一． 定语从句 定义：放在名词或代词或先行句后的修饰他们的从句，常翻译为“什么的” 。 引导词：that(人或物)/which（物） （主语或宾语） ；who(主/宾语),whom（宾语）,whose（…的，做定语， 指人或物）== the +名词 of which(物)/whom（人）;状语：where(前面的名词为地点),when（前面 的名词为时间）,why（放在 reason 的后面） ，as(主语，宾语，表语)；介词+which/whom。 结构：1.名词/代词（先行词）+引导词+句子的其他成分；2.句子（先行句） ，引导词+句子的其他成分。 例句：1.The house that/which（主语） belongs to my uncle(定语从句) dates back to the Tang Dynasty. 2.I will tell you the fact that/which(宾语) he told me.（定语从句中的宾语常省掉） 3.I still remember the factory where(状语) we worked last summer. 4.The reason why(状语) he was late was unknown. 5.Do you know the boy whose father is an engineer. 6.The earth goes around the sun,which/as is known to everyone. 重点：一.区别 that/which:只能用 that 的情况： 1.先行词为不定代词 everything,one,much,something… 2.先行词前有 little，much，the only/very/best…; 3 先行词有人和物时; 4.先行词在主从句中都做表语。 只能用 which 的定语从句：放在介词后面和在非限制性定语从句中。 二．Way 为先行词的定语从句： 1.way in which/that/(状语)…+完整的句子;way that/which（主语/宾语）+句子的其他成分. 2.case,situation,point+where(状语)+完整的句子；case,situation,point+that/which（主语/宾语）+句子的 其他成分. 三．As 与 which 的区别，as 译为（像。。一样，与前面的先行词相似）,which（只指代前面的先行词） 。 Eg:1.I heard a piece of news, which/as is beyond my imagination. 2.As is the case,English has become an international language.(在主句前只能用 as) 四．One of the students that have been invited is Tom. The only one of the students that has been invited is Tom. 方法一： 用关系代词，还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语，就必须 要用关系代词；而不及物动词则要求用关系副词或者介词加 which。 改错：1.This is the mountain village where I visited last year.
2.I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. 方法二准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状)，也能正确选择出关系代词/关系 副词。
例 1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age?
A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 例 2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held. A. where B. that C. on which D. the one
2.Whether/if（ “是否” ，在句子中不做成分） ； 3.Where、when、why（在从句中做状语 where 可以做表语） 4.what/which，who/whom、whose，whatever，whoever。
结构：上面的 1/2/3/4+句子的其他成分 = 名词；上面的词的选择，由从句中缺什么成分和意思来决定。 1. 做主语：That he has won the competition is inspiring.
2.Whether he will come hasn’t been decided. 3.Where we can hold the meeting is still a problem. 4.What he needed surprised the experts. 2.做宾语:He said( that) he was from America. We are wondering if/whether he will win the contest. We want to know who will attend the election./ It all depends on whose design is more outstanding. 3.表语：The question was when he could succeed. / The most important is whom we will elect. 4.同位语：The fact that he has won the game makes us excited.(that he has won the game=the fact 即 是对 the fact 的解释说明) Do you have any idea when he will come back?、 区别：一.whether 与 if“是否”:在名词性从句中，if 只可以放在动词后做宾语从句；主语/表语/ 同位语从句，介词后，与不定式，or not 连用都用 whether。但是，在条件状语从句中译为“如果 ” 只能用 if；在让步主语从句中译为“无论”只能用 whether。 He asked whether/if he could join us.(宾语) Do you have any idea whether he will come to help us out?(同位语) The difficulty is whether he can collect enough money.(表语从句) Whether he will come is unknown..(主语从句) It all depends on whether we can get there on time.(介词宾语从句) &1.If (如果)he comes,let me know. 2.Whether(无论) you are young or old,you have the right to vote. 二.what 和 which 做宾语/主语/表语，前面有范围用 which，其他情况下都用 what I have bought seven dictionaries, so you can choose which you have interest. I’ll give you what you are interested. 三 .whatever,however,wherever ， whoever…( 可 引 导 名 词 性 从 句 和 让 步 状 语 从 句 ) 与 no matter what/who/where/when/…（只能引导状语从句） Whoever comes late will be published.(主语从句) Whenever you come, you will be welcome.(=no matter when) 1. _______ he said at the meeting astonished everybody present. A.What BThat C.The fact D. The matter 2. __________ we can't get seems better than __________ we have. A. What, what B. What, that C. That, that D. That, what 3.It worried her a bit ____ her hair was turning gray. A .while B. that C. if D. for 4.---Do you remember ____ he came? ---Yes, I do, he came by car. A.how B.when C. that D. if 5.Go and get your coat. It's ____ you left it. Athere B.where C.there whereD. where there 6.It is generally considered unwise to give a child ?___ he or she A. however B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever
7.Can you tell me ___ ? A.who is that woman B.who the woman is C.whom is the woman Dthat woman is 8.The fact ______ she works hard is well known to us all. A. that B. what C. whyD. which 9.The mountain is no longer _______ it used to be. A. which B. that C. as D. what 10.Jack said _______ to meet the American friends. A. which he pleased B. he is pleasedC. at he was pleased D. what he was pleased 11.Lei Feng was always thinking of ?____ ?he ?could ?help others. A.that B. how C.whom D.which 12.Tom was disappointed that most of the guests ______ when he _______ at the party. A. left; had arrived B. left; arrived C. had left; had arrived D. had left; arrived 13.The question is _______ you should do next. A. what B. that C. how D. why 14.I know nothing about her but ___ she is from Canada. A. how B. when C. that D. why 15.It depends on ________ we have enough time. A. if B. if or not C. that D. whether 16._____ he doesn't like them is very clear. A. What B. That C. Which D. Where 17.---The green typewriter is mine. -- Do you know whose typewriter __________? A. is this blue one B. this blue one C. it is this blue one D. this blue one is 18.The reason __ _nothing on earth is motionless ?is _ _the earth is in constant motion(运动). A. why; that B. that; why C. of; that D. that; because 19.__________ proves that my advice is right. A. It will happen that B. That has happened C. What has happened D. When it happens 20.What a pity __________ is _________ you didn't arrive by day. A. there; because B. it; that C. he; when D. that; for 21.---?I believe _____you've done your best and _____ things will happen. ----Thank you. A. That; / B./; / C. what; that D./; that 22.Please give the book to ____ wins the first prize. A. who B. whom C. whoever D. whomever 23.The fire destroyed ____ was in the building. A. allB. what C. that D. which 24.The question he asked was ____?the electrical equipment should be stored. A. what B. which C. where D. because 25.These photographs will show you ____. A. what our village looks like B. what does ?our ?village look like C. how our village looks like D. how ?does ?our ?village look like 26. A man's worth lies not so much in ______ he ?has ?as in _______ he is. A. that; what B. what; what C. that; that D. what; that 27.______I told you just now was ________ had been? written in the letter.
A. What; what B. That; that C. Whether D. If; who 28.__________studies hard will pass the examination. A.Whoever B.Any student C.Who D.Those who 29.Does __________matter if he can't finish the job in time? A.it B.this C. that D. he 30._______ is unknown to us all. A. Where did he get it B. Where he got it C. That where he got D. Which he got it 31.____ he will be sent to Hainan is certain. A. Why B. Whether C. That D. How 32.It isn't decided yet _______ we will attend the meeting. A. if B. why C. that D. whether 33._ _____ they have won the game made us excited. A./ B. That C. What D. Where 34.The gentleman insisted that he _______ the wallet. A. had not seen B. not see C. would not see D. did not see 35.You can write about _________ topic you like. A. which B. whose C. whatever D. no matter what 36.__________ think will take care of the children? A. Who you B. who do you C. Whom you D. Whom do you 37.He'd like to know what _____ today. A. the weather looks B. does the weather look C. the weather looks like D. does the weather look like 38.--Is that your watch? --No, I can't tell ________. A.whose is that watch B. whose that watch is C. whose watch is that D. whose watch is 39.No one can be sure ________ in a million years. A. what man will look like B. what will man look like C. man will look like what D. what look will man like 40.I'd like to know __________ tomorrow. A. if it rain B. how is the weather like C. what the weather is like D. if will the weather be fine 41. I wonder __________ to come here and ?get my false teeth fixed. A.I have how many times B.how many times have I C.how many times will I have D.how many times I have 42.I don't doubt________ my friend, ?John ?will ?come ?to China soon. A.that B.whether C. if D.when 43.Who is _________ spoke first? A. what that B. it that C. it it D. what what 44.---- Do you see why the machine doesn't work? --- Sorry, let's ask the engineer ____. A. what is the matter B. what the matter is C. how is the matter D. how the matter is 45.You may choose one from _________ was left.
A.that B.all C.those which D. what 46.____ get this machine? A. Do you think where can we B. Where do you think ?we can C. Where you think we can D. Where can you think we 47.The point is _________ we will have our sports meet next week. A.that B.if C.when D.whether 48.He got the highest ?marks ?in ?the ?exam. It was all?____ he has A. why B. which C. that D. because 49.Go and get your coat. It’s ____ you left it. A.there B.where C.there where D.where there 50.The reason why he failed is____ he was too careless. A.because B.that C.for D.because of
1.I've read all the books A.which B.them you gave me. C.what I can do. C.that D.how he had seen there. D.what are different from ours. D.whom he had visited in China. D.what I have watched this year. D.that a conference was to be held. D.where D.that
worked too hard.
2.There isn't much A.what B.which
3.He keeps a record of everything A.he B.that C.which
4.Tell us about the people and the places A.that B.who C.which
5.Mr John said that Suzhou was the first city A.that B.where C.which
6.The TV play I watched last night is the best one A.which B.what C.whose
7.Last Sunday they reached Qingdao, A.which B.that C.when
8.Is this the museum A.that B.where
you visited the other day? C.in which D.the one New China was founded. D.where
9.I began to work in Beijing in the year A.when B.that C.which
10.This is the very film A.which B.that
I've long wished to see. C.who D.whom
11.There is no difficulty A.that B.which
can't be overcome in the world. C.who D.what
12.Who is the person A.who B.that
is standing at the gate of Beijing Tourism Tower? C.which D.whom
13.This was the supermarket
I bought this kind of tin.
A.where 14.The house A.that
the capitalist used to live in is now a nursery. B.where C.what D.when
15.This is the last time A.that 16.The house B.which
I shall come here to help you. C.when D.what
we live is not big. A.in that B.which C.in which D.that was very kind of them.
17.My neighburs used to give me a hand in time of trouble, A.who 18.All A.that B.that C.which D.whom
glitters is not gold. B.which C.／ D.what he does.
19.I now know why Mao impresses everyone who meets him the way A.which 20.Beijing, A.that B.it B.what C.／ D.now
is the capital of China,is a beautiful city. C.which D.／ she was.
21.She was no longer the woman A.that B.which
22.That's the hotel A.which we stayed C.Where we stayed at 23.The doctor did all
last year. B.at that we stayed D.where we stayed to save the wounded boy.
A.what he couldB.he could C.everything which he could D.for which he could do 24.Anyone this opinion may speak out. C.who is against D.who are against
A.that againsts B.that against 25.The place A.which
you are standing used to be an old church. B.where C.that D.when you made last time. D.that I thought.
26.You've made the same mistake A.as B.like C.which
27.It is not such an interesting magazine A.as 28. 29.Mr Zhou, A.whose B.that C.which D.／
you know,he is a famous musician.
native language was Chinese,could read and write several foreign languages. B.his C.which D.that
30.Do you know the actor A.who B.whom
you saw playing Hamlet is now doing King Lear? C.whose D.which
31.I took my friend to the Summer Palace, A.where B.which C.that
we had some photos taken. D.／
32.Do you remember the day A.which 33.The bus, B.on which
your sister was graduated as a Master of Arts? C.about which D.／
was already full,was surrounded by an angry crowd.
A.which of most B.most of which C.which of the most D.most of that 34.We all remember the days A.which B.that we studied together at school. C.when D.／
35.Do you know the reason A.that B.which
he didn't come? C.for D.why I felt the pain. D.when got the new idea. C.who has D.whose had
36.I showed the doctor the place A.that B.which C.where
37.He is the only one of the three A.who have B.whom have
38.I'm one of the students A.who does 39.This is the baby
well in English in my class. C.which does D.who did
B.who do tomorrow.
A.after whom I shall look C.whose I shall look after 40.This is the fastest train A.that B.what
B.whom I shall look after D.after whom I shall look after is going to Nanjing. C.where D.／
41.We will be shown around the city: schools, museums, and some other places, ___other visitors seldom go. A. what B. which C. where D. when
42. The modern history of Italy dates from 1860, ____ the country became united. A. when B. if C. since D. until
43. You could see the runners very well from ______ we stood. A. which B. where C. that D. when
44. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, _______ was very reasonable. A. which price B. the price of which C. its price D. the price of whose 45. He was very angry and I can still remember the way _____ he spoke to me. A. how B. that C. what D. which
Test 8 Words and Prases A.celebrate 庆祝 shortcoming 缺点 bittersweet 有苦有甜 salary 薪 水 freshman 新 生 complain 抱 怨 delicate 精 致 的 overshadow 遮 暗 ， 投 阴 影 stadium 体 育 馆 director 主任，导演 adopt 收养，采纳 deny 否认 disgust 厌恶 scratch 抓，挠 description 描述 tone 语气，调子 coach 教练 impress 给印象 present 出席的，目前的，礼物，给予 press 记者，新闻报道按，压 actual 实际的 imaginary 比喻，意象 performance 表演 slip down 溜出 in the flesh 活的，活生生的 on theirarrival 一到达 batting practice 排球训练 take a day off 休一天假 It takes sb. some time to do sth..花掉每人多少时间干? A． vary 变化 various/variety 多种多样 double 两倍 judge 裁判 interview 采访，面试 satisfying 令人满意的 researcher 研究人员 journalist 记者 lawyer 律师 B. Benefit 利益，好处 obvious 明显的 physically 身体上地 mentally 精神上地 increase 增加 decrease 减少 Likelihood 可能性 continue 继续 underlined 划线的 In preparation for 准备 keep in mind 牢记 rather than 宁愿 take part in=participate in 参加 C： President 总统，董事长 secretary 秘书 experiment 实验 Shorten 缩短 score 得分，分数 teamwork 团队工作 remain 仍然，保持 valuable 有价值的 solve 解决 goal 目标 career 生涯，职业 athlete 运动员 appropriate 合适的 material 材料 taxpayer 纳税人 afford 付得起，买得起 require 要求 tank 容器 figure out 消除，理解 social skills 社会技巧 translate 翻译 D. Protection 保护 environment 环境 unlimited 无限的 crowded 拥挤的 pollute 污染 chemical 化学物 survive 生存 modern 时尚的，现代的 method 方法 powerful 强有力的 machine 机器 product 产品 population 人口 feed 喂养 educate 教育 cut down 砍倒 natural resources 自然资源 use up 用光 birth control 控制出生 at the present rate 以目前的比率 E: Freeze 冰冻，凝结 cure 治疗 disease 疾病 Temperature 温度 charge 负责，要价，充电 fair 公平的 fill with 填满 bring…back to life 使重生 degree centigrade 摄氏温度