Unit 1 The world of our senses 一、Reading
1. (Page 2, Line 7) Once out in the street, she walked…… 如果从句和主句的主语一致，或者从句的主语为 it，同时从句中含有 be 的适当形式，可以省略从句的主 语和 be 动词，留下分词、介词短语等成分作状语，表示时间、原因、方式、让步、伴随状态等含义。从 句前可以加上适当的连词，使从句的含义更加明确。 ① Once（it is）seen，it will be never forgotten. ② When (you are) in the street, you’d better be careful. ③ While (you are) reading, underline the key words. 2. this: adv. 这么 that much: 那么多 that: adv. 那么 He isn’t this / that tall. 3. observe: vt. (1) 观察，注意到 (2) 遵守 (3) 庆祝 observer: n. 目击者，观察者，观测员，观察员 ① She observed that the pond was drying up. ② observe the speed limit. ③ observe the Christmas Day. ④ The UN sent a team of observers to the peace talks. 4. glance at sth: 瞥一眼，匆匆看，扫视 at first glance: 乍一看 ① He glanced at nervously at his watch. ② At first glance, the palace seemed deserted. 5. stare at sth: 盯着，凝视 glare at sth: 怒目而视，瞪着 ① He stared at the diamond with great amazement. ② Tom didn’t shout. He just glared at me silently. 6. nowhere: adv. 无处，到处都不 n. [U] 无处 be nowhere to be seen / found / heard: 哪儿也见∕找∕听不到 nowhere else: 没有别的地方 get nowhere: 没有结果∕进展 ① Such case is nowhere to be found. ② I have nowhere else to go. ③ It’s a good idea but it will get nowhere without more financial support. ④ Nowhere else can you find a more beautiful view. 7. narrow: adj. 窄的，狭隘的；勉强的；精确的 vt. & vi. (使)变窄，缩小 ◆◆narrowly: adv. 勉强地；严密地，仔细地 ① He has a narrow mind. 他度量很小。 ② a narrow escape from death: 九死一生 ③ What does the word mean in its narrowest sense? ④ In order to widen the road he had to narrow the pavement. ⑤ The road narrows here. ⑥ He narrowly escaped drowning.
⑦ Observe someone narrowly. 8. approach: (1) vt. & vi. 靠近，接近；对付，处理 ① The time is approaching when we think about buying a new house. ② Few writers even begin to approach Shakespeare’s greatness. 莎士比亚的伟大，鲜有作家能望其项背。 ③ approach the puzzle. (2) n. ① 靠近 ② 方法；通道，入口 With the approach of sth: 随着……的临近 the approach to sth: ……的方法∕通道 ① With the approach of spring, everything come alive. ② The approach to the town / problem has been abandoned. 9. hold: vt. 使……处于某种状态 hold sb + adj / adv hold sb still: 使……一动不动 can you hold the door open for me? 10. “Ah, twenty! A nice age to be.” “啊！二十岁！多好的年龄啊。 A nice age to be.是个省略句，如果补充完整则是：Twenty is a nice age to be. 又如下面的省略句： You will have no difficulty finding his address; he is well known in this area. 你要想找到他的住址并不难，他在这一片很有名气。 表示这一意义时， 英语常用“have (some, any, much, a little) difficulty (in) doing sth.”或“there is (some, much, a little) difficulty (in) doing sth.”, 这两个句型中的“difficulty”用作不可数名词，介词 in 可省略。 【例】We read them__________；we remember them_____________. A. as young；as old B. as younger；as older C. when younger；when older D. when young；when older 【答案】C when 后是 we are young(old)的省略结构。 11. come to one’s aid: 帮助…… first aid: 急救 Thank you for coming to my aid in time of emergency. 12. pay back: vt. 偿还，回报 13. dark 与 darkness 的区别 (1) 两者都可以表示“黑暗” ，都是不可数名词。dark 前通常用定冠词，darkness 前不用冠词。如： Darkness was falling fast. 黑暗很快来临。 Children are usually afraid of the dark. 小孩通常都害怕黑暗。 (2) 表示“在黑暗中” ，用 in the dark 或 in the darkness 均可。如： Cats can see in the dark(ness). 猫在黑暗中能够看见。 The light went out and left us in the dark(ness). 灯熄了，我们面前一片漆黑。 ◆◆ be in the dark about sth: 对……一无所知∕被蒙在鼓里。如： We are still in the dark about the cause of the fire. (3) dark 还可以表示“黄昏” 、 “傍晚” 、 “黑夜”等，此时不用 darkness。注意此时 dark 前不用冠词。 at dark: 在黄昏时 before dark: 天黑前 after dark: 天黑后 They turned on the light at dark. 他们在黄昏时开灯。 Try to get home before dark. 尽量在天黑以前回家。 I’m afraid to go out after dark in the city. 在城里我害怕天黑后出门。 14. lie (lay, lain): v. 处于……状态 lie + adj / 介词短语
lie open: 打开着 lie empty: 空着 lie in ruins: 成为废墟 ① The book lay open on the table. ② The town now lies in ruins.
1. make sense: 讲得通，有意义 Make sense of sth: 理解…… ① What you say makes no sense. ② Can you make sense of this poem? 2. make one’s way back to sth: 返回…… Finally I made my back to where I once lived. 3. struggle through sth: 挣扎着通过……；奋力通过…… He tried his best to struggle through the woods. 4. from + 介词短语: 从……地方 from behind the door: 从门后 from under the table: 从桌子底下 5. sweat with fear: 吓得出（冷）汗 He sweated with fear when seeing a snake lying before him. 6. all of a sudden: suddenly 突然地 Life seemed all of a sudden empty and meaningless. 生活突然显得一片空虚,毫无意义. 7. ring out: vi. 清晰可闻；发出清脆的声音 A number of shots rang out. 这时听见几声清脆的响声。
1. attach: vt. 系，绑，附 attach sth to sth: 把……系∕绑∕附在…..上 be attached to sth: (1) 被系∕绑∕附在…..上；(2) 喜欢，依恋；(3) 附属于 attach importance to sth: 重视…… attach oneself to sth: 参加，依附 ① Attach a recent photo to the application form. ② It’s easy to be attached to the children you work with. ③ This hospital is attached to the medical college nearby. ④ On the contrary, they attach importance to education and constant learning and thinking. ⑤ He attached himself to the expedition. 他参加了那个探险队。 2. hesitate: vi. 犹豫，迟疑不决 hesitate about doing sth: 对……犹豫 hesitate to do sth: 做……犹豫 hesitation: n. 犹豫 without hesitation: 毫不犹豫 ① He still hesitated about whether to join the club. ② Don’t hesitate to tell us if you have a problem. ③ She asked he to sit beside her without hesitation. 3. bite into sth: 咬进，陷入，砍入 When you bite into an apple, savor the sweet taste and enjoy the delicious juicy crunch. 当你咬下苹果, 务要品尝那香甜的滋味,享受那多汁可口的爽脆.
1. contrary: n. 相反的事实或情况 adj. 相反的 on the contrary: 正相反，恰恰相反 be contrary to sth: 与……相反 ① It was not a good thing; on the contrary, it was a huge mistake. ② Contrary to my expectation, he didn’t win the competition. ③ His views are contrary to mine. 2. mistake sth for sth: 把……误认为…… I mistake the poor woman for my sister. 3. panic: n. 惊慌 vt. & vi. (panicked，panicked)（使）恐慌，惊慌失措 get into a panic: 陷入惊慌之中 in a panic: 惊慌地 ① She got into a real panic when she thought she had lost the tickets. ② Shoppers fled the street in panic after two bombs exploded in central London. 4. likely: adj. 可能的 be likely to do sth: 可能做…… It is likely that: 可能…… ① She is very likely to call me today. ② It’s likely that Tom will survive the disaster. ③ the likely result. 5. watch for sth: 盼望∕期待…… They are watching for further developments. 6. reach into sth: 把手伸入…… Paul reached into his pocket to get his celephone. 7. reach out: vt. & vi. ⑴（使）伸出；伸手；⑵ 延伸； ⑶ 伸出援手； ⑷ 沟通，交流 reach out for sth: 伸手拿?? reach out to sb: 和某人交流；伸手帮助?? ① I reached out a hand and caught the ball. 我伸手抓住了球。 ② Tao Zi reaches out to scratch her nose. 陶子伸出手去抓鼻子上的痒痒。 ③ Happiness is a choice. Reach out for it at the moment it appears. 幸福是一种选择,一旦出现,你就伸手去抓住她吧! ④ A tree reaches out its branches towards the light. 树枝向阳光处伸展。 ⑤ Reach out, beauteous Turkey, give me your hand, my beloved homeland! 伸出你的手吧，美丽的土耳其，握住我的手吧，亲爱的祖国! ⑥ We must reach out to those in need. 我们应该帮助那些需要帮助的人。 ⑦ Modern politicians try to reach out to ordinary people in their broadcast speeches. 现代的政客们企图在广播演讲中与普通民众进行沟通。 8. loose: adj. 松动的，松开的；宽松的，松散的；自由的 vt. 松开，释放 come loose: 变松 get loose / free: 获得自由 let / set sb loose: 释放…… ① a loose overcoat / organization. ② Don’t let your dog loose if there are any sheep around.
9. over a long distance: 经过长距离 over a long time: 经过长时间 10. employ: vt. 使用，雇佣 employer: 雇主 employee: 雇员 11. Don’t be frightened by sharks as there is 30 times greater chance of being hit by lightening than being attacked by a shark. 不要惧怕鲨鱼，因为人类被闪电击中的几率要比被鲨鱼攻击的几率大 30 倍。 句中 30 times 修饰 greater chance，意思是“30 倍”。英语中表示程度的状语一般位于比较等级的前面。 倍数的表达可用下面四个句型。 ⑴ A + be + 倍数 + as + 形容词 + as + B Asia is four times as large as Europe. 亚洲有欧洲四倍那么大。 ⑵ A + be + 倍数 + 比较级 + than + B Asia is three times larger than Europe. 亚洲比欧洲大三倍。 ⑶ A + be + 倍数 + the size / length / height / depth / width + of + B Asia is four times the size of Europe. 亚洲面积是欧洲的四倍大。 ⑷ The size / length / height / depth / width + of + A + be + 倍数 + that of B. The size of Asia is four times that of Europe. 亚洲的面积是欧洲面积的四倍。 【注意】要注意用 time 表示倍数, 一般只限于表示包括基数在内的三倍或三倍以上; 若表示两倍可用副 词 twice 或形容词 double。例如: The street is twice the length of that one. 这条街是那条街的二倍长。 Ten is double five. 十是五的二倍。
Unit 2 Language 一、Reading
1. be made up of sth: consist of sth: 由……组成 be composed of sth: ① Water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen. ② A group consisting of 15 boys and 10 boys. 2. occupy: vt. (1) 占有，居住 (2) 占领，占据 (3) 占用（时间、空间等） (4) 使忙碌 be occupied in doing sth / with sth: 忙于…… ① The Jackson family have occupied the apartment for one year. ② The troops have occupied the city for 8 months. ③ Soccer occupies most of my pleasure time. ④ Helen was fully occupied with business matters, so we didn’t want to bother her. 3. aside: adv. (1) 在一边，向一边 (2) 留着 put / set sth aside: (1) 把……放在一边 (2) 留存 aside from sth: 除……以外（=besides / except） ① Stand aside and let these people pass. ② Set aside some money for your retirement. ③ Aside from the problem, the day was perfect. 4. name after sth: 以……命名 The class was named after Lei Feng in 1989. 5. play a part / role in sth: 在……中扮演角色∕发挥作用 We have realized the role that oil plays in the economy. 6. contribute (sth) to sb: 捐献（……）给…..；为…..做贡献；给……投稿；导致 make a contribution to sth: 为…..做贡献
① We contributed 100,000 yuan to the refugees. ② Her work has greatly contributed to our understanding of this difficult project. ③ She has contributed (several poems) to the literature magazines. ④ Many factors led to his downfall(倒台). ⑤ The signing of this treaty will make a magnificent contribution to world peace. 7. English-speaking countries: 说英语的国家 spoken English: 英语口语 written English: 书面英语 8. lead to sth: contribute to sth: 导致…… result in sth: cause sth: 9. raise: vt. ⑴ 举起，抬起 raise your hand ⑵ 提高，增加 raise the wage / raise one’s voice ⑶ 饲养，种植 raise cows / trees ⑷ 筹集 raise money for the Hope Project ⑸ 提出 raise a question 10. ……which led to Old English replacing Celtic. (Page 23, Line 29) 动名词的复合结构：物主代词∕名词所有格 + doing 该结构可以作句子的主语、宾语。作宾语时，物主代词可以用宾格形式，名词所有格可以省略’s。例如： (1) My / Xiao Ming’s coming late made me very angry. (2) I don’t mind his / him smoking here. (3) The discovery of new evidence led to ____________. (上海 2003) A. the thief having caught B. catch the thief C. the thief being caught D. the thief to be caught 【解析】答案为 C。动名词的复合结构作宾语，the thief 后省略了’s。
1. set a standard for sth: 为??制定标准 The statement set a strict standard for the production of the machine. 2. ban: (1) vt. (banned; banning) 禁止，取缔 ban sb from doing sth: forbid sb from doing sth: 禁止某人做…… forbid sb to do sth: ① John has been banned from driving for a year. ② The government has banned the use of chemical weapons. ③ banned films: 禁放电影 (2) n. 禁止，禁令 The president supports a global ban on nuclear weapons. 3. concern: (1) n. ㈠ 关心，担心，忧虑 show / have concern for / about / over sth: 担心…… be of concern to sb: 是……担心∕忧虑的 ① He showed much concern for / about / over her safety. ② The rise in unemployment rate is of great concern to the government. ㈡ 重要或感兴趣的事[C] What are your main concerns as a golf player?
(2) vt. ㈠ 涉及，关于，对......有影响 ① Don’t interfere in what doesn’t concern you. ② a book concerning Chinese history. ㈡ 使忧虑，烦恼 Our losses are beginning to concern me. ㈢ 忙于，关心 concern oneself with / about sth: 忙于∕关心…… There is no need to concern yourself with this matter. We are dealing with it. (3)相关搭配 be concerned about / for sth: 担心…… be concerned with sth: 与……相关 as far as sb be concerned: 就……而言 ① I was very concerned about his performance in the exam. ② This story is concerned with a Russian family. ③ As far as I’m concerned, good health is more important that money.
1. access: (1) vt. 进入；使用；获取（资料） We can access the data in the computer. (2) n. 通道； （使用接近的）机会或权利 the access to sth: ……的通道；……的机会或权利 have access to sth: 有权接近∕使用…… ① The only access to the village is to through the forest. ② The public don’t have access to the documents. ◆◆ sth be accessible to sb: ……某人可以得到∕接近∕使用 These important books are only accessible to those who have much experience. 2. conclusion: n. (1) 结束，结尾 At the conclusion of his speech, the professor put forward a new idea. (2) 结论 draw / reach / come to / arrive at a conclusion: 得出结论 jump to conclusion: 草率下结论 in conclusion: 总之 ① What conclusions can you draw from the evidence you have hear? ② We have a long way to finish the task, so don’t jump to conclusion. ③ In conclusion, I’d like to say all of you have done a good job.
1. differ from sth: 不同于…… In this respect, French differs from Britain. 2. in that: 因为 This situation is complicated in that we have two general managers. 3. hunt: vt. & vi. 打猎，猎杀；搜寻 hunt for sth: (=look for) 寻找 job hunting: 求职 4. combine: vt. & vi. 组合，联合，结合 combine sth with sth ① The software package combine power and / with flexibility. ② It’s no easy task to combine family responsibility and a full-time job. 5. distinguish sth from sth: 区分开……与…… distinguish between sth and sth: We can’t distinguish the cause from the effect.
6. convenient: adj. 方便的，便利的 It’s convenient for sb to do sth: 某人做……方便 If it is convenient to you: 如果你方便的话 ① It’s convenient for me to use the machine with the software. ② Come here if it is convenient to you.
Unit 3 Back to the past 一、Reading
1. 不定式及其变化形式： 一般式：to do 被动式：to be done （即将）被….. 完成式：to have done 已经…… 完成被动式：to have been done 已经被…… 进行式：to be doing 正在….. 完成进行式：to have been doing 一直在…… ① I wanted the letter to be typed at once. ② She seemed to have read the book before. ③ He pretended to be reading a book when I came in. ④ I am sorry to have been interrupting you. ⑤ The novel is said to have been translated into several languages. 2. 进行时表示将来，表示按照计划即将发生的动作，多与表示移动的动词 come，go，arrive，leave，fly， start 等连用。 ① He is leaving for London. 他就要启程去伦敦。 ② Christmas is drawing near. 圣诞节快到了。 3. take over sth: 接管，接收；控制 The large company has taken over many small ones. 4. pour: (1) vt. 灌，注，倒 pour sth + 介词+ sth pour money into sth: 对……提供资金 pour old water over / on sth: 对……泼冷水 ① He poured some water into the glass. ② You might as well pour the oil down the pipe. (2) vi. 涌进∕涌出；雨倾盆而下 ① The smoke was pouring out of the chimney. ② She watched the rain pouring down the windows. 5. be buried alive: 被活埋 bury oneself in sth: 埋头于∕专心于…… Since he left, he has buried himself in his books. 6. as + 主 + be: 按照某人…..样子 ① I like the house better as it is. ② State the facts as they were. 7. decorate sth with sth: 用……装修∕装饰∕美化…… The house was decorated with various paints and colours. 8. break down: (1) vi. 出故障；崩溃；瓦解；垮掉 ① The telephone system has broken down. ② Negotiations between the two sides have broken down. ③ Her health broke down under the pressure of work.
(2) vt. 破坏；分解；分成 ① Firemen had to break down the door to reach the people trapped inside. ② Sugar and other chemicals are broken down in the stomach. ③ We broke down the books into 5 kinds. 9. break up: (1) vi. 解散；破碎；破裂；绝交 break with sb: 与……绝交 ① The meeting broke up at 7 o’clock. ② The rock broke up on the rocks. ③ Their marriage is breaking up. ④ She has just broken up with her boyfriend. (2) vt. 打碎；拆散；结束，关闭；划分 break sth up into sth: 把…….分成…… ① Jim started to break the ice up on the frozen lake. ② The ship was broken up for scrap metal. 船被拆成废铁。 ③ They decided to break up their partnership. 他们决定拆伙。 ④ Sentences can be broken into clauses. 10. ruin: vt. 破坏，毁灭 n. 废墟，毁坏 be / lie in ruins: 破败不堪，垮掉 ◆◆destroy、ruin、damage 的区别 ⑴ destroy：指彻底的、难以修复的“破坏”、“损坏”；也指名誉、计划、努力等受到损坏。 That will destroy the reputation of our products. ⑵ ruin: 破坏， （彻底）毁灭。多用于借喻中，表示希望∕前程的破灭、健康遭到毁坏等。 The news means the ruin of all our hopes. He ruined his prospects(前途) by carelessness. The storm ruined the crops. ⑶damage: 伤害，损害(对于价值和功能的部分性破坏) Smoking will damage your health. 【例题】The flooding _______ the bridge, we can’t walk across it forever. A. destroyed B. damage C. harmed D. hurt 答案为 A。
1. put out sth: 扑灭；发布，出版；生产 ① put out the fire. ② Police have put out a description of the man they wanted to question. ③ The plant puts out 500 new cars a week. 2. take sth for example / as an example: 以……为例 Let's take the metal removal rate for example. 让我们以金属切削速率为例. 3. throughout the world 遍布全世界 all over the world 4. brush sth away: 刷掉，拂去 Please brush away the dirt on my trousers.
1. agree with sth: 与…..一致；相符合 Your account of the fair doesn’t agree with mine.
2. drive sb away: 使……发疯 Your words nearly drove me away. 3. in good / bad condition: 状况好∕差 4. come to sth: 达到……情况∕状态（通常指坏的情况） ① What is the world coming to? 这是怎么回事？ ② Things have come to such a statement in the company that he’s thinking of resigning. ③ I don’t know what the world has come to. 5. the solution to sth: ……的解决办法 There are no simple solutions to the problem of overpopulation.
1. at sea: 在海上 2. declare: vt. 正式宣布；表明；宣称 declare that: : declare sb (to be)+ n / adj: 宣布……为…… declare sth open / closed: 宣布…..开幕∕闭幕 declare war on / against sb: 对……宣战 ① The doctor finally declared that the patient was rescued. ② He was declared (to be ) innocent. ③ I declare the meeting closed. ④ China declared war against Vietnam in 1979. 3. declaration: n. 宣言，公告，重要声明 A ceasefire declaration: 停火声明 4. declare 和 announce 的区别 (1) declare 指正式郑重、庄严地宣布、声明。 (2) announce 含义为“宣布，宣告，预告，告知” 。它指宣布人们关心或原来不知道的事，带有预告意味； 而且往往是第一次当众宣布，或以非口头方式宣布。搭配有：announce sth / that。例如： ① We regretted to announce his failure. ② It has been announced that there will be a celebration on Sunday.
1. rise up against sth: 起义反抗…… People rose up against the invaders(侵略者). 2. take sth back: 收回；退回；使回想起 ① I took back my words. ② Take back the shirt if it doesn’t suit you. ③ Seeing the old photos really took me back to my childhood. 3. stand in one’s path / way: 妨碍，阻拦 He is quite optimistic and insists on carrying out the plan, so you’d better not stand in his path. 4. turn one’s eyes east: 把目光转向东方 5. march: vi. & n. 前进；行军；游行示威 the Long March: 长征 on the march: 行军中，进行中 go on a march: 游行示威 ① Demonstrators marched through the street. 示威者在街道中行进。 ② The enemy were on the march at last. ③ The army has marched 30 miles today.
ahead of sth: 在……前面 go ahead: 进行吧，干吧 ahead of time: 提前 ---Can I have the storybook? ---Yeah, go ahead. I have read it. 7. come down with sth: 染上∕患……病 I think I am going to come down with a cold. 8. think of sb as sth: 认为……是…… I have always thought of Peter as a great scholar. 9. (1) challenge sb to do sth: 激励某人做……；向某人挑战做…… ① The difficult problem challenged me to find a solution. ② He challenged me to play chess. (2) challenge sb to sth: 向某人挑战…… After lunch he challenged me to a game of tennis. 10. be aware that / of sth: 意识到…… make sb aware of sth: 使某人意识到…… ① I was aware that she was right. ② His success made me aware of my shortcomings. 11. awareness: n. 意识，认识 raise one’s awareness of sth: 提高某人……的意识 ① There is a general awareness that smoking is harmful. ② The damage that the typhoons caused has raised people’s awareness of building firm fundamental facilities. 12. have enough of sth: 受够了……；对……感到厌烦 I have had enough of your recent behaviors. 13. take sb to court: 起诉∕控告…… He was taken to court for not paying back the money. 14. corrupt: (1) adj. 腐败的，堕落的 corrupt officials (2) vt. 使腐败，腐蚀 Absolute power can corrupt every official. ◆◆ corruption：n. 贪污，受贿，腐败，堕落 15. trial: n. (1) 审讯，审理 (2) 试验，试用 (3) 选拔赛，预赛 a murder trial: 一起谋杀案的审理 trial and error: 反复试验 trial period: 试用期 ① The man was arrested but not brought to trial. 这个人被逮捕，但并未送交法院审理。 ② Children learn to use computer programs by trial and error. ③ The Olympic trials: 奥林匹克运动会选拔赛 16. put sb to death: 处死…… He was put to death for stealing copper from the company. 6.