American History and Selected Reading
Teacher: Zhang Juan
Part I The Literature of Colonial America
所以，让我们选择生活， 这样，我们和我们的后代， 可以听从上帝的声音， 须臾不离上帝， 因为，上帝是我们的生命， 我们的兴旺。 —— 约翰· 温斯罗普
The history of America
1.1492 Columbus reached the new continent.
? 1492 Conquest of Paradise
? 2. Many years later, another Italian sailor Amerigo Vespucci reached the new continent. America was named after him. All these adventures were sponsored by the Spanish King.
亚美瑞格.韦斯普奇号是意大利海军的一 艘高桅横帆船，她的名字来源于探险家 亚美瑞格.韦斯普奇（伟大的航海家， 从1497年到1504年 Amerigo Vespucci 曾四次到南美洲进行探险航行。他对于 所到达的国家做了非常细致的描述。这 些文字在欧洲流传甚广并给他带来极大 的声誉：人们认为他是真实的美洲的发现者
3. In the middle of the 16th century, British Navy defeated the Spanish Navy, and Britain became more and more powerful.
英国皇家海军是英国三军中最老的军种，负责海上国防、 保护航运、履行国军事协议。 从大约1692年到第一次世界 大战之间，皇家海军是世界上最大、最强的海军；并帮英国 成为18和19世纪最强盛的军事及经济强国；也是维持大英帝 国重要工具。虽然现已势微，皇家海军仍是欧洲最大、世界 上第二大的海军；也是世界上最先进的海军之一。它是大多 数现代海军的先驱；许多英联邦和北大西洋公约组织的海军 官兵仍到英国接受训练。苏联瓦解、冷战结束之後，皇家海 军在21世纪主要任务已由一个吓阻性的武力转变为一个能在 全球展现英国外交政策的部队。 “无敌”轻型航空母舰
? Puritans and Pilgrims arriving ? in the New World during the ? early 1600's.
? 4. Many English people began to move to this new continent. Puritans came here to escape religious crisis. First settlement: James Town, Virginia, Captain Smith 1607; second settlement: Plymouth Massachusetts. ―May Flower‖ 1620 the fourth Thur. in Nov. Thanksgiving Day.
? Pilgrim Fathers
1620, a tiny ship called the “May flower” sailed from England for the New world, with 102 passengers. 50% were Pilgrims. Landed in what is now Plymouth, Massachusetts.
? The Puritans were wealthy, well-educated gentlemen. They wanted to purify the Church of England and threatened with religious persecution, the Puritans leaders saw the New world as the a refuge provided by God for those He meant to save.
Why did the early settlers come to America?
– It drew English merchants who dreamed of establishing great new estates out of the wildness. – It drew carpenters, bakers, tailors and other skilled workmen who could not find job in England. – It drew the poor and the homeless from farmlands and villages.
– It drew many English in search of religious freedom.
Relations of American Indians with European settlers ? friendship
? American Indians helped the early Europeans to survive
? American Indians were killed and driven to mountainous and barren areas known as Indian Reservations, as a result of interests in land and cultural conflicts
? The first Thanksgiving in North America.
5.The Founding of the 13 Colonies
– The first English colony in America was founded at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607; known as the mother state – Between 1607 and 1733 the British established 13 colonies along the east coast of North America. Later, the Independent War.
The Division of American Literature
1. The literature of colonial America (1607 mid-18th)
no real literature. Personal literature of diaries, travel books and letters. John Smith—the first Am. writer. Puritan literature. 2.The literature of reason and revolution (18th.midthe end of the 18th c.) Franklin, Jefferson, Pain. 3. Romantic period (1810-1860) early romanticism/ Late romanticism. ▲ early: novelists-Irving, Cooper poets-Longfellow, Bryant
novelists- Hawthorne, Melville poets-Whitman, Dickinson, Poe ▲ Transcendentalism: Emerson and Thoreau 4. Realism: Mark Twain, Henry James Naturalism: Jack London, Dreiser 5. Modernism (1920-1940) 20s: Pound, Eliot, Robert Frost (poets) Fitzgerald, Hemingway, Faulkner (south) (novelists) Eugene O'Neil (playwright) 30s: Steinbeck postwar：Arthur Miller Black literature: Alice Walker, Toni Morison Jewish writers：Salinger. Black humor
1. The literature of colonial America (1607 mid-18th)
◆American Puritanism: Puritanism is the practices and beliefs
of the puritans. Quite a few of the early British settlers were Puritans. They were members of the Church of England, who aimed at reforms in its doctrines and strictness in religious disciplines and were persecuted. To avoid the religious Persecution, some of them managed to escape to the New world and became known as Puritan Fathers.
They set sail from England with a dream. Their new nation would be a guiding light. It would be an example for the whole world. John Winthrop spoke of a 'City Upon A Hill'.
John Winthrop p.6
16世纪宗教改革前，天主教统治着英国，罗马教皇是英国 僧、俗界的领袖，英王屈从与罗马教皇。宗教改革后的英 国国教与天主教最大的区别在于：废除了罗马教皇在英国 的领袖地位，在英国，英王既是宗教首领又是行政首脑。 其他如主教制度、宗教仪式等基本不变。所以，英国国教 极力维护君权、君主专制，倡导“君权神授”。 16世纪60年代，加尔文教传入英国，被称为清教，信仰清 教的英国人称为清教徒。他们包括资产阶级、新贵族、手 工业者等，清教徒运动形式上要求“纯洁”国教，实质上反 映的是阶级矛盾，是资本主义与封建主义的矛盾，反对君 主专制、“君权神授”是其本质。
The Puritan principle: Puritans accepted the doctrines of Calvinism: the sovereignty of God, the supreme authority of the Bible, and the irresistibility of God’s will for man in every act of his life. They accepted the doctrine of predestination, original sin, total depravity, etc.
清教徒并不是一种派别，而是一种态度，一种倾向， 一种价值观，它是对信徒群体的一种统称。清教徒是 最为虔敬、生活最为圣洁的新徒，他们认为“人人皆 祭司，人人有召唤”。认为每个个体可以直接与上帝 交流，反对神甫集团的专横、腐败和繁文缛节、形 式主义。他们主张简单、实在、上帝面前人人平等 的信徒生活。
These doctrines led the Puritans to examine their souls to find whether they were of the elect and to search the Bible to determine God’s will. Thus piety, diligence, thrift were common puritan merits.
? The Puritan Heritage: Early Puritanism has strong influence upon Am. thought and culture. As to literature, Puritanism exerted its influence in three ways: 1). Early puritans dreamed of building a new Garden of Eden in Am. Fired with such a sense of mission, puritans were optimistic. Thus optimism characterized early Am. literature
? 2. To puritans, the physical world was nothing but a symbol of God. Symbolism was one chief feature of Am. literature. 3. Puritan writing fresh, simple and direct.
American colonial literature is neither real literature nor Am. Why? 1). Diaries, histories, journals, letters, etc. personal literature in various forms; 2) Colonial literature is mainly literature tradition imitated & transplanted.
Anne Bradstreet Edward Taylor (They can be called servants of God. Their writings served either God or Colonial expansion. Some other colonial writers wrote for civil and religious freedom, and some wrote for Am. Shaking off the effects of the savage British colonial rule.) Roger Williams; John Woolman
Books to read: ? Selected Reading in American Literature 杨岂深 ? Selected Reading in American Literature 陶洁 ? Selected Reading in American Literature 常耀信 ? Contemporary American Literature with Collateral Readings 秦小孟 ? High Lights of American Literature 钱青 ? An Anthology of 20th Century American Fiction 万培德 ? A Survey of American Literature 常耀信 ? 20世纪美国文学导论 李公昭 ? 二十世纪美国文学导读 张立新