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【优质】Exercises for American Literature I Chapter 31

【优质】Exercises for American Literature I  Chapter 31

Exercises for American Literature (I) - Chapter 3

Chapter 3

The Modern Period

A. Each of the statements below is followed by four alternative answers. Choose the one that would best complete the statement and put the letter in the bracket. 1. A. C. 2. A. 3. ______, disregarding grammar and punctuation, always used "i" instead of "I" to refer to himself Wallace Stevens Robert Frost B. D. E. E. Cummings as a protest against self-importance. William Carlos Williams

Sherwood Anderson explores the motivations and frustrations of his fictional characters in terms Winesburg, Ohio B. Babbit D. The Catcher in the Rye

of Freud's theory of psychology, particularly in one book ______. C. The Grapes of Wrath

The leading playwright of the modern period in American literature, if not the most successful in B. Tennessee William D. Eugene O'Neil

all his experiments, is ____________. A. Arthur Miller C. George Bernard Shaw 4.

As he is a leading spokesman of the "Imagist Movement", ______famous one-image poem "In a B. Robert Frost's D. Wallace Stevens's

Station of the Metro" would serve as a typical example of the imagist ideas. A. T. S. Eliot's C.
5. A. C. 6. A. C. 7. A. B. C. D. 8. A. B. C. D. 9. A. B. C.

Ezra Pound's

In his masterpiece, _______, Pound traces the rise and fall of eastern and western empires, the moral and Make it New Confucius B. D. The Cantos Polite Essays

social chaos of the modern world, especially the corruption of American after the heroic time of Jefferson.

Robert Frost is generally considered a regional poet in the sense that his subject matters mainly focus on the New England southern America "Mending the Wall" "Home Burial" "The Road Not Taken" "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" _______ marks the climax of Eugene O'Neil's literary career and the coming of age of American drama. The Hairy Ape Long Day's Journey Into Night "The Iceman Cometh The Emperor Jones _______is a play that concerns the problem of modern man's identity. The Hairy Ape Long Day's Journey Into Night Desire Under the Elms B. D. New York the West

landscape and people in_______.

_______stems from the ambiguity of the speaker's choice between safety and the unknown.

D. 10. A. C. A. C. A. C. 13. A. B. C. D.

The Emperor Jones _______ uses symbolism, poetry, and the affirmation of a pagan idealism to show how materialistic Desire Under the Elms Lazarus Laughed Ernest Hemingway William Faulkner The Sun Also Rises In Our Time B. D. The Emperor Jones The Great God Brown B. F. Scott Fitzgerald D. B. D. Ezra Pound A Farewell to Arms For Whom the Bell Tolls

civilization denies the life-giving impulses and destroys the genuine artist.

11. _______is often acclaimed literary spokesman of the Jazz Age.

12. _______is Hemingway's first true novel in which he depicts a vivid portrait of "The Lost Generation. "

In a tragic sense, _______is a representation of life as a struggle against unconquerable forces in which only For Whom the Bell Tolls In Our Time The Old Man and the Sea A Farewell to Arms

a partial victory is possible.

14. Faulkner once said that _______is a story of "lost innocence," which proves itself to be an intensification of the theme of imprisonment in the past. A. The Sound and the Fury B. D. B. D. Light in August Absalom, Absalom ] Realistic Modernist C. Go Down, Moses A. C. Romantic Gothic

15. In A Rose for Emily, Faulkner makes best use of the_______ devices in narration.

B. Complete each of the following statements with a proper word or a phrase according to the textbook.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

As a descendent of the Southern aristocracy, Emily is typical of those in Faulkner's Most of Faulkner's works are set in the American South, with his emphasis on the Southern Ernest Hemingway deals with a limited range of characters in quite similar circumstances and Frederick Henry, the hero of A Farewell to Arms, represents the experience of a whole nation, Most critics have agreed that Fitzgerald is both an insider and an outsider of the jazz Age with a Fitzgerald never spared an intimate touch in his fiction to deal with the bankruptcy of the______. Eugene O'Neil's plays such as The Emperor Jones and The Hairy Ape, are daring forays into race Most of Robert Lee Frost's poems are simple in the way that they are ______ or dialogues, they are Ezra Pound's earlier poetry is saturated with the familiar poetic subjects that characterize thel9th

Yoknapatwapha stories who are the ______ of the Old South but the ______ of the past. subjects and______. measures them against an unvarying code, known as "______.” who is wounded in war and disillusioned with the ______ and ______ of the universe. ______vision.

relations, class conflicts, sexual bondage, social critics, and American tragedies on the ______ model. short and direct on the informational level, and they have simple diction. century ______, later he is more concerned about the problems of the ______ culture. 10. The primary imagist objective is to avoid rhetoric and ______, to stick closely to the object or experience being described, and to move from explicit______.

11. 12. 13.


D. Salinger is considered to be a spokesman for the alienated youth in the ______ era and his

The Catcher in the Rye is regarded as a students' classic. Americana fiction in the 1960s and 1970s proves to be different from its predecessors and is In general terms, much serious literature written from 1912 onwards attempted to convey a always referred to as “______fiction.” vision of social breakdown and moral decay and the writer's task was to develop techniques that could represent a ______ with the past. 14. 15. Ernest Hemingway dramatizes in his novels the sense of loss and despair among the post-war Sinclair Lewis is a sociological writer and his Babbit presents a limited ______ mind. documentary picture of the generation who are ______ and ______scarred. narrow and brackets. 1. The two thinkers whose ideas had the greatest impact on the Modern period were Darwin and Sigmund Freud. 2. The defining formal characteristics of the modernistic works are discontinuity and fragmentation. 3. A typical modern work seems to begin arbitrarily, to advance without explanation, but to end with a resolution. 4. Modernistic techniques and manifestos were initiated by poets first and later entered and transformed fiction in this period. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Ezra Pound's poetry is greatly influenced by his study of oriental literature. The Cantos expresses Ezra Pound's search for order. Ezra Pound's reputation as a forerunner of the 20th century American fiction can never be "In the Station of the Metro" is an observation of the poet made in a London railway station. Robert Lee Frost has long been well known as a poet who belongs to the new. In Robert Lee Frost's poems, profound ideas are delivered under the disguise of the plain Robert Frost wrote most of his poems in free verse. Eugene O'Neil, Arthur Miller and Tennessee Williams are together called "founders of the Fitzgerald shows an interest both in the upper-class society and in the lower-class society. Fitzgerald skillfully employs the device of having events observed by a "central consciousness" to

C. Decide whether the following statements are true or false and write your answers in the


language and the simple form.

American drama. "

his great advantage. 15. Hemingway develops the style of colloquialism initiated by Mark Twain. 16. In his novels, William Faulkner exploits the modern stream-of-consciousness technique to emphasize the reactions and inner musings of the narrator. D. 1. 3. 5. 7. 9. 11. Name the author of each of the following literary works. Go Down, Moses Light in August The Great Gatsby For Whom the Bell Tolls The Cantos "A Pact" 2. 4. 6. 8. 10. Absalom, Absalom! "Indian Camp" The Old Man and the Sea The Hairy Ape Long Day's Journey Into Night 80

E. Define the literary terms listed below. 1. 2. F. A) For each of the quotations listed below please give the name of the author and the title of the literary work from which it is taken and then briefly interpret it. 1. "The apparition of these faces in the crowd; Petals on a wet, black bough. " 2. ". . . I come to you as a grown child Who has had a pig-headed father; I am old enough now to make friends. It was you that broke the new wood, Now is a time for carving. We have one sap and one root— Let there be commerce between us. " 3. ". . . For all That struck the earth, No matter if not bruised or spiked with stubble, Went surely to the cider-apple heap As of no worth. One can see what will trouble
This sleep of mine, whatever sleep it is. Were he not gone, The woodchuck could say whether it's like his Long sleep, as I describe its coming on, Or just come human sleep. " 4. "I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I— I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference. " 5. "The woods are lovely, dark and deep, But I have promises to keep, And miles to go before I sleep, And miles to go before I sleep. " B) Read the quoted parts carefully and answer the questions in English. 1. "I'll take yuh for a walk sown Fif’ Avenoo. We'll knock 'em offen de oith and croak with de band playin'. Come on, Brother. (The gorilla scrambles gingerly out of his cage. Goes to YANK and stands looking at him. YANK keeps his mocking tone — holds out his hand. ) Shake — de secret grip of our order. (Something, the tone of mockery, perhaps, suddenly enrages the animal. With a spring he wraps his huge arms around YANK in a murderous hug. There is a cracking snap of crushed ribs — a A. B. gasping cry, still mocking, from YANK. ) Hey, I didn't say kiss me!" Identify the author and the title of the novel from which the passage is taken. Where does the story take place? <

The Lost Generation The Imagist Movement

C. 2.

What happens to YANK? "He smiled understandingly — much more than understand ingly. It was one of those rare smiles with a

quality of eternal reassurance in it, that you may come across four or five times in life. It faces — or seemed to face — the whole external world for an instant, and then concentrated on you with an irresistible prejudice in your favor. A. B. C. 3. Identify the author and the title of the novel from which the passage is taken. Who is he? What is going on in this part of the novel? " 'Where are we going, Dad?' Nick asked. 'Over to the Indian camp. There is an Indian lady very sick. ' 'Oh,' said Nick. Across the bay they found the other boat beached. Uncle George was smoking a cigar in the dark. The young Indian pulled the boat way up on the beach. Uncle George gave both the Indians cigars. A. B. Identify the author and the title of the work from which the passage is taken. What does Dad imply when he says "There is an Indian lady very sick"?


Why is Dad going to the Indian camp?

5. "And so she died. Fell ill in the house filled with dust and shadows, with only a doddering Negro man to wait on her, we did not even know she was sick; we had long since given up trying to get any .information from the Negro. He talked to no one, probably not even to her, for his voice had grown harsh and rusty, as if from disuse. " A. B. C. G. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. H. 1. 2. Identify the author and the title of the work from which passage is taken. Who dies? How do you describe the relationship between her and hei neighbors? Give brief answers to the following questions. Briefly introduce Ezra Pound's view on the Imagist poetry. Comment on Robert Lee Frost's poetic style. Analyze the themes in Eugene O'Neil's plays. Comment on Eugene O'Neil's dramatic experiments. Why is The Great Gatsby a successful novel? Analyze F. Scott Fitzgerald's literary style. Short essay questions. Summarize Ernest Hemingway's literary achievements. Comment on William Faulkner's literary creation and literary-achievements.

Answers to Chapter 3
A. l. B 8. B B. 1. symbols, prisoners 4. 8. 11. 2. consciousness 6. 9. 3. grace under pressure 7. Greek 10. moralizing, generalization insanity, futility 5. double dramatic monologues post-war 12. new American Dream 14. 2. A 9. A 3. D 10. D 4. C ll. B 5. B 12. A 6. A 13. C 7. D 14. A 15 C

Romanticism, modern 13. break

physically, psychologically

15. C. l. F 9. F D.

middle-class 2. T 10. T 3. F 11. F 4. T 12. F 5. T 6. T 13. F 3. 9. 7. 14. T F 8. 15. T F 16. T

1. William Faulkner 4. 7. Ernest Hemingway 10. Eugene O'Neil E.

2. William Faulkner 5. F. 8. Eugene O'Neil 11. Ezra Pound

William Faulkner 6. Ernest Hemingway Ezra Pound

Ernest Hemingway

Scott Fitzgerald

1. The Lost Generation When the First World War broke out, many young men volunteered to take part in "the war to end wars.” But they found that modern warfare was not as honorable or heroic as they thought it to be. Disillusioned and disgusted by the materially merry-making and spiritually empty life in America, they began to write from their own experiences in the war. They were basically expatriates who left America and started a community of writers and artists in Paris. They experimented on new modes of thought and expression. These writers were later named by an American writer, Gertrude Stein, "The Lost Generation”. 2. The Imagist Movement flourished from 1909 to 1917 and involved quite a number of British and American writers and poets. The movement advanced modernism in arts and concentrated on reforming the medium of poetry as opposed to Romanticism. As one of the leaders of the Imagists, Pound laid down the three Imagist poetic principles: direct treatment of poetic subjects, elimination of merely ornamental or superfluous words, and rhythmical composition in the sequence of the musical phrase rather than in the sequence of a metronome. F. A) 1. From Ezra Pound's "In a Station of the Metro.” It is an observation by the poet of the human faces seen in a Paris subway station. 2. From Ezra Pound's "A Pact.” As time went by, Pound had realized that some agreement existed between "Whitmanesque" free verse, which he used to attack for its carelessness in composition, and the Imagist poetry. He'd like to learn from the free verse and show respect to Whitman. 3. From Robert Lee Frost's "After Apple-Picking.” This poem is a vivid memory of the poet's working experience on the farm. The poet feels satisfied and tired as well. In this part the poet hints that he will never forget the scene of harvest even in his human sleep, which indicates death. 4. From Robert Lee Frost's "The Road Not Taken.” When facing two roads that diverge in a wood, he has to choose and he chooses the one less traveled by, and his choice makes his life different from that of others. Here the poet tries to show the importance of choosing a correct way of life. 5. From Robert Lee Frost's "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.” The poet seems to show that he would like to stay forever in the beautiful snowy woods, but as a poet, he still has many tasks to fulfill in his life and he has to go ahead. "Before I sleep" may be understood as "before I die.”

B) 1. A. B. C. 2. A. B. C. 3. A. B. C. 4. A. B. C. G. 1. As one of the leaders of the Imagists, Pound laid down the group's three main principles, which include direct treatment of poetic subjects, elimination of merely ornamental or superfluous words, and rhythmical composition in the sequence of the musical phrase rather than in the sequence of a metronome. "The point of Imagism," Pound wrote in 1914, "is that it does not use images as ornaments. The image itself is the speech. The image is the word beyond formulated lan guage. “Obviously the primary Imagist objective is to avoid rhetoric and moralizing, to stick closely to the object or experience being described, and to move from explicit generalization. Pound's famous one-image poem "In a Station of the Metro" serves as a classic specimen of the Imagist ideas. 2. Robert Lee Frost has long been well known as a lyrical poet. It is difficult to classify him with the old or the new. He did not break up with the traditional rhythm and iambic pattern nor made any experiment on form. Instead, he learned from the tradition and made the colloquial New England speech into a poetic expression. Images and metaphors in his poems are taken from the simple rural life and the pastoral landscape. Profound ideas are revealed under the disguise of the plain language and the simple form. What Frost did was to take symbols from the limited human world and the pastoral landscape to reach the universal meaning beyond the rustic scene. By using simple spoken language and conversational rhythms and treating seemingly trivial subjects, Frost achieves an effortless grace in his style. He combines traditional verse forms with a clear American local speech rhythm. He writes in both the metrical forms and the free verse, and sometimes he writes in a form that might be called semi-free or semi-conventional. 3. Of all O'Neil's plays, most of them are tragedies, dealing with the basic issues of human existence and plight; life and death, illusion and disillusion, alienation and communication, dream and reality, self and society, desire and frustration, etc. As a playwright, O'Neil himself was making his-lifelong endeavor to find the truth of life. In his writing, he is looking for an answer both psychologically and artistically, and his dramatic thought follows a tragic pattern running through all his plays, from a celebration of "pipe dreams" to the doubt about the reality of the dream or the inevitability of the defeat. So his final dramas became "transcendental," in the way that the dramatization of man's endeavor in finding the meaning of life results in a tragic failure. 4. O'Neil was a tireless experimentalist in dramatic art. He was constantly experimenting with new styles and forms for his plays i especially during the twenties when Expressionism was in full swing. From Eugene O'Neil's The Hairy Ape. It takes place in a zoo. Yank wants to show intimacy to the gorilla but, out of his expectation, he gets crushed to From F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby. Gatsby. A luxurious party is being held in Gatsby's house. From Ernest Hemingway's "Indian Camp.” He implies that the lady is going to give birth to a baby. Dad is going to help the lady give birth. From William Faulkner's A Rose for Emily. Emily dies. She is secluded from her neighbors.

death by it.

Between 1920 and 1924 came his outstanding achievements in symbolic expressionism ? The Emperor Jones (1920), The Hairy Ape (1922), All God's Chillun Got Wings (1924) and Desire Under the Elms (1924). These plays are daring forays into race relations, class conflicts, sexual bondage, social critiques, and American tragedies on the Greek model. What is more, the expressionistic techniques are used in these plays to highlight the theatrical effect of the rupture between the two sides of an individual human being, the private and the public. Built on the success of the expressionistic experimentations, O'Neil reached out to extend his mastery of the stage and worked up to the climax of his career. He concerned himself with some non-realistic forms to contain his tragic vision in a number of his plays, such as The Great God Brown (1926) and Lazarus Laughed (1927). 5. A masterpiece in American literature, The Great Gatsby evokes a haunting mood of a glamorous, wild time that seemingly will never come again. Besides, the sense of loss and disillusionment that comes with the failure are embodied fully in the personal tragedy of a young man whose "incorruptible dream" is "smashed into pieces by the relentless reality. " Gatsby is a mythical figure whose personal experience approximates a state of mind of the American. Gatsby is the last of the romantic heroes, whose energy and sense of commitment take him in search of his personal grail; Gatsby's failure predicts to a great extent the end of the American Dream. 6. Fitzgerald is one of great stylists in American literature. His style, closely related to his themes, is explicit and chilly. His accurate dialogues and his sensitive styles provide the reader with a vivid sense of reality. He uses the scenic method in his chapters, each one of which consists of one or more dramatic scenes. Sometimes he intervenes passages of narration, leaving the tedious process of transition to the readers' imagination. He also skillfully chooses a dramatic narrator through whose” central consciousness" everything is delivered to organize the wholeness of the work. The accurate details, the completely original diction and metaphors, the bold impressionistic and colorful quality have all revealed his consummate artistry. H. 1. Greatly and permanently scared by the war experiences, Hemingway formed his own writing style together with his theme and hero. The Sun Also Rises (1926) is Hemingway's first important novel. It casts light on a whole generation after the First World War "The Lost Generation.” Hemingway's sec ond big success is A Farewell to Arms (1929), which writes the epitaph to a decade and to the whole generation in the 1920s. For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940) and The Old Man and the Sea (1952) tell more about the later Hemingway. In the former Hemingway shows that life is worth living and there are causes worth dying for and the latter is a representation of life as a struggle against unconquerable natural forces in which only a partial victory is possible. His other works include Men Without Women, Death in the Afternoon, and so on. Hemingway deals with a limited range of characters in quite similar circumstances and measures them against an unvarying code. In one sense, he seems to write one theme: "grace under pressure.” Hemingway has been trying to demonstrate the theme acted out by his hero in his works. Those who survive in the process seeking to master the code with the honesty, the discipline, and the restraint are Hemingway Code heroes. Hemingway once said, “The dignity of movement of an ice berg is due to only one-eighth of it being above water.” Typical of this "iceberg" analogy is Hemingway's style, which he has been trying hard to get. According to Hemingway, good literary writing should be able to make readers feel the emotion of the characters directly and the best way to produce the effect is to set down exactly every particular kind of feeling without any authorial comments, without conventionally e-motive language, and with a bare minimum of adjectives and adverbs. Seemingly simple and

natural, Hemingway's style is actually polished and deliberate, but highly suggestive and connotative. Besides, Hemingway develops the style of colloquialism traced first to Mark Twain. He sticks to economy in his writing, which is a striking application of "Less is more.” Ernest Hemingway, a Nobel Prize winner for literature, is one of the greatest American writers. His style, the particular type of hero in his novels, and his life attitude have been widely recognized and imitated, not only in English-speaking countries but all over the world as well. 2. William Faulkner has always been regarded as a man with great might of invention and experimentation. He added to the theory of the novel as an art form and evolved his own literary strategies. The range of narrative techniques used by Faulkner is remarkable. He would never step between the characters and the reader to explain, but let the characters explain themselves and hinder as little as possible the reader's direct experience of the work of art. The most characteristic way of structuring his stories is to fragment the chronological time. He deliberately broke up the chronology of his narrative by juxtaposing the past with the present, in the way the montage does in a movie. The modern stream-of-consciousness technique was also frequently and skillfully exploited by Faulkner to emphasize the reactions and inner musings of the narrator. And the interior monologue Faulkner used helps him achieve the most desirable effect of exploring the nature of human consciousness. Moreover, Faulkner was good at presenting multiple points of view, which gave the story a circular form, wherein one event is centered, with various points of view radiating from it, or different people responding to the same story. The other narrative technique Faulkner used to construct his stories includes symbolism and mythological and biblical allusions. Most of Faulkner's works are set in the American South, with his emphasis on the Southern subjects and consciousness. Of the nineteen novels and seventy-five short stories, fifteen novels and many of his stories are about people from a small region in Northern Mississippi, Yoknapatawpha County, which is actually an imaginary place based on Faulkner’s childhood memory about the place where he grew up, the town of Oxford in his native Lafayette County. With his rich imagination, Faulkner turned the land, the people and the history of the region into a literary creation and a mythical kingdom. Of Faulkner's literary works, four novels are masterpieces by any standards: The Sound and the Fury, Light in August, Absalom, Absalom! and Go Down, Moses.

- 高氯酸 对阿胶 进行湿 法消化 后, 用 导数火 焰原子 吸收光 谱技术 测定阿 胶中的 铜、 “中 药三大 宝, 人 参、鹿 茸和阿 胶。 ”阿胶 的药用 已有 两千多 年的悠 久历史, 历代 宫① 马 作峰. 论疲劳 源于肝 脏[J]. 广西中 医药,20 08,31( 1):31. ① 史 丽萍,马 东明, 解丽芳 等.力 竭性运 动对小 鼠肝脏 超微结构 及肝糖 原、肌糖 元含量 的影响 [J]. 辽宁中 医杂志 ,① 王 辉武, 吴行明, 邓开蓉 .《内经 》 “肝者 罢极之 本”的临 床价值 [J] . 成都中 医药大 学学报 ,1997, 20(2): 9.① 杨维益, 陈家旭 ,王天 芳等.运 动性疲 劳与中 医肝脏 的关系 [J].北 京中医 药大学 学报. 1996,1 9(1):8 .1 运 动性疲 劳与肝脏 ① 张 俊明.“高 效强力 饮”增 强运动 机能的 临床[J] .中国 运动医 学杂志, 1989,8 (2) :10 117 种 水解蛋 白氨基 酸。总 含量在 56.73% ~82.0 3%。霍 光华② 采用硝 酸-硫酸 消化法 和 18(4 ) :372- 374.19 95,206 .2② 林华,吕 国枫, 官德正 等 . 衰 竭运动 小鼠肝 损伤的 实验性[ J]. 天津体育 学院党 报, 199 4,9(4) :9-11. ② 凌 家杰.肝 与运动 性疲劳 关系浅 谈[J]. 湖南中 医学院 学报.2 003,2( 6)

31.② 凌 家杰. 肝与运 动性疲 劳关系 浅谈[J] .湖南 中医学 院学报. 2003, 23 (6) : 3 1.② 谢敏豪 等.训练 结合用 中药补 剂强力 宝对小 鼠游泳 耐力与 肌肉和 肝 Gn, LDH 和 MDH 的影响 [J]. 中 国运动 医学杂 ② 杨 维益,陈 家旭, 王天芳 等.运动 性疲劳 与中医 肝脏的 关系 [J ].北京 中医药 大学学 报. 19 96,19(1) :8.2.1 中药 复方 2. 2 单味 药 33 阿胶和 复方阿 胶浆③ 常世 和等.参 宝片对 机体机 能影响 的[J]. 中国运 动医学 杂志, 1 991, 10 (1) : 49 .③ 聂 晓莉, 李晓勇 等.慢性 疲劳大 鼠模型 的建立 及其对 肝功能 的影响 [J]. 热带医 学杂志, 2007,7 (4): 32 3-325. 3.1 概 述 3. 2 关于 阿胶和 复方阿 胶浆医疗 保健作 用的 3 .2.1 营养成 分和评 价 3.2. 2 阿胶 的药理 作用 3 .2.3 阿胶的 临床应 用 4④ Xie MH , etal . Effec ts of " Hong ji ng tia n she 1 u" on r eprodu ctive a xis fu nction and ex ercise capaci ties i n men. The5⑤ 周志 宏等. 补 肾益元 方对运 动小鼠 抗疲劳 能力的 影响 [J ].中国 运动医学 杂志, 2 001, 20 (1) : 83 -84202 -204.5 `"Inte rnatio nalCou rseand Confer enceon Physio logica lChemi str y

and Natr ition of exe rcise and tr aining (Abst ract)6 ⑥ 杨 维益等 .中药 复方“ 体复康 ”对运 动性疲 劳大鼠 血乳酸 、p 一 内啡肤 、亮氨 酸及强 啡肤 A l-13 影响的 实验研 ⑥。仙 灵口服 液可提 高机体 运动能 力,加 速运动 后血乳 酸的消 除。 F3 口服液 能调 整 PCO2 ⑧ 孙 晓波等 .鹿茸 精强壮作 用的[J ].中药 药理与 临床, 1987, 3(3) :11.⑨ 于庆 海等. 高山红 景天抗 不良刺 激的药 理[J]. 中药药 理与临 床,19 95,7 (7) :2 83.⑩ 牛锐. 淫羊藿 炮制前 后对小 鼠血浆 睾丸酮 及附近 性器官 的影响 [J]. 中国中 药杂志 ,1989, 14(9): 18.P< 0.01), 其他 肝功能 相关指 标未 见异常(P > 0.05 ) 。肝 脏是动 物机体 重要脏 器之一 ,Pi, 同疲) , 肝主筋 ,人之 运动皆 由于筋 ,故为 罢极之 本” 。 人体肝 脏的功 能活动 也必阿 胶, 味 甘性平, 入肺 、肝、 肾经, 具有补 血止血 、滋阴 润肺的 功效。 《 神农本 阿胶, 又称驴 皮胶,为 马科动 物驴的 皮去毛 后熬制 而成的 胶块 , 是中 国医药宝 库中阿 胶、熟 地配伍 能使补 而不滋 腻, 共 奏益气 补血之 功, 主 要治疗 各种原 因导致 的气血 阿胶对 细有

促进作用 ;提示 阿胶能 提高机 体免疫 功能。 另外 阿胶具 阿胶具 有很好 的止血 作用, 常用来 治疗阴 虚火旺 、血脉 受伤造 成的出 血。比 如,阿 胶能治 疗缺铁 性贫血 ,再生 障碍性 贫血等 贫血症 状,阿 胶对血 小板减 少,白 细阿胶 是一类 明胶蛋 白,经 水解分 离得到 多种氨 基酸, 阿胶具 有很 多的药理 作用和 阿胶又 称驴皮 胶 , 为 马科动 物驴的 皮去毛 后熬制 而成的 胶块。 中药界 有句口 头禅: 阿胶中 的营养 成分比 较多, 主要有 蛋白质 、多肽 、氨基 酸、金 属元素 、硫酸 皮肤。 把阿胶 应用于 运动员 或人群 中的实 践应用 性,具 有很大 的潜力 和市场 前景, 白血病 、鼻咽 癌、食 道癌 、肺癌、 乳腺癌 等。阿 胶不温 不燥, 老少皆 宜,一 年四季 均伴随 现代竞 技体育 的强度 越来越 大,运 动员在 大运动 量训练 后出现 的各种 疲劳征 象,胞 减少等 症也具 有效果 明显效 果;另 外,经 配伍, 阿胶可 用来治 疗多种 出血症 。医学 保健作 用,阿 胶具有 耐缺氧 、耐寒 冷、抗 疲劳和 增 强免疫功 能作用 ;同时 ,阿胶 具有本 文的目 的意义 有以下 两个方 面:一 是通过 阿胶的 抗疲劳 能力, 来进一

本以运动 性疲劳 相关症 状明显 的篮球 运动员 为对象 ,以谷 丙转氨 酶、谷 表明,阿 胶还用 于治疗 妊娠期 胎动不 安,先 兆流产 ,习惯 性流产 等。对 于月经 病步了 解运动 员服用 阿胶以 后,不但 能够使 男女运 动员的 谷草转 氨酶含 量水平 、谷丙 转参促 进人体 对糖原 和三磷 酸腺苷 等能源 物质的 合理利用 , 并使 剧烈运 动时产 生的乳 草经》 将其列 为上品。 《本草 纲目》 载阿胶 “疗吐 血衄血, 血淋 尿血, 肠风下 痢, 女 草转氨 酶、谷 酰转肽 酶、总胆 红素、 白蛋白 和白蛋 白/球 蛋白含 量水平 为测定 指标, 产生运 动。从中 医学的 观点来 看,筋 就是聚 集在一 起的肌 肉束, 膜是筋 的延 长和扩布 ;常所 说的肌 腱和韧 带等器 官,韧 带和肌 腱坚韧 有力。通 过韧带 和肌腱 伸缩牵 拉骨骼 肌充在 筋” , 也就说 明了筋 的功能 受到肝 脏的调 节, 所 以, 医 家大多 从筋与 肝相关 的角除 运动后 的疲劳 , 已经 成为运 动医学 领域的 热点, 而中医 药在改 善、消 除运动 性促进 肌肉和 肝脏有 氧 氧化能力 的作用 ③。 红 景天圣 露能促 进机体 运动后 的恢复 和消除 促进血 液凝固 和抗贫 血作用 ,有提 高血红 蛋白

红细胞,白 细胞和 血小板 的作用 。到影 响。的变 化, 主 要表现 为部分 肝细胞 破裂, 内容物 进入窦 状隙, 未受损 的肝细 胞糖原 明的核 心问 题之一, 也是 运动训 练学所 要克服 的核心 问题之 一, 疲 劳是机 体的一 的滋补 类药品; 因始产 于聊城 东阿, 故名阿 胶,距今 已有两 千多年 的生产 历 史;最早低 分子肽 含量分 别是 1 5%~45 %、10.9 7%~13 .18% 。 霍光华 ③采用 标准水 解法和 氨基低 运动后 血清尿 素氮含 量; 加 速体内 尿素氮 及血乳 酸的清 除速率 ;提高 小鼠的 游泳点、 “肝之 合筋”的 观点、 “ 肝者, 其充在 筋” 的 观点、 “ 食气入 胃,散精 于肝, 淫气于 动领域 的广泛 应用。 动性疲劳 关系最 为密切 者当首 推肝脏 。动性 疲劳后 机体恢 复作用 和机制 的十分 活跃。动 员和贮 备,以及 机体 对运动 刺激的 适应和 运动后 的疲劳 的恢复 起到重 要的促 进作用 度阐述 肝与疲 劳的关 系 , 其 实肝尚 可通过 脏腑气 血等多 个途径 影响疲 劳感的 产生和 度的 DS 标准液 , 加适 量天青 Ⅰ试液, 5 36nm 处测定 吸收值, 建立 工作曲 线回归 方程。对 于运动 产生的 机理, 中医学 解释比 较通俗 易懂, 即:

韧带和肌 腱的伸 缩牵拉 骨对运 动性疲 劳的多 集中于 中枢疲 劳与外 周肌肉 疲劳, 而较少 涉及肝 脏实质 器而略 于补立 法,以 健脾保 肝、补 中益气 组方的 确是防 治运动 性疲劳 的一条 新思新 。故发 挥和延 缓运动 性疲劳 的产生 都能起 积极而 有效的 作用。总 之 ,体 力和脑 力的产 生均复 的适应 能 力②。复 方阿胶 浆是由 阿胶、 红参、 党参、熟 地、山 楂等药 组成, 主入肝 、脾两 经。方 肝,人 动血运 于经,” 的论述 。明确 指出运 动能力 与肝和 血密切 相关。 这种“ 动则血 肝脾同 处于中 心位置 ,共同 掌管着 气化的 职责,所 以运动 性疲劳 的气虚 神乏大 多是由 肝损 害可导 致动物 运动能 力下降 , 也有大 量实验 观察了 急性力 竭疲劳 对动物 肝脏的 肝糖原 、肌糖 元含量 下降, 其程度 随着衰 竭运动 次数增 加而增 加。林 华等② 通过对 衰肝有 关,由 此可以 推测神 经递质 、激素 的释放 等生理 活动均 同肝脏 有密切 关系。再 者肝与 筋的关 系非常 密切, 在许多 著作中 都阐述 了这一 观点。如 “肝主 筋” 的 观肝脏 对内分 泌具有 促进作 用。中 医认为 ,胆汁 的分泌 、女子 的排卵 、男子 的排精 均主

藏血、主 筋,为 “罴极 之本” ,有储 藏营血 与调节 血量的 作用,是 提供运 动所肝 主疏泄 ,调畅 气机, 对气血 津液的 生成、 输布和 代谢有 着重要 意义。 就运动 生高山 红景天 在疲劳 情况下 能提高 机体持 续工作 的时间 ,维持 血压、 心率的 正常水 高小鼠 肝糖原 的储备 量; 降低运 动后血 清尿 素氮含量 ;加速 体内尿 素氮及 血乳酸 的骼肌 产生运 动。 《 素问?六 节藏象 论》曰 : “肝 者,罢极 之本, 魂之居 也, 其 华在爪, 其个 特别复 杂的生 理生化 过程。 总的说 来,疲 劳可分 为生理 疲劳和 心理疲 劳。 1 982 工作能 力的作 用①。 强力宝 能促进 肌肉和 肝脏有 氧氧化 能力的 作用② 。参宝 片也能具 有官的 疲劳。 肝脏作 为人体 重要的 脏器, 与运动 性疲劳 的关系 极为密 切。国 际运动 医学协 会主席 普罗科 朴 (Pol o1Capu r) 认 为运动 性疲劳 问题是 运动医 学过度 的训练 、残酷 的比赛 引起的 缺氧、 强应激 反应会 导致机 体的神 经内分 泌系统 、心过 去一段 时间, 抗运动 性疲劳 传统 上单纯采 用补的 模式 , 现在, 中医药 抗疲劳 出还认 为“食 气入胃 ,全赖 肝木之 气以疏 泄之, 而水谷 乃化, 气血

方得以运 生” ,说 明和血 虚者, 如服用 阿胶补 益,也 具有良 好的效 果。临床 上充分 发挥阿 胶的养 血、补 血、恢 复正常, 促进酸 碱平衡 的恢复 ,减少 碱性物 质的消 耗⑦。 机体的 血量增 加,以便 增加通 气/血 流比值。 肝内所 贮存的 血液就 会更多 的向机 体全身 肌腱和 韧带等 器官的 力量。 筋 和筋膜向 内连着 五脏六 腑,肝 将脾输 送来的 精微之 气浸、涉 水等劳 动或运 动都称 为“劳 ”, 而 竞技体 育由于 其具有 大运动 量、高强 度的加 ⑧。剑 , 便无 踪无影 。阿娇 日日夜 夜在狮 耳山、狼 溪河附 近狩猎 。最后 , 用利 剑杀死 了一奖 牌呢? 毫无疑 问是靠 长时间 艰苦的 训练,然 而伴随 现 代竞技体 育的强 度越来 越大, 娇 , 决 心要找 到救治 此病的 特效药 物, 为 民解忧。 阿娇姑 娘日以 继夜地 爬山涉 水, 不 竭性运 动后小 鼠肝脏 超微结 构的观 察, 发 现连 续 7 次 的衰竭 运动使 肝细胞 呈现明 显筋”的 观点、 “肝主 身之筋 膜”的观 点以及 明?皇 甫中《明 医指掌 》中的 “劳伤 乎肝 , 筋和筋膜 把相邻 的关节 连在一 起,对 运动起 着重要 的作用; 并且, 筋和筋 膜向内 连着进 小白鼠 耐力的 提高。 经

论》有“ 肝藏血 ”的观 点,另 外,在 《素问 ?五脏 生成论 》里, 也有“ 人卧血 归于景 天圣露 、补肾 益元方 、体复 康、仙 灵口服 液及 F3 口 服液等 。复方 阿胶浆 能显著 提究[J] .北京 中医药 大学学 报,19 97,20 (4) : 37-40. 具有多 种代谢 功能。 血清谷 草转氨 酶、谷 丙转氨 酶升高 在一定 程度上反 映了肝 细胞的 亢不抑 ,就会 能协调 精神、 情趣和 意志,使 情绪稳 定,思 维敏捷, 对运动 技术水 平的充 分抗运 动性疲 劳的单 味药主 要有鹿 茸、高 山红景 天、人 参、淫 羊藿和 花粉等 。实验 抗运动 性疲劳 的中药 复方主 要有复 方阿胶 浆、高 效强力 饮、强 力宝、 参宝片 、红可 用,是 强 身健体的 滋补佳 品。阿 胶中富 含蛋白 质降解 成分, 通过补 血起到 滋润皮 肤劳感 。 ” 运 动性疲 劳属中 医“劳 倦”范 畴, 中 医将劳 力、劳 役、强 力举重 、持重 远行、 劳模型 组大鼠 血清谷 草转氨 酶、谷 丙转氨 酶在此 期间出 现明显 升高(P <0.05 或理而 言 ,如 果肝脏 的疏泄 功能正 常,就会 使 骨骼和肌 肉强壮 有力; 如果气 机调畅 ,那么 力劳动 时的疲 劳②, 并有效 减少相 同体力 劳动下 的出汗 量等作 用。两

虚证, 通 过补充 和调节 人体血 液的贮 备量而 发挥抗 疲劳的 作用 。药理 实验亦 证实人 量方法 表明, 阿胶水 溶液(Mu rphy 法)与其 经 Gor nall 双缩脲 和 Lowry 酚试 剂反量 水平 。从而 证实阿 胶能提 高运动 员的抗 运动性 疲劳的 能力 。二是 通过对 阿胶抗 运动聊 城大学 硕士学 位论文 聊城大 学硕 士学位论 文聊城 大学硕 士学位 论文谋 虑,此即“肝者 将军之 官,谋 虑出焉 ” ,也说是 说肝和 某些高 级神经 功能有 关。 ( 3)年 的第 5 届国 际运动 生物化 学会议 将疲劳 定义为: “机 体生理 过程不 能持续 其机能 在疲劳 方面的 作用日 益突出 。近 年来 ,在我 国运动 医学界 ,对 中医药 提高体 能 和促进运 品将会 更加得 到世人 的瞩目 ,其 经济效 益不可 估量 。平,红景天 制剂适 用于体 育运动 、航 空航天 、军 事医学 等各种 特殊环 境条件 下从事 特清除 速率 ;提高 小鼠的 游泳时 间。高效强 力饮能 提高心 脏的搏 出量从 而具有 提高心 脏然而 近年来 中医肝 和运动 与疲劳 的关系 越来越 受到 关注 , 目 前,很 多实验 已证明 人们为 了纪念 阿娇姑 娘恩德, 就将 驴皮膏 叫做“ 阿胶” 。① 人血痛, 经水 不调, 子,

崩中带下 , 胎前 产后诸 疾。 ” 现 代表明 , 阿胶 含明胶 认识运 动性疲 劳对肝 脏的影 响及判 定指标 、肝脏 与运动 性疲劳 消除等 方面的 关若过 度疲劳 损伤了 肝脏,那 么肌腱 和韧带 必将非 常疲乏 而不能 收持自 如,运 动就会 受赛场 是证明 运动健 儿的运 动能力 及其为 国争光 的最好 场所。运 动员 靠什么去 夺取伤。 升高骨 髓造血 细胞、 白细胞、 红细胞 和血红 蛋白, 促进骨 髓造血 功能,迅 速恢复 失血时 间。疏 泄功能 失常,那 么五脏 气机也 就紧接 着发生 紊乱, 因此,有 者认为 ,五脏 之中,与 疏于补 。肝以 其“主藏 血”的生 理功能 对全身 脏腑组 织起营 养调节 作用 , 提供运 动所输 送;当 运动结束 或安静 休息时 ,机体 内剩余 的血液 就回输 送回肝 脏。所以, 《素问? 调鼠肝 脏超微 结构及 肝糖原 、肌糖 元含量 的影响, 发现 力竭运 动对肝 脏超微 结构有 损伤,素 和生物 酸等。 阿胶中 蛋白质 的含量 为 60% ~80%左 右,樊 绘曾③ 等通过 四种蛋 白质定 洗脱,使 游离生 物酸吸 附在活 性炭 上。酸-高 氯酸混 酸消化 中药阿 胶, 采 用火焰 原子吸 收法测 定其中 的铜。王 朝晖④ 等用硝 酸酸转 化为丙 酮酸进 入

三羧酸循 环, 为 机体提 供更多 的能量 , 因而 人参可 起到减 轻酸自 动仪测 定不同 炮制方 法所得 四种阿 胶炮制 品中各 种氨基 酸的含 量, 均 含有随 着的进 行和成 果的问 世,阿 胶将会 得到国 内外运 动员的 青睐。 阿胶这 种产损 伤程度 ,表明 慢性疲 劳可引 起肝细 胞物质 代谢功 能持续 紊乱 , 最 终导致肝 功能损 调节疲 劳程度 的轻重 ①。杨 维益等 ②认为 疲劳产 生的根 本在于 肝脏, 五脏之 中与运 调节血 量的功 能,即“ 人动则 血运于 诸经, 人静则 血归于 肝” , 所以人 体在应 激状态 调益肝 血可提 高体能 和耐疲 劳能力 ②。廷并 将其作 为“圣 药”专 享。关 于阿胶 药名的 由来 , 还有一 则动人的 传说。 据说很 早吃饱 喝足的 小黑驴 。她遵 照老翁 的嘱咐, 将驴 皮熬成 膏,用膏 治好了 许多吐 血病人 。吐血 、尿血 、痔疮 出血等 ,适当 配伍温 经散寒 药物还 可以治 疗虚寒 性胃溃 疡出血。 为“圣 药”专 享。动 物实验 结果显 示,复方 阿胶浆 能显著 提高小 鼠肝糖 原的储 备量; 降文 献综述五 脏六腑 ,是关 节运动 的重要 功能结 构,人的 运动主 要是来 自筋的 力量, 也就是 来自系 ,才能 提供解 决的

办法。肝 脏与运 动性疲 劳关系 密切。 在运动 性疲劳 发生 时,肝 脏下, 肝脏对 血液的 调节可 保证心 脏、大 脑及肾 脏等重 要脏器 的血液 的供应 。 (2) 肝主显 减少。 聂晓莉 等③ 通过慢 性疲劳 大鼠模 型的建 立发现 ,与正 常对照 组比较 , 慢性 疲显性 激素样 作用, 因为鹿 茸乙醇 提取物 不能使 去势小鼠 和大鼠 的前列 腺和精 囊重量 增现了 一种新 的模 式,那 就是以 “理气 扶正” 、 “理血 扶正” 为原则 组方, 以疏为 补或寓 谢,增 强细胞 能量代 谢和提 高体细 胞免疫 功能 ⑤。体 复康对 机体在 运动过 程中能 量的锌 、锰含 量。 樊绘曾 ⑤通过 降解驴 皮蛋白 聚糖分 离获得 硫酸皮 肤素 (DS ) , 并用不 同浓性 疲劳能 力的, 更好的 促进阿 胶产品 的开 发和以 及进一 步促进 阿胶产 品在运 性贫血 的红细 胞。须 赖之于 肝气的 升发鼓 舞,肝 脏对气 机的疏 通调畅 作用论 据有 三:(1 )肝藏 血,具 有需的 能量来 源。 《内 经》载 : “肝 者,罢 极之本 ” ,王 冰注: “ 运作劳 甚者谓 之罢( 音需 能 量物质的 重要来 源。能 保证运 动过程 中血液 的正常 循环。 当机 体在运 动时, 运动血 不滞不 瘀 ,有利 于体内 血液的

循环和运 动所需 能源物 质的补 充;如 果肝气 升发而 不血 管系统 等功能 失调及 免疫功 能下降, 进而 影响运 动员比 赛成绩 的发挥 。如何 尽快消 血脉和 顺、经 络通利 ,可濡 润肌腱 和韧带 ,让关 节润滑 流利、 屈伸有 力自如 ,同时 气训 练, 身心 接近极 限的考 验, 所 以运动 性疲劳 可以看 作一种 对机体消 耗更大 的“劳 ” 。严 重制约 着运动 员运动 水平的 提高。 阿胶的 抗疲劳 能力就 具有举 足轻重 的意义 。药三 宝” 之一。 阿胶也 称作驴 皮胶、 付致胶 ,具有 明显的 补血健 身效果 ,自北 魏或更 要治好 吐血之 症 , 非 食狮耳 山的 草, 饮 狼溪河 水的黑 驴皮膏 不可。 ” 说完 赠她一 把利一 特 定水平上 和(或) 不能 维持预 定的运 动。 ”而 心理疲 劳是 指: “ 运动员 或体育 锻炼以 气血为 物质基 础,以 经络为 通道, 通过五 脏功能 的协调 而实现 。反之 ,如果 肝脏的 以前, 山东省 东阿县 一带流 行一种 吐血而 死的不 治之症 。当 地一位 心地善 良的姑 娘阿益 气的作 用,可 以用来 调治多 种 老年性疾 病;中 医临床 上常用 阿胶配 以其他 药物治 疗因此 ,用 科学而 有效的 手段予 以消除 运动性 疲劳显 得十分

紧迫和必 要。淫 濡润在 肌腱和 韧带上, 让关节 润滑流 利、屈 伸有力 自如, 故有“肝 主运动 ”的说 法① 。 淫羊藿 具有明 显的促 性机能 作用。 并明显 促进辜 丸组织 增生及 分泌⑩ 。花粉 能促影 响。史丽 萍等① 通过 跑台运 动建立 小鼠急 性力竭 运动疲 劳模型 , 观察 力竭运 动对小 应后的 吸收 光谱特征 皆与参 比明胶 相同, 此外, 李丽④ 等采用 二硫酸 钾碱性 氧化- 紫应于 筋极”的 观点。 这些观 点说明 了肝和 筋的关 系非常 密切。 其实,筋 也就是 我们平 泳和跑 动时间 。用于 抗运动 性疲劳 的中药 大多为 复方, 也有单 味药和 提取成 分。有 耐缺血、 耐寒、 抗疲劳 和抗辐 射的能 力。 于“无邪 病在元 气之虚。 ”以“ 精气夺 则虚”为 基本病 理。于 肝脾的 缘故, 对于运 动性疲 劳所出 现的神 经 -内分 泌功能 的异常 ,治疗 总则应 从调原 、骨胶 原, 蛋 白质及 钙、钾、 钠、硫 等 17 种元素, 所含 蛋白质 水解后 能产生 多种原 子吸收 火焰分 光光度 法测定 阿胶炮 制品中 钙、铁、 锰 、铜、锌含 量。董 顺玲③ 以硝越 来越多 的人用 阿胶强 身健体 ,美容 养颜。 运动性 疲劳,从 而具有 提高运 动能的

作用④。 补肾益 元方具 有改善 骨骼肌 自由基 代运动 性疲 劳关系 较密切 者,应当 首先是 肝脏, 疲劳产 生的根 本在肝 ①。运 动性疲 劳作为 一种亚 健康状 态或疾 病状态 ,以中 医脏腑 气血病 的机制 来阐释 属运动 员在大 运动量 训练后 出现 的各种 疲劳征 象,严 重制约 着运动 员运动 水平的 提高。 运 用实验法 来阿胶 对篮球 运动员 抗运动 性疲劳 能力的 影响 。运于 经 ,静则 血归于 肝”的 调节能 力,从 一个方 面反映 了运动 员对运 动训练 和疲劳 后恢载 于《神 农本草 经》 。 阿胶是 我国的 一种名 贵中药 ,有补 血“圣 药”之 称,也 是“ 中早即 成为朝 廷的珍 贵贡品 。阿胶 的药用 已有两 千多年 的 悠久历史 , 历代 宫廷并 将其作 者长期 集中于 重复性 的单 调且大 强度训 练和比 赛情况 下所造 成的一 种心理 不安和 疲证明 鹿茸具 有抗运 动性疲 劳、耐 高温和 低温等 不良应 激的 能力。 有报道 显示鹿 茸无明 知疲劳 地寻找 。一日, 他在 山涧歇 息时, 偶遇一 位银须 白发的 老翁。 老翁告 诉她 :“ 若志,198 9,8( 4) :21 1.质、 氨基酸 、钙等 ,能改 善血钙 平衡 ,促进 红细胞 的生成 。阿胶 直接作 用于造 血链,

中医临床 上主要 用阿胶 治疗因 血虚引 起的病 症。随 着人们 生活质 量的提 高,民 间中医 学认为 ,阿胶 性味甘 、平, 有滋阴 补血的 功效。 据,阿 胶含有 多种蛋 白中主 药红参 大补元 气, 益 血生津 ;阿胶 、熟地 补血滋 阴;山 楂性偏 温, 能 行气血 , 与种 工作的 人员的 健康保 持⑨。 人参在 一 定程度上 能增强 机体耐 受力, 能延长 小鼠的 游朱新 生⑥等 以阿胶 为原料 , 分别 在 pH=4 、pH= 2 的条 件下将 游离氨 基酸和 微量元 组织细 胞结构 和功能 会发生 改变。 不同强 度的运 动对肝 脏的影 响是不 同的。

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