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跨文化交际课件Chapter 2

跨文化交际课件Chapter 2


跨文化交际实训

ISBN:978-7-81134-892-7 2010年11月 第1版

Chapter 2 Verbal Communication
Learning Objectives In this chapter, you should be able to Understand some commonly observed differences between English and Chinese verbal communication. Learn to make cross-cultural comparisons and analysis in the following aspects: ? Cultural differences on lexical semantics level ? Cultural differences on pragmatic level Learn to carry out oral communication. Learn to carry out written communication.

Warm-up
How do people carry out their communication? What is verbal communication? What do plum blossom, orchid, bamboo, and chrysanthemum stand for in Chinese? Do they have the same meanings in English? How many terms do you know when you express thanks in Chinese? What topics do you think is appropriate when you first meet a foreigner from America?

I. Verbal Communication 言语交际
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Language and culture 语言和文化

I. Verbal Communication 言语交际
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High-context and Low-context language 高语境和低语境语言
High Context ?Less verbally explicit communication, less written/formal information ?More internalized understandings of what is communicated ?Multiple cross-cutting ties and intersections with others ?Long term relationships ?Strong boundaries- who is accepted as belonging vs. who is considered an "outsider" ?Knowledge is situational, relational. ?Decisions and activities focus around personal face-to-face relationships, often around a central person who has authority. Examples: Small religious congregations, a party with friends, family gatherings, expensive gourmet restaurants and neighborhood restaurants with a regular clientele, undergraduate on-campus friendships, regular pick-up games, hosting a friend in your home overnight.

I. Verbal Communication 言语交际
Low Context ?Rule oriented, people play by external rules ?More knowledge is codified, public, external, and accessible. ?Sequencing, separation--of time, of space, of activities, of relationships ?More interpersonal connections of shorter duration ?Knowledge is more often transferable ?Task-centered. Decisions and activities focus around what needs to be done, division of responsibilities. Examples: large US airports, a chain supermarket, a cafeteria, a convenience store, sports where rules are clearly laid out, a motel.

I. Verbal Communication 言语交际
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The Relationship Between Language and Culture 语言与文化的关系 Language and culture are like a living organism. Language is flesh, while culture is blood. Without culture, language would be dead; without language, culture would have no shape. Language and culture are like an iceberg. The language is the part above water while the greater part which is hidden beneath the surface is the invisible aspect of culture.

I. Verbal Communication 言语交际
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Cultural difference on lexical semantics level 词汇语义学层面上的文化差异

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Cultural differences in denotative meaning
Cultural differences in connotative meanings

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I. Verbal Communication 言语交际
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Cultural difference on pragmatics level 语用学层面上的文化差异 Addressing people Showing gratitude Being modest

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Key Terms
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lexical meaning 词汇意义 词汇意义错综复杂,具体 表现在其多样性、层次性和可 变性。它不仅涉及到词自身的 含义,还涉及到词与词之间的 关系,也涉及到词与外部世界 的关系。词汇语用学研究者认 为要以语境为基础动态地研究 词语的语用意义。对词汇意义 的解释、使用和理解不仅仅是 一个语言问题,更是一个语用 与认知的问题。

Key Terms
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High-context culture 高语境文化 高语境文化是指,在传播 过程中,绝大部分信息或者已 经存在于传播双方的物质语境 中,或者已经内化于个人内心 ,而极少存在于双方所运用的 语言和信息之中,换言之,语 言和信息是模糊而不充分;高 语境文化强调含蓄,重视交流 双方的互动。

Key Terms
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Low-context culture 低语境文化 “低语境文化”正好相反,即在传播过程中,沟通 交流双方主要依赖他们所运用的语言,换言之,语言和 信息是清晰而充分的。 举例而言,对于朝夕相处的家庭成员来说,长期共 同生活使他们形成了许多默契,因此,他们在交流中, 直接通过语言或动作来表达的成分较少,更多的内容, 存在于由双方共同生活体验形成的心灵感应;而两个初 次见面陌生人的交流,却要花费更多的口舌。 denotation 字面意义 connotation 隐含意义

Glossary
verbal adj. 言语的

attribute
explicit interlocutor

n. 价值
adj. n. 清楚明白的, 易于理解的 对话者

taboo
encode interwine

adj. 禁忌的
vt. 把…编码 vt. 缠绕

boundary
congregations clientele

n. 分界线
n. 教区教友 n.委托人,客户

Confucius

n. 孔子

Glossary
metaphor lexical semantics perception hierarchical n. 隐喻 adj. 词汇的 n. 语义学 n. 认识,观念,看法 adj. 分等级的

auspicious
Cantonese disciple

adj. 吉利的
n. 广东人 n. 门徒,信徒

betray
deficient

vt. 背判,出卖
adj. 有缺点的

Comprehension Questions
1. What are some of the helpful factors for developing the topic and what are some of the major obstacles? 2. What is the relationship between language and culture? Try to offer two or three examples in your discussion. 3. Use one or two examples to clarify your understanding of cultural differences in denotative meaning.

Comprehension Questions
4. Use one or two examples to clarify your understanding of Cultural differences in connotative meanings. 5. Chinese people like being modest. How do you explain this phenomenon?

II. Oral Communication 口头交际
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Conversation taboos 谈话禁忌

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General guidelines to follow when conversing with someone from another culture include : Avoid discussing politics or religion unless the other person initiates the discussion. Avoid highly personal questions including “What do you do?”

II. Oral Communication 口头交际
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Keep the conversation positive. Avoid asking questions that would imply criticisms; phrase questions so they can be answered in a positive manner. Avoid telling ethnic jokes because of the possibility of offending someone.

II. Oral Communication 口头交际
Country Country
Great Britain

Appropriate Topics Appropriate Topics
history, architecture, gardening

Topics to avoid Topics to avoid
money, politics, religion

Canada

travel, job, food, music, customs
compliments, job, travel, foods, travel abroad, international politics, hobbies, soccer music, books, sports, the theatre History, culture, art

money, salary, religion, and politics especially the separatist movement
religion, politics, race World War II, questions about personal life job, income, price, age World War II

the USA Germany France Japan

II. Oral Communication 口头交际
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Making Telephone Calls 打电话

Country
France

ways of beginning the call

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making an apology for disturbing the answerer, checking whether they have dialed the right number and identifying themselves, conversing with whoever answers the phone on condition that the answerer is known to them and only after some conversation may callers express their wish to speak with the person they actually call to speak to

the USA

asking for the intended addressee without identifying themselves or chatting with the
answerer, even when that person is known to them saying “Hello” without identifying themselves

China

Key Terms
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Conversation taboos 谈话禁忌 谈话禁忌作为一定社会的文化现象,其背后所依托的 是一个民族深厚的文化蕴藏。文化的所指极其广泛,人类 所创造的所有的物质文明和精神文明均属文化之列。人们 在日常交际中并不是可以涉及任何话题,也不是可以随便 地使用语言系统中的任何词汇。在一定的文化中,参与交 际的人们都会不约而同地对某些话题和语言系统中某些词 汇表现出“回避”行为。人们不愿、不能或不敢随便谈论 那些话题或使用那些词汇。于是,语言中便出现了诸如此 类的禁忌现象。

Key Terms
英语中有些禁忌和汉语是一致的,但由于中西 方的历史发展状况、社会制度和价值观念等方面的 差异,也使语言禁忌的内容和形式在许多方面存有不 同。了解并掌握一些谈话禁忌可以保证交际的顺利 进行。

Key Terms
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personal questions 私人问题 西方人非常注重个人隐私权。在日常交谈中,大 家一般不会涉及对方的“私人问题”。这些私人问题包 括:年龄、婚姻状况、收入、工作、住所、经历、宗教 信仰、选举等。同时,人们还特别注重个人的私人生活 空间。别人房间里的壁橱、桌子、抽屉,以及桌子上的 信件、文件和其他文稿都不应随便乱动、乱翻(如果需 要借用别人物品,必须得到对方的许可)。假如别人在 阅读或写作,也不能从背后去看对方阅读和写作的内容 ,即使对方只是在阅读报纸或杂志。

Key Terms
空间距离上也很在意。即使在公共场所,大家都 十分自觉地为对方留出一定私人空间。比如,排队的时 候他们总是习惯和别人保持1米以上的距离。 我们的个人隐私观念比较淡薄。特别是在亲朋好友 之间,大家喜欢不分你我,共同分享对方的私人生活。 另外,长者往往可以随意问及晚辈的私人生活,以显示 关心。

Glossary
landscape encounter controversial erroneously intellectually orientation Iran n. 风景,景色 n. 小组聚会 adj. 有争议的, 引起争议的 adv. 错误地,不正确地 adv. 知性上,智力上 n. 方向;态度 n. 伊朗

Saudi Arabia

n. 沙特阿拉伯

Glossary
initial converse adj. 开始的,第一的 vi. 交谈,会话

initiate
ethnic cue architecture separatist

vt. 发起
adj. 种族的 n. 暗示,提示 n. 建筑风格 n. 分离主义者

Comprehension Questions
1. Give examples of conversation taboos in your home or group of friends.

2. Describe both your successful and unsuccessful experience in carrying out conversations or talks with foreigners. What are some of the helpful factors for developing the topic and what are some of the major obstacles?
3. Why do we say being a good listener can facilitate communication?

III. Written Communication 书面交际
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Business letters 商务信函 Elements in business letters Instructions in writing business letters Types of business letters

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III. Written Communication 书面交际
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Resume 简历 United States Great Britain Canada Australia

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Key Terms
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Business letters 商务信函 书信是日常生活中常用的文体,是用以交涉事宜 、传达信息、交流思想、联络感情、增进了解的重要 工具。书信一般可分为商务信件或公函(Business Letter or Official Correspondence)和私人信件 (Private Letter)两大类。需要注意的是,英语书 信的写法与汉语书信有一些明显区别,应特别加以区 分。英语书信通常包括下面几个组成部分:发信人地 址及相关信息、写信日期、主题、收信人姓名及地址 、称呼、正文、结束语、签名、附件、再启等。

Key Terms
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dangling participles 垂悬分词 一般的分词(短语)有意义上的逻辑主语,它或 是句子的主语,或者另有自己的主语,如果没有, 就称这种分词为“悬垂分词”,这样的句子一般认 为是不能接受或错误的。例如,在“Sitting under an apple tree one night, an idea came to Newton. ”句子中的“Sitting under an apple tree”就是垂悬分词。

Key Terms
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resume 简历,顾名思义,就是对个人学历、经历、特 长、爱好及其它有关情况所作的简明扼要的书面介 绍。简历是个人形象,包括资历与能力的书面表述 ,对于求职者而言,是必不可少的一种应用文。

Key Terms
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letter of application 求职信是商业信函,同向“客户”发出的其它 信函一样,要求规范、专业,足以吸引招聘者的目 光,说服他去看你的简历以获得更多信息。它不同 于可以一稿多投的简历,求职信必须量身定做。要 针对不同企业、不同职位,在内容和风格上稍做调 整,有所侧重,让招聘者觉得求职者的工作经历和 综合素质与应聘职位完全吻合或非常接近,并且期 望从简历中得到更加肯定的答案以便安排面试。某 种程度上来讲,求职信来源于简历,又高于简历, 具有对简历内容进行综合介绍、补充说明和深入扩 展的作用。

Glossary
salutation enclosure alternate maximum compound eligibility promo refund n. 信函中的称呼语 n. 附件 adj. 代替的 adj. 最大值的, 最大量的 adj. 复合的 n. 合格 n. 商品推销;商品广告,广告片 vt. 退还,退(款)

legislation recruit discriminate

n. 法律,法规 vt. 招聘 v. 歧视

Comprehension Questions
1. How many parts does a business letter usually have? And what are they? 2. What are the differences between a resume and a letter of application?

3. Does an applicant need to enclose a copy of his or her photographs when he or she applies for an American company? Why or why not?

Case Analysis Case 1
The conversation below is an invitation to dinner. Read it and then answer the questions. A: Are you free this Sunday? B: Yes, I’m free. A: I would like you to come over and have a dinner together. B: No, it is too much trouble for you to prepare the dinner. A: No trouble at all. We can just order take-out. B: But it’ll cost you too much. Don’t bother. A: It’s a casual dinner. Let’s just have a chat and relax a little bit. Besides, there aren’t any other people. B: But you are being too polite; you always invite me to dinner. A: That’s not true at all. OK, it’s settled then. Do come, please, or I’ll be offended. B: All right. Questions: 1. In which culture background does the conversation most probably take place? 2. What are the cultural factors behind the conversation?

Case 2
One night a Chinese student majoring in English sat on the steps of the foreign students’ residence and talked with two young male foreign students, one German and one American. They did not speak a word to her on their own initiative, but she asked many questions to get a conversation started. Every time they answered her with only one or two words. But she was determined to practice her English so she tried to keep the conversation going. “How do you spend your weekend?” she asked. The German boy answered immediately, “Fishing,” and the two boys looked at each other meaningfully. “Fishing?” She was really confused. “But where do you fish?” she asked. “Fishing has two meaning. One is the literal meaning. The other is just sitting here or walking on the street and waiting for some girls to come up to us.” Then they both burst out laughing. She was annoyed. She sat there silently and then suddenly stood up and walked away without saying goodbye. Upon reading the case, can you explain what causes the failure of communication?

Case 3
One cold winter day in a Chinese city, Wang Lin on his way to the library met an American professor who knew very little about China. After greeting him, Wang said: “It’s rather cold. You’d better put on more clothes.” But the professor didn’t appear happy on hearing this. Upon reading the case, can you explain what was wrong with Wang Lin’s utterance?

Practice
Task 1 Colors have both similar and different meanings in different languages. Work in small groups and discuss what connotations red, white and black have in Chinese and English cultures respectively. Task 2 Work in small groups and find out more English and Chinese words with same denotation but different connotation.

Practice
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Task 3 Make a call with your classmate in the way Americans usually do and make the same call with the same classmate, but in the way the Chinese usually do and then compare them. Task 4 Prepare a resume to be sent to a multinational company applying for an overseas assignment in a country of your choice. Task 5 Write a letter of application to a accompany the resume prepared in Task 4

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