember that tools that provide a firm hold for a person with a very large hand may be

awkward for someone with a very small hand. This is particularly important consideration for women who may use tools originally designed for men. Tools that do not press fingers (or flesh) between the handles, and whose handles do not have sharp edges or a small surface area. 60. What is the best title for the passage? A. Good Tool Design for Women. B. Importance of Good Tool Design. C. Tool Design and Prevention of Injuries. D. Overuse of Tools and Worker Protection. 61. Which of the following describes a well-designed tool? A. It is kept close to the body. B. It fully uses muscle power. C. It makes users feel relaxed. D. It’s operated with less force. 62. In choosing tools for women, __________ of the handle is most important. A. the size B. the edge. C. the shape D. the position 用以上的方法,我们可以在很短的时间内在原文中找到第 61、62 题的正确 答案。但是,先浏览问题后再读文章,然后看一题做一题的缺点就是考生所获得 的信息比较零碎, 很难对文章形成一个整体的了解,因此碰到文章中心思想的问 题,就比较难以对付。例如第 60 题,要给原文选择一个最佳标题,我们还需要 仔细研读阅读材料才行。 五、阅读时如何在阅读材料中做标记? 我们发现,阅读理解成绩好的学生喜欢用笔在文章中圈圈划划、做标记。这 样做起码有两个好处:①可以帮助你集中注意力,积极思考,突出文章的重点; ②由于人的短时记忆是有限的,所以把重要的词句划出来,可以使之醒目突出, 便于以后查读,在文章中寻找答案依据。但是,需要指出的是,做标记是突出重

点,而不是通篇划线,也不是“指读”,即用手指或笔尖指着文章逐词阅读。在 一般情况下,有三种要点是值得圈划:中心思想句、主题句和信号词。 在英语文章中,有些词比较突出、醒目,能够向读者预示文章的各种语义关 系、上下文逻辑关系和语义中心,这类词称之为信号词。在阅读文章时,抓住这 些信息词, 有助于考生阅读理解和迅速找到答题依据。常见信号词及其所预示的 信息: 信号词 however, on the contrary, although 等 similarly, equally, also, besides, furthermore, in other words 等 for example, for instance 等 for one thing, on the other hand 等 in a word, in short 等 actually, in fact, the point is?, a study survey found/ showed/proved that?等 例如,高考英语北京卷阅读理解部分 C 篇是一篇议论文,有一定的难度。但 是,如果考生注意到阅读材料中的 7 个信号词,并做好记号,就能又快又准确地 确定作者的中心思想,分论点及论说的方法等信息。 How could we possibly think that keeping animals in cages in unnatural environments—mostly for entertainment purposes—is fair and respectful? Zoo officials say they are connected about animals. ①However(引 出作者的观点,即动物园的第一个错误,与 64、67 题有关), most zoos remain “collections” of interesting “things” rather than protective habitats (栖息地). Zoos teach people that it is acceptable to keep animals bored, lonely, and far from their natural bones. Zoos claim (声称) to educate people and save endangered species(物 种) , ②but (引出作者的观点, 即动物园的第二个错误, 与 67 题有关) visitors 具体例证,说明上文中的论点 下文还有另外一方面,详情奇 速英语快速阅读高手一书 后面的句子是对上文的总结 后面的句子往往是作者想要表 达和强调的内容或观点 预示的信息 信号词引出的内容是与上文相 反的论述,或作者不同的观点 下文与前面所讲内容相同或相 似

leave zoos without having learned anything meaningful about the animals’ behavior, intelligence, or beauty. Zoos keep animals in small spaces or cages, and most signs only mention the species’ names, diet, and natural range (分布区) . The animals’ normal behavior is seldom noticed because zoos don’t usually take care of the animals’ natural needs. The animals are kept together in small species, with no privacy and little opportunity for mental and physical exercise. This results in unusual and self-destructive behavior called zoochosis. ③A worldwide study of zoos found (具体例证动物园的第三个错误,与 65、67 题有关)that zoochosis is common among animals kept in small spaces or cages. ④Another study showed (具体例证动物园的第三个错误,与 67 题有关)that elephants spend 22 percent of their time making repeated head movements or biting cage bars, and bears spend 30 percent of their time walking back and forth, a sign of unhappiness and pain. ⑤Furthermore(引出作者的观点,再次反驳动物园的第二错误,与 67、68 题有关), most animals in zoos are not endangered. Captive breeding (圈 养繁殖)of endangered big cats, Asian elephants, and other species has not resulted in their being sent back to the wild. Zoos talk a lot about their captive breeding programs because they do not want people to worry about a species dying out. ⑥In fact(与前一句的内容相反,反驳动物园的 第四个错误,与 67 题有关), baby animals also attract a lot of paying customers. Haven’t we seen enough competitions to name baby animals? ⑦Actually(引出作者的观点,即中心句, 与第一段相呼应,与 66 题有关) we still save endangered species only if we save their habitats and put an end to the reasons people kill them. Instead of supporting zoos, we should support groups that work to protect animals’ natural habitats. 64. How would the author describe the animals’ life in zoos? A. Dangerous. B. Unhappy. C. Natural. D. Easy. 65. In the state of zoochosis, animals ______________. A. remain in the cages. B. behave strangely.

C. attack other animals. D. enjoy moving around. 66. What does the author try to argue in the passage? A. Zoos are not worth the public support. B. Zoos fail in their attempt to save animals. C. Zoos should treat animals as human beings. D. Zoos use animals as a means of entertainment. 67. The author try to persuade the readers to accept his argument mainly by ____________. A. pointing out the faults in what zoos do B. using evidence he has collected at zoos C. questioning the way animals are protected. D. discussing the advantages of natural habitats 68. Although he argues against the zoos, the author would still agree that _____________. A. zoos have to keep animals in small cages. B. most animals in zoos are endangered species. C. some endangered animals are reproduced in zoos D. it’s acceptable to keep animals away from their habitats 六、正确选项和干扰项各自的特点? 正确的答案选项项往往是命题人员把阅读材料的内容或信息用不同的语言 形式再现出来。一般来说,设置正确答案项有以下几种方式:(1)使用与原文 中一样的词句,但是这种情况不多见;(2)使用原文词句的同义词或相似结构; (3) 使用原文词句的反义词或结构; (4) 答案项是原文生词或困难语句的解释;

(5)答案项是对原文词句或段落的归纳、推理或演绎;(6)使用原文的上下义 结构,例如用动物可以代替狗、狮子、老虎等,科学可以代替计算机、航天、发 明、电子等。 干扰项的设置通常有以下几种手段:(1)张冠李戴。命题人员往往故意把 文章作者的观点与其他人的观点混淆起来。(2)偷梁换柱。干扰项用了与原文 中相似的句子结构和大部分相同的词汇,只是在不起眼的地方换了几个词汇,造 成句子意思的改变。(3)无中生有。干扰项往往是生活基本常识和普遍接受的 观点,本身是正确的,但是与问题的设问毫不相干。所以在答题时,考生一定注 意问题中有没有 “In the author’s opinion”或“ According to the passage” 类似的限定词语。(4)以偏概全。尤其在猜测阅读材料的中心思想或段落大意 或给文章填加标题时, 往往会出现以偏概全的干扰项。具体方法见英语涨分详细 可执行方案 http://user.qzone.qq.com/757722345/blog/1389797076 下面我们就以 NMET 高考北京卷阅读理解部分 D 篇的第一段和第二段为例,说明正确选项与 干扰项的各自特点。 Of all systems of symbols (符号), language is the most highly developed. It has been pointed out that human beings, by agreement, can make anything stand for anything. Human beings have agreed, in the course of centuries of mutual(相互的)dependency , to let the various noises that they can produce with their lungs, throats, tongues, teeth, and lips systematically stand for certain happenings in their nervous systems. We call that system of agreement language. There is no necessary connection between the system and that which it stands for. Just as social positions can be symbolized by feathers worn on the head, by gold on the watch chain, or by a thousand other things according to the culture we live in, so the fact of being hungry can be symbolized by a thousand different noises according to the culture we live in. 69. Language is a highly developed system of symbols because human beings __________. A. have made use of language for centuries B. use other nervous systems to support language.

C. have made various noises stand for any events D. can make anything stand for anything by agreement. 70. What can we conclude from Passage 2 ? A. different noises may mean different things. B. Our culture determines what a symbol stands for. C. The langue we use symbolizes our social positions D. Our social positions determine the way we are dressed 第 69 题分析:A 选项的内容是一般事实,但原文中没有提及,也与题目的 设问无关,因此,它属于干扰项。B 选项属于偷梁换柱型的干扰项,因为原文第 一段中提到用 noises 来代替 certain happenings in their nervous systems, 而不是用 nervous systems 来支持语言。C 选项与 B 选项一样,也是干扰项。D 选项是正确答案,几乎用了与原文中相同的词,只是语序略有不同罢了。 第 70 题分析:A 选项在内容上是正确的,但是原文第二段中并没有提及到, 所以说, 它不符合题意。 B 选项是正确选项, 可以由第二段的第二句话推理得出。 C 选项属于无中生有,原文中根本没有提及到。D 选项属于偷梁换柱,用原文的 几个相同的词伪造了不同的信息,也属于干扰项。


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