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高中英语定语从句详细讲解

高中英语定语从句详细讲解


高中英语定语从句详解
定语从句用来充当句中定语的主谓结构;它主要用于修饰句子中的名词、代词。而定语 从句的位置常常是紧跟在被修饰的名词、代词的后面。在被修饰的名词、代词与定语从句之 间往往有一个关系词将其前后两部分联系成一个整体, 或是构成一个名词短语; 或是构成一 个代词短语。但从结构上说,关系词与从句是一个整体。排除句子的其他各部分,这种带有 定语从句的名词短语或是代词短语的构成可演示如下: 1)three signs that indicate a person is suffering from a panic attack rather than a heart attack 三种意味着一个人是患有惊恐症而不是心脏病的迹象,在这个带有定语从句的名词短语中: signs 是:被修饰的名词; that 是:关系词; that indicate a person is suffering from a panic attack rather than a heart attack 是定语从句 2)those who drink a lot 那些大量饮酒的人,在这个带有定语从句的代词短语中: those 是:被修饰的名词; who 是:关系词; who drink a lot 是:定语从句通过上面的演示,我们可以归纳出定语从句在句子中的位置、 结构如下: 被修饰的名词 / 代词 + 关系词 + 句子 (其中"被修饰的名词/代词"在语法叫作"先行词".) 1)"先行词"与"关系词"的内在联系"先行词"与"关系词"之间实质上是互等、互换的关系。也 就是说,关系词的作用就是将先行词所表达意义"代到"从句中来起作用。例如: They often become easily frightened or feel uneasy in situations(先行词) where (关 系词)people normally would not be afraid . 他们常在人们一般不会感到害怕的情况下却很容易感到恐惧或是感到不自在。 (本句中的关系词 where = 先行词(in)situations 。如果把这个复合句拆成两个分句, 那就是: They often become easily frightened or feel uneasy in situations people normally would not be afraid in situations 由此可以看出,"先行词"与"关系词" 之间实质上是互等、互换的关系)。 又例如:

Rude people are those (先行词) whose (关系词)behavior shows little respect for the rules(先行词) that(关系词) the majority follows . 不讲礼貌的人是指那些,他们的行为对大多数人所遵从的规则并不表示尊敬的人。 由此我们还可以看出,"先行词"往往是分别重复出现在两个分句中的名词或代词。这也就是 我们做定语从句的条件之必需。否则,"关系词"就无法去替代"先行词"而构筑定语从句了。 这个道理就如同我们在计算机上"做剪贴以前要先做复制"一样。) 2)"先行词"的意义决定"关系词"的选择"关系词"的选择往往是由"先行词"自身表达的意义, 以及它在从句中的语法功能而决定的。 这个意思就是说,假如"先行词"自身表达的意义是表示"人的意义"或是"物的意义",那么我 们就相应地选择表示"人的意义"或是"物的意义"的"先行词"。"先行词" 在从句中的语法功能 也是决定"关系词"选择的重要条件。比如说,同样都是表示"人的意义"的"先行词",如果它 在从句中作主语,"关系词"就得用表示"人的意义"的主格形式,如果它在从句中作定语," 关系词"就得用表示"人的意义"的所有格形式。另外,有时"先行词"本身是表示事物的名词, 而它在从句中却与介词构成了短语,在从句中充当状语,在这种情况下,我们就应该用"关 系副词"而不能用"关系代词"了。例如: Some people who are successful language learners often fail in other fields . 有些在语言学习上很有成就的人,在其他领域常常一无所成。 In our class , we have some students whose families are not in Wuhan. 我们班上有些家不在武汉市的同学。 There are many sounds which have a meaning and yet are not words . 有许多声音有意义但不是词。 Tell him to go to the classroom where we often have our English class . 如果把这个复合句拆成两个分句,那就是: tell him to go to the classroom .We often have our English class in the classroom ) 告诉他去我们常上英语课的那间教室。

(一) 关系词 从前面的讨论中我们可以清楚地看出, 关系词在定语从句的构成里是至关重要的。 我们甚至 可以说,掌握不好关系词就无法做成定语从句,也无法理解文中带有定语从句部分的意思。 因此,我们首先讨论一下关系词的有关问题。 定语从句中的关系词只有两类:关系代词和关系副词;没有连词。也就是说,定语从句中的 所有关系词不但都有具体的意义而且都在从句中担任一定的成分。 1)关系代词:who , whom , whose , which , that 等。 who 用于代替"表示人的意义"的先行词,并且在从句中作主语;在现代英语里,也可取代 whom 在从句中作动词的宾语。例如: I have no idea about the man who wrote the article . 我不认识写这篇文章的那个人。 The little boy who is singing there can recite quiet a number of Chinese poems . whom 用于代替"表示人的意义"的先行词,并且在从句中作动词或介词的宾语。在现代英 语里,如果 whom 在从句中作动词的宾语,它与 who 可以通用;但是如果 whom 在从句 中作介词的宾语,那么就只能用 whom 而不能与 who 通用了。当然,如果在口语或非正式 文体中,介词没有提前,也就没有这点要求了。例如: Who is the girl whom ( who ) you talked to just now ? 刚才和你说话的那个女孩子是谁? Yesterday, I happened to meet , in the shopping center , the professor who ( whom ) I got to know at a party . 昨天在购物中心,我碰巧遇见了那位我在一次聚会上认识的教授。 They are looking for the patient on whom doctors just performed an operation . 他 们正在寻找那位医生刚刚给他做过手术的病人。 (句中的关系代词 whom 代替 the patient ,在从句中作介词 on 的宾语,而且介词 on 提 到关系代词的前面,所以 who 和 whom 就绝不可以通用了,此处只能用 whom 。) Who is the girl to who (whom) you talked just now ? (错误) (句中的关系代词 whom(who)代替 the girl , 在从句中作介词 to 的宾语, 但是由于介词 to

已提到了关系代词的前面,who 和 whom 就绝不可以通用了,所以如果还继续使用 who 句 子就错了。此处只能用 whom 。) whose 用于代替"表示人或物意义"的先行词,在从句中作定语,往往与它所修饰的名词一 起构成一个名词短语在从句中担当成分。Whose 常表达"某人的、某物的"之意。例如: Do you know the name of that girl whose brother is your roommate ? 你知道她的哥哥与你同寝室的那位女孩的名字吗? Water whose boiling point is at 100 degree Centigrade has no color, no flavor. 沸点在摄氏 100 度的水无色、无味。 which 用于代替"表示事物意义"的先行词,在从句中作主语、宾语。例如: Views which are entirely new or foreign may also be hard to accept . 那些全新的或是来自国外的观点或许也很难被接受。 I've got a novel which you may like to read . 我弄到一本你或许想看的小说。 That was a fault which could not be forgiven . 那是不能饶恕的错误。 that 既用于代替"表示人的意义"的先行词,也用于代替"表示事物意义"的先行词;在从句中 既可以作主语,也可以作谓语动词的宾语,但是不能作介词的宾语。在一定范围内,that = who / whom / which 。例如: Views that (which ) are entirely new or foreign may also be hard to accept . 那些全新的或是来自国外的观点或许也很难被接受。 Salaried people that ( who) earn more than a few thousand dollars must pay a certain percentage of their salaries to the federal government .工薪在几千美元以上 的人必须将工资中的一定百分比交付给联邦政府。 Who is the girl to that you talked just now ? (错误) 定语从句中作宾语的关系代词可以省略;如果关系代词在定语从句中作宾语可以省略。 例如: This is the book ( which ) you were looking for yesterday . 这就是你昨天找的那本书。

I don't like the novel ( that ) you are reading . 我不喜欢你看的这本小说。 Who is the man ( whom ) you're talking about ? 你们谈论的那个人是谁? 定语从句中,关系代词的单复数取决于先行词的单复数。例如: Those who are in their forties are required to have a physical examination this afternoon . (先行词 Those 是复数, 关系代词 who 也就看作是复数, 所以从句的谓语动词就用了复数 形式 are 了。)请那些年龄在四十几岁的人于今天下午去进行体检。 This is the magazine which was sent to me by post . (先行词 the magazine 是单数,关系代词 which 也就看作是单数,所以从句的谓语动词 就用了单数形式 was sent) 这是通过邮局寄给我的杂志。

关系代词 that 和 which 的区别 that 和 which 在一般情况都可以用于代替"表示事物意义"的先行词,在从句中作主语、宾 语。但在下列情况下一般只用 that 而不用 which : 1. 先行词本身是 all , everything , something , nothing , anything 等不定代词时, Anything that can burn is a source of heat energy . 任何能够燃烧的东西都是热能源。 There must be something that happened to you .你一定出了什么事。 They had nothing that could cure of his disease .他们没有一点能治愈他疾病的东西 了。 2. 先行词已有序数词或形容词的最高级或 the last, the only 等作定语时,例如: This is the most impressive TV theater that has never been put on show before . 这 是以前从未上演过的最有感染力的电视剧。 That is the only way that leads to your success .那是通向你成功的唯一之路。

We have to consider the first thing that starts our work . 我们必须要考虑启动我们工作的第一件事。 然而,在下列情况下却只用 which 而不用 that: 1.当先行词表示事物意义,并且在从句中作介词的宾语,那么就只能用 which 。当然,如 果在口语或非正式文体中,介词没有提前,也就没有这点要求了。例如: The world in which we live is made of matter . 我们生活于其中的世界是由物质组成的。 Ocean currents affect the climates of the lands near which they flow . 洋流影响其流经的附近地区的气候。 The world that we live in is made of matter. (正确。 因为关系代词虽然在从句中作介词的宾语, 但是介词没有提前, 所以没有这点要求。 ) 我们生活于其中的世界是由物质组成的。 The world in that we live is made of matter. (错误。 因为关系代词在从句中作介词的宾语, 而且介词已经提前, 所以必须遵从这点要求。 ) 2.在非限定性定语从句(关于这一点随后就要讲解)中,当关系词表示事物意义时, 只能用 which 。这是语法所规定的,没有任何解释。例如: The sun heats the earth , which makes it possible for plants to grow . 太阳给予大地热,这就使植物的生长成为可能。 The most important form of energy is electrical energy , which is widely used in our daily life .最重要的能源形式是电能,它广泛地运用于我们的日常生活之中。 -- as 可以作为关系代词引导限定性定语从句、非限定性定语从句。例如:限定性定语从句 (常用于 such … as 和 the same … as 等句式中) Such points as you've mentioned are really important in solving the problem . 你提到的这些方面在解决这个问题上的确很重要。 People such as you describe are rarely seen nowadays .

你描述的这种人现在很少见了。 This computer has the same functions as that one has . 这台计算机有着和那台计算机一样的功能。 非限定性定语从句 (as 可以作为关系代词引导非限定性定语从句时,as 是指全句:也就 是说,将整个主句看成一件事或是一个事实;并对其进行补充、说明。这种非限定性定语从 句既可以放在主句之前,也可以放在主句之后。) As I know , she hasn't got married . 如我所知,她还未结婚。 They won the first place in the game, as could be expected. 可以预料,他们在比赛中得了第一。 Professor Li is extremely popular among students , as is known to all of us . 如我 们大家所知,李教授极受学生们的欢迎。 2)关系副词:when , where , why 等。在定语从句,关系副词 = 介词 + which 。也就 是说,每个关系副词里本身就已经含有了一个介词:when = 在什么时候,where = 在什 么地方,why = 为什么原因,等。至于在英文中用哪个具体的介词,就得依具体情况而定 了。 when 代替表示时间的名词,而这个名词在从句中又与介词构成了短语,在从句中充当状 语,例如: People will always remember the time when Hong Kong and Macao returned to our motherland . 人们会永远记住香港和澳门回归祖国的那一时刻。 He came at a time when we needed help . 他在我们需要人帮忙的时候来了。 We don't know the exact time when the English Evening will be held . 我们不知道英 语晚会举行的确切时间。 where 代替表示地点的名词,而这个名词在从句中又与介词构成了短语,在从句中充当状 语。例如: The place where we're to have the Speech Contest has not been decided yet.我们 举行演讲比赛的地点还未定下来。

He is living in a newly-built house where there used to be a pond . 他现在居住的新 房是原先一个池塘的旧址。 That is a beautiful campus where I made a lot dreams . 那是一座我曾经在那儿有过许多梦想的美丽的校园。 why 代替表示原因的名词,而这个名词在从句中又与介词构成了短语,在从句中充当状语。 He didn't tell her the reason why he was so happy . 他没有告诉她为什么他那么高兴的原因。 The reason why she was late is not so acceptable . 她迟到的原因不那么令人接受。 They explained the reason to us why they had misunderstood us before . 他们向我们解释为什么他们以前误解了我们的原因。 介词+关系代词 在这种结构中,关系代词若是表示人的意义,就只能用 whom ;关系代词若是表示事物的 意义,就只能用 which 。而这种结构中较难解决的问题是介词的选择问题,因为这个问题 的解决取决于多种因素: A)动词与介词的搭配 B)名词与介词的搭配 C)形容词与介词的搭配,等等。总之,要依 从句的具体需要而定。例如: A)动词与介词的搭配 He has found a good job for which he is qualified .( qualify + 名词+ for "使…具 有…资格" )他找到了一份他能胜任的工作。 The man to whom you talked just now will chair the meeting tomorrow . ( talk to + 名词 "与某人谈话" ) 你刚才与他谈话的那个人明天主持那个会议。 He is bargaining with the landlord over the monthly price at which the apartment rents .名词+ rent at + 表示价格的词 "某物以某价格出租" ) 他在与房东就那套公寓出租的月租金进行磋商。 B)名词与介词的搭配

They are still living in the little house in which they've been lived for 15 years . ( in the house "在屋子里" )他们现在还住在他们已住了 15 年的那个小房子里。 We've worked out a method by which our production can be raised on a large scale.( by a method 通过某种方法) 我们已研制出了一个能大规模提高生产的方法。 She didn't realize the extent to which she had been distracted .( to extend "到某 种程度" ) 她没有意识到她心烦意乱的程度。 C)形容词与介词的搭配 The secretary with whom the boss is not happy will be fired for her inefficiency . (happy with "对…表示满意") 老板对其不满意的那个秘书将由于她没有工作效率而被解雇。 I've found the job for which I've been eager for a long time.( eager for "渴望得 到…" ) 我已找到了我渴望已久的那份工作。 He is a learned man with whom we are familiar . (familiar with 熟悉…)他是一位我们熟悉的有学识的人。 2)定语从句的种类 在英文中,有两种定语从句:限定性定语从句与非限定性定语从句。这两种定语从句在其功 能和形式方面都有明显的区别: 限定性定语从句 限定性定语从句与主句的关系很紧奏,对其先行词起限定、修饰的作用。如果将其去掉,会 影响句子意思的完整性;有时甚至于引起费解、误解。例如: Rainforests are being cleared for valuable timber and other resources to speed up the economic growth of the nationsin which they are located . 为了加速他们各自所在国家的经济发展, 热带雨林作为有价值的原木和其他资源正为人们所 砍伐。 Ocean currents affect the climates of the lands near which they flow.

洋流影响其流经的附近地区的气候。 They explained the reason to us why they had hated us before. 他们向我们解释为什么他们不喜欢我们的原因。 非限定性定语从句 非限定性定语从句在形式上就与主句很松散,它与主句之间有一个逗点","隔开;它对其先 行词没有限定、 修饰的作用,只起补充、说明的作用。有时也用它来对全句进行补充、说明。 即使将其去掉,也不会影响句子意思。由于上述原因,非限定性定语从句在表达意思方面也 有别于限定性定语从句。另外,非限定性定语从句在中文译文里,我们往往将其作为一个分 句处理,而不把它作定语翻译。 例如: Earlier , the Babylonians had attempted to map the world , but they presented it in the form of a flattened disc rather than a sphere , which was the form adopted by Ptolemy . (此句中,非限定性定语从句是对先行词 a sphere 进行补充、说明。) 更早之前, 巴比伦人曾试图绘制世界地图, 但是他们把它绘制成平盘状而不是托勒密所采用 的球体状。 The combination of satellites, which transmit information , computers , which store information , and television , which displays information , will change every home into an education and entertainment center . (此句中, 三个非限定性定语从句分别对三个先行词: satellites , computers 和 television 进行补充、说明。如果去掉这三个非限定性定语从句,那么句子可简化为: The combination of satellites , computers and television will change every home into an education and entertainment center .)卫星能传输信息,计算机能储存信息, 电视能显示信息,把这些手段结合起来可以使每个家庭都成为教育娱乐的中心。 The sun heats the earth , which makes it possible for plants to grow .(此句中,非 限定性定语从句是对全句进行补充、说明,将全句表达的意思看成"一件事情)。太阳给予大 地热,这就使植物的生长成为可能。

The old man has a son , who is in the army .(此句中,非限定性定语从句是对先行词 son 进行补充、说明。但本句所传达的信息是:"这位老人只有一个儿子" 。如果将此句改 写成限定性定语从句: The old man has a son who is in the army . 那位老人有一个在部队工作的儿子。那么, 限定性定语从句就要对先行词 son 进行限定、修饰。这样一来,句子所传达的信息就变成 了:"这位老人有一个儿子在部队工作,还有其他的儿子在干别的工作"。)那位老人有一个 儿子,他在部队工作。

【专项训练】 1.Football is a very interesting game , _______ A.that B.which C.it D.who 2.Is there anything else _______ you require? A.which B.that C.who D.what 3.The last place _______ we visited was the Great Wall. A.which B.that C.where D.it 4.He talked happily about the men and books _______ interested him greatly in the school. A.which B.who C.it D.that bicycles are made. is played all over the world.

6.His uncle works in a factory _______

A.that B.which C.where D.there 7.There is no dictionary _______ you can find everything. A.that B.which C.where D.in that 8.Next month, _______ you’ll spend in your hometown is coming. A.which B.that C.when D.where 9.Next month, _______ you’ll be in your hometown is coming. A.which B.that C.when D.where 10.I often thought of my childhood , _______ A.which B.where C.when D.who 11.He wanted to know the time_______ A.that B.when C.where D.what 13 . They could only read such stories _______ had been rewritten in simple English . A.that B.which C.as D.what he needed to know . I lived on a farm.

14.The stems of bamboo are hollow _______ makes them very light. A.which B.as C.that D.it 15.Crusoe’s dog became ill and died , _______ made him very lonely . A.as B.which C.that D.this 16.They’ve invited me to their party , _______ is kind of them. A.as B.which C.That D.this 17._______ we know now ,bats come out only at night . A.As B.Which C .That D.What 18.John got beaten in the game , _______ had been expected .

A.as B.that C.what D.who 19._______ has been said above ,grammar is a set of dead rules. A.Which B.What C.That D.As 20.Do you know the reason_______ he was late? A.that B.which C.for what D.for which 21.He built a telescope _______he could study the skies. A.in which B.with that C.through which D.by it 22.I have bought two ballpens , _______writes well . A.none of which B.neither of which C.none of them D.neither of them 23.There are two thousand students in our school , _______are girls . A.of whom two thirds C.two -third in them B.two -thirds of them D.two -thirds in which

24.Do you know the man _______? A.whom I spoke B.to who I spoke C.I spoke to D.that I spoke 25.The factory _______we’ll visit next week isn’t far from here . A.where B.in which C.which D.to which 26.This is one of the best films_______ this year. A.have been shown C.that have been shown B.that have shown D.which has been shown

27.Can you lend me the book _______the other day ? A.you talked about B.about that you talked C.that you talked D.which you talked

28.Is there any one in you class_______ family is in the city . A.who B.who’s C.which D.whose 29.I’ll never forget the days_______ we stayed together. A.when B.in which C.which D.what 30.Is_______ some German friends visited last week ? A.this school B.this the school C.this school one D.this school where 31.I’ll tell you_______ he told me last month . A.all which B.all what C.that all D.all 32.Do you know the reason _______she got so angry yesterday? A.for why B.for that C.which D.why 33.I still remember the day_______ she first wore that pink dress. A.which B.in which…… C.on that D.on which 34.I’ll show you a store _______you may buy all you need . A.in which , / B.where , which C.which , that D.that , that 35.Winter is the time of year _______the days are short and nights are long. A.where B.when C.that D.on which 36.The train _______she was travelling was late. A.which B.on which C.for which D.on that 37.The second World War_______ millions of people were killed ended in 1945. A.during which B.in that C.where D.on which 38.Is oxygen the only gas _______helps fire burn ? A.that B./ C.which D.it

39.This is the best hotel in the city_______ I know .

A.which B.that C.where D.it 40.I’ve read all the books_______ were borrowed from the library . A.that B./ C.which D.they 41.The scientist and his achievements _______you told me about are admired by us all. A.which B.who C.that D.whose

44. We hope to get such a tool _______he is using .A. which B. as C. that D. where 45.Is there anything _______to you . A.that is belonged B.that belongs C.which belongs D.that belong 46.You can take any seat _______is free .A.which B.where C.that D.in which 47.The old woman has two sons ,one _______is a teacher. A.of them B.of which C.of whom D.of who 48.My hometown is no longer the same_______ it used to be . A.which B.as C.that D.like 49.You may take anything_______ useful . A.you want B.what you want C.you want them D.which you want 52.The beautiful dress_______ Miss Jones went to the ball was borrowed from a friend of hers .A.that B.wearing which C.worn by D.in which 53.The clever boy made a hole in the wall , _______ he could see what was going on inside the house.A.in which B.through which C.at which D.on which 55.The knife_______ we used to cut the bread is very sharp . A.with which B.with it C.with that D.which


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