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创意阅读第二册答案

创意阅读第二册答案


Unit 1
Part A: Comprehending the text

Advertising

1. to inform us of new products or good bargains/help producers to sell their products. … we are exposed to too much advertising now and so much of it is misleading, so many people now ignore it.

mini-golf course; visit the less adventurous places of interest ( in an air-conditioned vehicle) such as a local lake. … around Lake Tali.

… the resort is new and the owners claim to be more interested in making the guests happy than making money. 3. small, bare, exposed rock in the middle of the ocean. … dangerous because of the many sharks. … there is no water in it. … it is too small and too shallow for the stories to be true. … Bantu Island is a long way away so the money will be traveling further. The expression is not being used in its usual meaning of money lasting longer as things are so cheap.

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… the accommodation “units”.

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… use the hotel swimming pool/paddling pool or play on the

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cavern//study the fascinating sea creatures of that area.

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2. visit some of the attractions of the island, including a trip to an ancient

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to be very careful when reading advertisements and always try to check the information from an independent source before you buy whatever is being advertised.

Part C

Interpreting the text

1. The writer is trying to say that advertising is often very misleading and, in some cases, “legalized lying”. The advertising brochure for Bantu Island is obviously very misleading --- and, although nothing it says is actually a lie, it could be argued that it does not represent the truth.

would not want to go on any tours.

3. No, it was very carefully worded so that it would be difficult to prove it told any lies ---- simply did not tell the whole truth or misled the

that they don’t have any water; it does say that sea creatures abound, it does not say that are sharks, etc.
4.

We should look carefully at things that seem attractive (and cheap). There is often a problem that is not obvious. This might also apply to other things, such as a motor vehicle, a new apartment, “special offers” on CDs, books, etc.

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swimming pool (and even a paddling pool) --- it does not actually say



reader in different ways. For example, the resort does have a





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2. Because once they got to the island and saw what it was like, they

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Developing your skills
Brochure Newspaper ______________________________________________________________________________ A Once in a Lifetime Holiday A “Never-To-Repeated” Holiday (This means sth very special – so (This means it only happens once because Layout special it cannot ever be repeated.) it was so bad you would never do it again.) A Holiday for All the Family A “Holiday” for Nobody _______________________________________________________________________________ sea creatures sharks brand-new half-built cooled blasted rare They don’t exist It omits any details of the size, etc. Choices of of the attractions (e.g. Lake Tali). Information No mention of having to wash in a small stream (i.e. no plumbing or washing facilities in the hotel). _______________________________________________________________________________ … you won’t have a penny more A “Holiday” for Nobody --- the inverted to pay! --- The exclamation mark is commas indicate that the writer feels the supposed to show the reader what a word “Holiday” is not the correct word. wonderful deal she/he is getting with The “ Beauties of Bantu Island” --- again the holiday. The inverted commas suggest that “Beauties” does not describe the reality of the Island. “ Air-conditioned”, “back-to-nature”, Punctuation “ resort”, “lake”, etc. All these show that the writer does not feel the words are being used with their usual meaning and connotations. _______________________________________________________________________________

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” Come and eat at the Luxurious and Relaxing “French Kitchen Kitchen” Enjoy the wonderful selection of tempting dishes from our extensive menu. The magnificent view over the ocean will make it an evening to remember/cherish. Our highly-trained/professional/friendly and experienced/ knowledgeable/polite staff will be delighted/pleased/thrilled to look after your every need and the reasonable/inexpensive prices will pleasantly surprise you. ’t delay/wai t. Book now! You won ’t be disappointed/so rry. Don Don’ delay/wait. won’ disappointed/sorry. Anybody who is thinking of going to the new “restaurant” called the “French Kitchen”, don’t

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think again. I was tempted by the advertisement in this newspaper last week. Unfortunately/Regrettably, I can honestly/truthfully/really say that I was very displeased by my decision.
To enjoy the “magnificent view” of the ocean, you would need to lean at least a meter out of the window and peer round the building next door. I’ve seen a better/more impressive/wider/more tempting selection of dishes in my local fast food restaurant and much more polite/friendlier staff in an army training camp. As for the “reasonable/inexpensive” prices! My bank manager will think that I bought the restaurant when he sees my account. It’s true that they were a “surprise”, but definitely not “pleasant”. ’t go. You will certainly be disappointed. Don Don’

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Part A: Comprehending the text

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7. F 8.

Understanding the text

Part B: Interpreting the text

Answer the following as fully as possible.

failure for life” is perhaps even worse than a death sentence. 2. The labour market does not urgently need “newly qualified people”, there is no “hurry”; the situation is not critical. 3. to compare the large number of lessons (“17,745) with the tiny result(“how little I knew at the end…”) and also to say that “40-minute pieces of learning” and “little pieces of geography or history or biology” do not really add up to any substantial body of

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“final”. Also look at speech paragraph 6 --- the “threat of being a



1. These exams “decide their future” and the penalties for failure are





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Unit 2

Schooldays

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knowledge. Perhaps, too, the writer wants to show that mere statistics (“17,745 lessons do not really prove that the results are good.
4.

The word suggests an unpleasant experience. The writer was, when a child, the subject---and the education system was the “boss” the results of the child’s subjection were not good. Also look at speech paragraph 8 again: the system “can never be called efficient”; it

Developing your skills

Part A: Using reference markers
1. c 2. b 3. c

Part B: Using discourse markers

Extending your vocabulary Part A: Words to note 1. carefree 5. severe 2. intolerable 6. motivated 3. receptive 7. applied 4. compulsory 8. frantically

Part B: Expressions 1-----regardless of 4. ------must 2. ----- how much 3. ------ certainly 6. ------

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

However/Yet; showing contrast on the whole / in general/ generally speaking/ overall; generalizing except/ except for/ with the exception of; introducing exceptions as for/ as regards; focusing attention so/ and so/ so now; showing logical sequence







For each of the following, fill in the gaps by choosing ……

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5. ----- help to ruin

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4. a

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simply helps the administrators and the bureaucrats.

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frequently

7.------ result

Unit Three A Tale of the Unexpected
Part A: Sequencing
Picture 1 They were sitting round a coffee table Thomas was wearing his police uniform. There was a coal fire burning. Snow was blowing against the window. Picture 2 Only the man and his wife were in the kitchen. There was a garden and a garden gate outside. The man at the garden gate was wearing police uniform. The man at the garden gate was very tall. Picture 3 The man was sitting next to the fire. Thomas had a blood stain on his chest. The grandmother was also standing behind Thomas.

Answer the following as fully as possible. 1. The curse was that the bag and its “evil contents” gave the grandfather power – too much power. The power enabled him to get anything he wanted in life – but he had to pay a high price for this power. The price was the life of his wife. 2. He bought the house with the help of the power he had been given by the bag. But he forgot the warning – there was a price to pay for this power. 3. His first wish was for 100,000 pounds. He would have received this

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Part B: Comprehending the text

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money because of the Life Insurance – his son Thomas was insured. When Thomas was killed, the Insurance Company paid him this money. 4. Arthur’s second wish was “I want all my family to be together.” This wish came true – but not in the way he had intended. Instead of Thomas having his life restored to him, Arthur and his wife died – and

Part A: Working out the relevance 1. Similarly on the night that Arthur asked for 100,000 pounds, his son Thomas died. 2. Both Arthur and his father paid the price for the “help” they asked for. They both knew the bag was “evil” – but they both used it to get what they thought they wanted. 3. Arthur has already learned why his father thought so. But he tries to

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Developing your skills





1. After the last sentence of paragraph 1: The old man’s wife had had a terrible accident and died on the day he bought the house. 2. After the last sentence of the second paragraph of the letter from the grandfather: He also told me that I must never try to destroy the bag or disasters would fall on all my family. 3. After the last sentence of paragraph 9: A cold fear suddenly swept through Arthur Slade’s body as his wife went to open the door. 4. After the last sentence of the text: So, here we all are, together again.



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Part C: Interpreting the text

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“together” again but they were now all dead.

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parents. Arthur’s wish had been granted – all the family were

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when they died they “met” Thomas again; they also “met” Arthur’s

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put the warning from his father out of his mind. And his son later pays the price – the first price. 4. His wife definitely is right. Very soon the son Thomas is killed; and very shortly after his death Arthur and his wife both die – and this time it’s because Arthur’s wife ignores her own warning.
5.

This is because he has a premonition: he knows what has happened;

Part B: Continuing the story to a more definite conclusion

Extending your vocabulary

Part B: Different meanings of the same word
1. stream 5. contents 2. retiring 6. shadowing 3. terrific 4. pounded

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1. terror 5. weary

2. temptation 6. drifter



Part A: Different word forms
3. retirement 7. insurance 4. compensation 8. disastrous





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“Hello, father, mother …,” Arthur heard himself say as a sad smile crossed his face. “So, here we all are, together again.” But … this isn’t what I wished for. I wanted to bring Thomas back to life, I ignored the warning that you gave me. I ignored your plea that I should never use the bag. I used it twice, in fact. I am doubly guilty: guilty of Thomas’ and guilty of my wife’s and my own deaths. Here we are all together again – yes … but this is not what I really wanted.

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feels guilty. He has paid too high a price.

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and he probably feels, as his father had felt, that he is responsible. He

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Unit Four Personal Space
Part A: Comprehending the text 1. b) 2. d) 3. b) 4. c) 5. d)

Part B: Summarizing the information in a text Sit as far away from the other person as possible

1. Pretend the other people aren’t there. 2. Ignore them. 3. Avert your eyes from them.

5. Create physical barriers e.g. clasp hands. Pretend you are concentrating on something important – e.g. the panel indicating the floor number. Send out signals that you do not want your personal space to be invaded.

1. One might move forward; the other might back away. 2. Finally one might try to “escape” by moving away. 1. Standing very close makes some people very uncomfortable. 2. Standing where you have enough personal space makes people

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4. Keep your face as expressionless as possible.

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be insulting

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Sitting too close causes feelings of nervousness; sitting too far away may

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comfortable.

1. Build “barriers”. 2. Screen one’s eyes from neighbors. 3. Avoid/Prevent any “contact”. 1. To help concentration.

Spread out your belongings.

Try to give the impression that the seats next to you are taken. Part C: Interpreting the text

1. It’s the area where people feel safe, secure, comfortable, unthreatened.

“invading” our personal space by attempting to make contact with us. 3. Because we need to feel that this area is our own; it belongs to us; it’s part of our own self. 4. When people from different cultural or geographical backgrounds are together. (Because the size of the “space” needed within different cultures differs; some culture can easily accept closer “contact” – and therefore less personal space – than others.)

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2. In order to protect ourselves and to discourage any strangers from



These area surrounds us, like a protective blanket.





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3. To pretend they are alone.

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2. To keep other people “outside” of their space.

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5.

If attempts to preserve our personal space are ignored by others, and if we therefore feel a heightened sense of discomfort, threat or even danger, we might use force – e.g. a loud voice, or actual physical force, to make it very clear that we are ‘defending our territory”.

Developing your skills Part B: Deducing meaning
barren: empty, unproductive, sterile, nothing can grow in vain: unsuccessful, without results, wasted and producing no benefit crustaceans: crabs, shrimps and lobsters emaciated: very, very thin, having almost no flesh on the body elation: extreme happiness, the opposite of “sadness and anxiety”

Part B: Cloze sentences
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. expressive indicates/shows clustered compliment gradually/slowly release







Part A Comprehending the text Letter1 Seriously injured in a traffic accident. Overcame despair with the help of family and friends. To highlight difficulties faced in everyday life by paraplegics. Frustration caused by thoughtlessness. It is good to be optimistic and cheerful- but disabled people need help. Letter2 Also disabled; but lives in a much more caring environment.

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Unit 5

Extending you vocabulary

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To encourage MrThomas _ because times and attitudes are changing. Facilities in her hometown help her to live more freely and fully. 1. Don’t despair. 2. If your hometown does not improve its facilities and its attitudes, come to live in mine. Letter3 Also disabled; Chairman of :”Disabled Taxi Drivers

organization.

3. To stress that disabled people can fulfil almost all duties. Close and frequent contact with other disabled people.

Letter4

Not specified.

To emphasize the range of opportunities available-even in

Part B Interpreting the text

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sports.

Not specified.

1. Regard your disability in ‘a new light’. 2. Try to be as independent as possible.







To encourage disabled people to make contact.

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2. To stress the safety record of disabled drivers in his

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1. To give information about his organization.

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Association”.

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Examples of optimism Letter 1 …I now look forward to… …wanting to live life to the full… Letter 2 …your own environment is sure to change soon. …perhaps we could share the benefits… Letter3 …give hope(and a possible future)…

…he says he may even had an advantage…

Examples of objectivity

…kerbs at the edges of the roads… Letter2 …extra-wide elevators… …not a single step in the whole center.

Letter3 …suitably converted vehicles. …not one single member has ever had an accident of any kind! Letter4 …sports facilities designed for disabled person. …World Summer Olympics Games for disabled athletes since 1960…

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Letter1

…paraplegics still have to plan each trip…

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opportunities….

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Letter4

…there are ever increasing social and professional

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There are …no reasons why disabled people cannot fulfil…

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Developing your skills Part A :Reading between the lines He needs help and support; this helped him overcome a sense of despair. But now he is very optimistic and cheerful. However, he is also very angry, and frustrated – because he perceives that “modern society”, at least in his hometown generally, does not support or help him, and has

Disabled people have ‘thousands of fellow disabled persons’ who will support and encourage you. Extending your vocabulary

Positive messages Letter One

Letter Two

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caring, sympathetic Letter Three happy Letter Four delighted, contributors, increasing, opportunities, active, proud, winners, independent, independence, light, advantages, professional, success, superstars, top, interest , contribution, hope, support, pride, interested,



patience , love, challenges, possible, comforts, full efforts, bravery, determination, able, delighted, benefits,





Part A : Words conveying positive or negative messages

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Part B :Identifying main messages

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everyday living.

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no real awareness of the specific difficulties disabled people face in their

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support, encouragement, achieve negative messages Letter One difficulties, complicated, limited Letter Two Letter Three Letter Four dismay ,difficulties accident problem, impossible,

success stories

A Brief History of Time

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Sad

disabilities conquered overcome

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Part B: Vocabulary in context

absolutely not disabled fought win again life hope

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win , win ,win and



Part A: Comprehending the text

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1 2

3 4 5

6



Scottish one of seven children; lived and worked on farm married twelve Auld Lang Syne; Jean; My Love Is Like a Red, Red Rose; John Anderson , My Jo reading, drinking, singing, telling stories, women



Unit 6

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problems no control

confined, disadvantage

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Themes of Poems Auld Lang Syne: Pleasant memories of friendship and times past. Jean: Love—especially for “the girl I love the best”, Jean. Everything beautiful reminds him of love.

John Anderson , My Jo:

Life-long friendship and loyalty; sharing things and trusting somebody; the enduring quality of friendship_ the friend John is

Part B: Interpreting the text 1. Identify metaphors

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Jean:

Metaphor: I see her in the morning flowers… I hear her in the tuneful birds… Actual Meaning: Everything beautiful reminds him of Jean.

My Love Is Like a Red, Red Rose:
Metaphor: And I will love you… When all the seas go dry…







now old and frail, but still the friendship is strong and unchanged.

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force of love.

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Again, love_ and the eternal and compelling and all-embracing

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My Love Is Like a Red, Red Rose:

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Actual Meaning: He means he will love her for ever. Metaphor: And I will love you… While the sands of life still run. Actual Meaning: He will love her while time continues to pass by.

John Anderson , My Jo:
Metaphor:…blessings on your frosty head,…

Actual Meaning: We have been friends for a lifetime: We have accompanied each other on the “journey” and “hill” of life.

Love is beautiful. It’s “ like the melody”. “That’s sweetly played in tune.” It’s like beautiful flower _ “a red, red rose”. It’s

What is friendship? Friendship means sharing _ both “lovely” and “wearing” experience. It means pleasant memories, and trust. (“There’s my hand, my trusted

friend, …” It means constancy_ when they can no longer climb “the hill together” they will “totter down… hand in hand…”. It is “ one of the finest things life can bring”.

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constant and eternal.







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2. What is love?

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Metaphor: We climbed the hill together …

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always blessed.

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Actual Meaning:

He wants his white-haired old friend to be

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Expanding your vocabulary Part A : Descriptions of happiness 1. Expressions used to describe happiness

Auld Lang Syne:
1) we two have paddled in the stream, from morning until dinner

3) whenever I hear a bird sing sweet, it reminds me of my Jean

My Love Is Like a Red, Red Rose:

1) a red , red rose, that’s newly sprung in June

John Anderson , My Jo:

1) many a happy day, John, we’re had with one another 2) hand in hand we’ll go; and sleep together at the foot 2. synonyms of happy delighted sunny 3. expressions used to describe jump for joy on cloud nine the feeling of happiness over the moon a… pleased excited glad cheerful merry joyful

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2) the melody, that’s sweetly played in tune

walking on air as happy as

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2) day and night my constant dream, is ever with my Jean

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Jean: 1) there’s wild woods growing, and rivers flowing

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2) days of long ago

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Part B: Using contrast descriptions 1. depressed sad unhappy low- spirited down in the mouth feeling blue gloomy miserable sorrowful

sorry heavily-hearted 2. down in the dumps

Unit 7 Understanding the text

Mastering a New Language

Part B: Subjective/objective writing 1. What facts do you know about the flat? Flat: none. (Adjectives like “lovely, compact, splendid” have no factual meaning.) Living room: none. Again, the adjective “superb” has no factual meaning. Kitchen: one fact here—the kitchen is smaller (“more compact”). But it’s not very helpful because we are not told how much smaller it is! And we don’t know the size of the other rooms. Bedroom 1: There is one fact about the bedroom—it has a window; and two about what the room contains—a bed and a light. Bedroom 2: no facts. Bathroom: There is no bathroom. The landing is not part of the flat; the bathroom is a communal one. 2. What is the writer’s purpose in writing this text?

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Part A: Positive/negative connotations Words Implying Criticism Picture 1 noisy, aggressive Picture 2 tiny, cramped, microscopi c Picture 3 cheap, untidy, scruffy Picture 4 violent, vicious Picture 5 arrogant, smug, conceited

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Developing your skills







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Part A: Comprehending the text Paragraph 1: a) paragraph 2: c) Paragraph 4: b) paragraph 5: a) Paragraph 7: a) paragraph 8: b)

paragraph 3: b) paragraph 6: c) paragraph 9: a)

Words Not implying Criticism lively, active, energetic small, compact

simple, plain, casual courageous, brave, heroic proud, honored, delighted

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Extending your vocabulary

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To have itchy feet: to want to leave a place and start traveling To put your foot in it: to make a (usually foolish) mistake To get cold feet: to become afraid to do something and so change your mind about doing it



Unit 8 Understanding the text



Explaining the meaning of the following idioms: To eat your words: to admit that you were wrong about something To make a meal of it: to take a long time to do something simple ’s head off: to react angrily or rudely to somebody for no reason To bite somebody somebody’ To have your head on the block: to risk being blamed if things go wrong To have your head in the clouds: to be a bit of a dreamer To pay through the nose: to pay much more than something is worth To be head over heels …: to be very much in love Like chalk and cheese: to be completely different from each other To be two-faced: to be dishonest about one’s feelings and opinions To be on cloud nine: to be very happy about something

Part A: Comprehending the text False: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 True: 2, 9, 10 Part B: Interpreting the text 1. Firstly, he was a very good and well-known Chinese competitor. Secondly,



the Olympic Games

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To “sell” the “attractiveness of the flat”—even though the flat is not really very attractive at all! 3. What subjective words does he use to help him in his purpose? Lovely; needs to be seen; perfect opportunity; splendid; great appeal; superb; of great character; convenient; easily; modern kitchen; conveniently; nicely 4. Briefly give your own opinions about the flat and explain what led you to these opinions. Old, in bad condition (or may be both): “…effort may be required to improve…” Small: “…cleaning won’t ever be a problem” because there is not much to clean. Dangerous: “the electrical wiring may need to be changed”. The bedrooms are tiny: You can “turn off the light or open the window” while on the bed, and there is only “one side” of “space” to look after a baby. There is no private bathroom: Do you really want to “encourage friendliness” with strangers while you are in the bathroom?

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2.

3.

4. 5.

Part B: Scanning Scan the text about obesity again and answer the following questions. 1. How many words begin with “e”? (Key: 10 words) 2. How many times can you find the following words? Obese: 3 times Obesity: 2 times People: 4 times Health: 2 times Physical: 2 times Extending your vocabulary Part A: Words to note

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Look at the words you underlined and answer the questions below. 1. Diabetes; cancer; heart disease; lung disease; psychological ailments such as depression and low self-esteem. 2. Obesity is “one of the greatest health risks”. All the body can suffer as a result. 3. (open)







Developing your skills Part A: Skimming The words given below are chosen from paragraph 3 of the text. Just look at these words and answer the questions. Write your answers in the spaces provided. 1. Grounded management; event management; administration; engineering; tourism; sales and marketing; selling food and drinks; customer service. 2. Systems programmers; business analysts; architects; engineers; finance experts. 3. Athletes who had competed in the Games.

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because he very nearly beat Greg Lauganis. Thirdly, because many people believed he had, really won. Fourthly, because of his sportsmanship—he didn’t complain. Instead, he praised his rival. The word “really” indicates that there is some doubt as to whether it is a “genuine question”. In fact the question is “rhetorical”— i. e. the writer isn’t really asking a question for information but is using a question form to give his own opinion. (This opinion is that many Chinese people were happier about the prestige than interested in the sports.) It implies that, although pens and newspapers are small items it is likely that many extra millions will be sold during the Games because of the huge number of visitors. Because of the length of time he has been in the organization, he “made a career” of the Olympics, and he “rose through the ranks” to become President. No. They are far more. They bring prestige to the city hosting them. They probably produce profit. They certainly create lots of jobs, new buildings get built, and host city is proud to be able to “bask in its fame”.

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1. prestige 6. guarantee

2. budgeted 7. margin

3. inevitably 8. apparently

4. biased 5. dignified 9. analysts 10. host

Part B: Suffixes Look at the other nouns and underline the suffix of each of the nouns. Key: diver long-jumper visitor analyst engineer banker politician professor Complete the table below by writing three nouns ending in the specified suffix in each of the corresponding boxes. Key: Suffixes Nouns 1 -er teacher, reporter, engineer 2 -or surveyor, director, inspector 3 -ist scientist, artist, typist 4 -ess hostess, waitress, actress 5 -ee interviewee, employee, payee 6 -ant attendant, dependant, applicant 7 -man policeman, fireman, salesman 8 -ian mathematician, physician, technician



Understanding the text Part A: Making notes

Make notes in the table below of the qualities that Ron and Laura believe are necessary of a good teacher and a good student. When you have finished, compare the table with the one you completed in the Before you read section of this unit. Try to account for any differences that exist between the two tables. A Good Teacher Enthusiasm; interest in A Good Student students; Keen to learn; having good study skills; but about their studies — outside interests are

knowledgeable in subjects being taught; not necessarily clever; not too serious well-organized; confident; strict

humorous; being well “balanced” in also very important; keen to ask questions many ways, including giving especial if something is not clear; being well effort and attention to the least clever as

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Unit nine

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well as the cleverest

“balanced” between serious study and fun

Part B: Comprehending the text For each of the following, decide which option best completes the statement according to the information given in the text. Circle your answer. 1. c) 2. d) 3. a) 4. b) 5. d) 6. d) 7. a) 8. d) 9. d) 10. d)

Part C: Interpreting the text Answer the following as fully as possible. 1. Why are Laura and her classmates unhappy with the class conducted by the “funny

Because they never get down to studying properly.

accepting very strict rules and no laughing and joking?

Perhaps she thought he — as a teacher — might be surprised that a student actually appreciated strictness (because that teacher helped the students to make real

3. Why does Laura emphasize that a good student should have some other interests?
Because without other interests a student would never do anything else, and this is clearly not healthy: mixing with others is very important too.

4. How are the “know-alls” different from the students who ask questions because they don’t understand something? Because “know-alls” might be used by the teacher to hide - or disguise - the fact

5. Do you think that what Laura says is objective? Why or why not? Not really. Her comments are based largely on her perceptions - and perceptions may be more subjective than objective. However, she clearly is intelligent - she recognizes herself that, since she is referring to people she knows personally, “perhaps I can’t see them (as) clearly”. Developing your skills Part A: Using personal knowledge to make sense of a text When reading a text, you come across a lot of information. Some of the information may be less familiar or even new to you. If you want to understand the information that is less familiar or new to you, you need to activate what you know about the topic

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that some members of the class are falling behind and not learning well.







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progress); so she then wanted to know his thoughts.

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2. Why did Laura ask Ron what the thought after saying that students didn’t mind

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guy” although they all enjoy being there?

and then use this personal knowledge to make sense of the text. 1. In pairs, discuss why maintaining a balance is important if someone wants to be a good teacher or good student. Make notes in the box below. While the passage gives a lot of ideas (and is, indeed, titled “A Question of Balance”), students should be encouraged also to produce (and justify) their own ideas.

2. Write a short paragraph to suggest what a teacher or a student should do if they want to improve their teaching or learning. Refer to you personal knowledge about the importance of maintaining a balance and what Laura said in the conversation.

following is likely: Both the teachers and the students need to develop and maintain a

it easy, seriousness and fun.

Part B: Distinguishing facts from opinions

the very opposite of skimming or scanning; this requirement applies also to the very precise instructions: the focus is only on Laura’s points ― and only on her points

Laura’s Opinions ·enthusiasm



regarding teachers. The objective is to encourage careful analysis of the text. Reasons Established Facts Reasons



·“I think that …”



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·well organized · “Actually* most kids “teachers and confident don’t like undisciplined general”. classes.” “I think you have to be · a bit of an actor”.

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This exercise is quite demanding-and very useful. Very careful reading is required―

· cannot describe ·“…they’re all … in different…”

·“actor” skills

* “Actually” is a misleading word here. It is often used inappropriately even by native speakers. The word — and also the phrase “in actual fact” — is commonly used to introduce something as if it were a fact when it is no more than a personal viewpoint. This is — in fact, actually! — the case here: Laura clearly cannot claim anything, as a fact, about “most kids”.

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balance between work and play, effort and relaxation, being well organized and taking

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Students’ responses will, of course, vary. However, some consideration of the

Extending your vocabulary Part A: Adjectives The adjectives in the table below are used to describe qualities of teachers and students during the conversation between Laura and Ron. Look at the adjectives and complete the table by filling in the corresponding nouns and/or verbs. Leave the box blank if there is not such a noun or verb. Follow the example. Noun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 enthusiasm humor organization qualification boredom sense crash firm balance interest difference clearance Adjective enthusiastic humorous organized qualified bored Verb enthuse

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sensible crash firm

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balancing interested different clear miserable eager



eagerness

Part B: Cloze sentences Look again at the Words to note section and the adjectives in the table above. Use appropriate words from the list and table to complete the following sentences. Change the form of the words whenever necessary. 1. Because of her miserable childhood, she has a very strong personality. She developed her strength in adversity. 2. Since Arnold is always happy, he has the nickname “Smiler”. 3. Mr. Williams is highly respected by his students because of his good knowledge of his subject. 4. Mrs. Robinson’s resume states that she is interested in a wide range of

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misery



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organize qualify bore sense crash firm balance interest differ clear

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extra-curricular activities. 5. Being humorous is obviously one of the reasons for his popularity. Everybody likes to have a good laugh. 6. Jennifer’s new classmates are not interesting at all. Actually, they are just puddings! 7. The kids do not know much about traveling in space, but they are enthusiastic about the topic. 8. Parents should be firm with their children or they will grow up to be undisciplined. 9. Because of the weak economic climate, a lot of qualified lawyers are unemployed. 10. Susanna’ cousin is a handsome man with a strong, square jaw.

very creative activity if students think of their ideas and then put them into the form of a metaphor. Some students may think of well-known metaphors which are common in society and they may write these down; this can also be creative, if the teacher asks

appeared in Chinese contexts over several decades is “A teacher is an engineer of the soul.” Students may have creative interpretations about what this means in the modern world and how teachers help the design and development of the society of the future. The teacher could start the metaphor activity by giving an example from a different culture and asking the class how they would understand it before they

students the idea.

along the following lines, a teacher can bring heat and light to students to illuminate their minds and ignite the fire of their learning; a teacher can also bring brightness and happiness, like a sunny day. Plants need the sunlight to grow - they also need good soil and water, i.e. a good learning environment - but growth comes from within the plant. The sunshine of a good teacher can be necessary or vital but it is not the only condition; sunlight alone cannot make plants grow. “A good teacher is like a candle.” This example from Lebanon might be expanded as follows: teachers bring light to the darkness so that students can find their way in their learning and know the world better. However, the candle burns itself

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“A good teacher is a sunny day.” This example from Turkey might be explained



attempt to write their own metaphors. Here are two examples which may help to give





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them to interpret the metaphor. For example, a well-known metaphor which has often

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Metaphors Asking students to give their own metaphors for “good teachers” can be a

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Interpreting data described in the Intercultural notes about good teachers and students

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Expanding your creativity

away (the wax melts) so that it can give light; in the same way, teachers sacrifice themselves with their effort and hard work so that students can have the light of learning. In many East Asian and Middle Eastern contexts, students commonly give the metaphor that a good teacher is a “friend” (a good friend to share ideas with, a caring friend who helps when help is needed) or a “parent” (a kind mother, a strict father, showing care and concern). These are, of course, metaphors, so they do not necessarily mean that the teacher is literally a friend or parent; the metaphor does, however, give a strong emphasis, we think, on care and concern from the teacher, in a

“facilitator”. There are of course other British metaphors (A good teacher is a “gardener”, a “juggler”, a “circus performer” and others) but rarely “friend” or "parent". Students could speculate whether this means that East Asian and Middle

whereas British students see the teacher in more instrumental terms. If students have access to international students or to teachers from other countries, it would be useful to talk to them and check out these metaphors. The students can ask the international students or teachers for their metaphors, and then check the meanings of “teacher as a friend” or “teacher as a parent”. “Good” teachers

information, it is important to remind them of two points. First, these results are in rank order, so we can expect that when the aspects of “good teachers” or “good students” are placed in this order (according to the statistics used in the original research), it reflects some idea of their importance or the emphasis given according to the British or Chinese students; this doesn't mean that this is a complete list (it isn’t) so other items might have been mentioned but they would be lower down on the list. Second, the meanings given by students to particular phrases may not be identical, for example, “critical thinking” or “independent thinking” may not mean exactly the same in China and Britain; however, the comparison is interesting, even if it is not precise. Looking at the order for “good teachers”, it is clear that among these most frequently mentioned items in the Chinese list, the teacher being “warmhearted and

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and “good” students in China and Britain When students interpret the research





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Eastern students generally see the teacher more in terms of social relationships,

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students seem to emphasize that the teacher is a “leader”, a “guide”, a “manager”, a

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relative lack of “friend” or “parent” metaphors among British students. The British

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social relationship like that of a friend or parent. However, there is noticeably a

understanding” is important and so is being “a good moral example”, but these do not appear on the British list. Students might speculate whether these are particularly important characteristics some writers have argued that these characteristics have been important in Chinese education for many centuries. Is this just a matter of emphasis: these characteristics would appear on a British list but maybe much lower down? Certainly, it is not the case that British students think that teachers shouldn’t be good moral examples! Students could consider whether recent changes in the rapid developments in China have also changed these characteristics of how teachers are seen, or not. Similarly, on the British side, a good teacher “uses a variety of student

nowadays?

Looking at the order for “good students”, it is apparent that students developing “good character” and “preparing for the class in advance” are important in the

list there is emphasis given to “paying attention to the teacher” and “cooperating with the teacher”. These are not stressed on the Chinese list but this may be because they are understood as part of “respect” for the teacher in China (but not in Britain?). Obviously, British students do not try to develop “bad” characters, but maybe developing a “good” character is not so high on their list of the characteristics of good

moral, terms.

First, both China and Britain are large countries, so we would not expect such research to reflect everybody's opinion in these countries. In both contexts, many individuals will, naturally enough, have their own experiences and personal opinions. Second, the point of the activity here is that students should creatively interpret the results, using their own experience and ideas, so that they have practice in handling ideas in creative discussion. The purpose of the activity is not to discuss particular teachers or students but rather to think more generally about good teachers and students, perhaps with a view to future development and improvement. A final question, therefore, might be for the students to look at the lists from the research and then to ask themselves, “How can I be a better students?”

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In discussing these research results, two further points should be emphasized.



students because perhaps they think of being a student in more academic, rather than





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Chinese list but are not mentioned in the British one. On the other hand, in the British

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Perhaps teachers in China are developing lots of ideas about students’ activities

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matter of emphasis (they would appear on a Chinese list, but much lower down)?

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activities” and “is lively”, but these do not appear on the Chinese list. Is this simply a

Unit Ten
Part A: Comprehending the text Choose the most suitable completion for each of the following sentences. Circle your choice. 1. d) 2. c) 3. b) 4. c) 5. d)

Part B: Finding specific information in the text Complete the following chart by filling in the missing information from the text. SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT A SIXTH SENSE

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elbow

Samoan men Samoa hands blind people in (cannot assume nose of fingertips France they are French) Ear (cannot assume Tip of nose and blind girl in Italy she is Italian) lower part of left ear blind boy in Scotland Scotland Girl in Virginia Virginia(cannot assume country of origin)







tips of fingers

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Russian woman (Rosa Kuleshova)

Russia

general public

Russia

students Russia blind people in an Russia institute Part C: Interpreting the text Answer the following as fully as possible. 1. “Rosa really started something in Russia.” (Paragraph 3) What did she start?

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Countless tests bright light shone on ear backed away as if in pain

Bandages and tape over eyes - distinguish different colors and read large print Blindfolded/arms through a screen - tell difference between 3 colors Blindfolded/screened/all vision obstructed - read newspaper with elbow

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Description of Subjects

Country of Origin (if known)

Parts of Body Which “See”

Scientific Tests Carried Out

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An intense interest in the possible reality of “eyeless sight”.

2. Explain how “reason” could affect a possible sixth sense. A “sixth sense” doesn’t seem to “make sense”. Our reason tells us, for example, that we only see with our eyes - and certainly not with our elbows! But, putting reason to one side, people have long spoken of a sixth sense: people believe it exists, thought it is not fully developed. As the mind, and the ability to reason, develops in a child, the “normal” senses are more fully controlled by the mind. And the mind tends to reject what it cannot explain.

3. How does the answer to question 2 above explain why a sixth sense seems to be

not, yet, “gained control”. Children in Western countries “believe in ” Santa Claus; as they grow older they discard this belief - and of course it is reasonable to do so. But does this mean that the concept of Santa Claus is totally false?

4. In what way is a sixth sense like the whiskers of a cat? extremely sensitive to its surroundings-just like an extra, or a “sixth” sense.

Developing your skills

Persuasive element in writing Try to find other examples of each of the above techniques in the text. Make notes of the techniques in the table below. Technique presenting evidence numerous examples Examples

· In Italy, the scientist Cesare Lombroso discovered a blind girl who could “see” with the tip of her nose … and · In 1956, a blind schoolboy in Scotland was taught to tell the difference between different colored lights … ·In Italy, the scientist Cesare Lombroso discovered … ·In 1960, a medical board examined a girl in Virginia… presenting “scientifically” · In 1962, her physician took her to Moscow, where she was based research examined by the Soviet Academy of Science … ·When she was tested by a psychologist…

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A cat’s whiskers help it to detect danger, and hence to survive. Its whiskers are

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Because the whole personality of children is more open and growing. The mind has

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stronger in children than in adults?

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Using numbers

(large)

Appealing to common sense and reason

Extending your vocabulary Part A: Word forms: verbs and nouns Look at the table below. The words shown can all be bound in the text. Write the missing form of each word in the appropriate space. Follow the example. Verb Form of the Word compensate Discover describe accuse Noun Form of the Word compensation discovery description accusations

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Extending easily acceptable phenomena





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Using emotive vocabulary

·In carefully controlled tests… ·However, if the idea is the idea is approached from a scientific angle, then the possibilities are both real and immensely exciting. ·He discovered through countless tests that … · These few examples, taken from the thousands of possible examples… · … about one in every six people could learn to tell the difference between two colors after only an hour’s training. · There was soon a class of about 80 students training in what was being called eyeless sight. · … the phenomenon of “eyeless sight” is obviously not new. · … an amazing young woman … · … she learned to do other unbelievable things with her hands. ·And, in the most convincing test of all … · This fact that blind children are “seeing” with their ears and tongues and tips of their toes… · It is clear that different types and strengths of light affect the cells in different ways … ·It is clear that we do, in fact, all have an additional sense … · … our “reason” or “intelligence” rejects what could be a wonderful ability simply because it doesn’t understand it … · Hopefully, one day, … our “reason” will be able to accept this ability as normal, even if it cannot explain or understand it. ·All we need is a greater faith in our own abilities … ·We often read of cases where a disability in one sense can lead to another of the senses becoming extremely well-developed to compensate. It seems that the human body has a similar system to that of the · bat or the whale … ·It is “feeling” the area around us like the whiskers of a cat…

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differentiate reflect respond identify repeat appreciate receive reject explain

difference reflection response identification reception appreciation reception rejection explanation

Use any of the words from the table above to complete the following sentences. 1. A good student must be able to differentiate between facts and opinions.

student.

3. A blind person can often compensate for this weakness by having a very strong sense of hearing.

4. Any description of an incident which demonstrates the existence of a sixth sense usually attracts accusations of lying or cheating.

Part B: Word forms: adjectives Now use the adjective form of some of the words in the table above to complete the

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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word puzzle below.







5. The repetition of the test under slightly different conditions gave the same results.

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D E V Y L N E C A I S E I E S S I T V

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C N C A P A O E R G T T O T R

2. An appreciation of the difference between facts and opinions is essential in a god

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I I O N I Y

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I V E R E I P E E C A E R X E T N O P P C I T R M P L E T I E P R A P I F F E R E N T D B L E

Clues: 1. The brochure included a very descriptive text about one of the local beauty spots. 2. It was a very boring and repetitive process which took many days to complete. 3. All official vehicles must carry an identifying symbol on the door. 4. The image could clearly be seen on the reflective surface of the glass. 5. Many disabled people have at least one compensatory ability.

6. The class representatives were a group of very responsible and mature students. 7. The students were very appreciative of the work the presenter had obviously put into preparing for the class.

Write a sentence using the “hidden word” you have discovered if your answers are correct. Although they live in the same building, Sue and Jim go to different schools. Expanding your creativity Descriptions without sight

This exercise rounds off the unit most effectively. It should become very clear to students just how much of description depends, normally, on just sight. How would we describe the keys of a piano, for example? Or the difference between a red rose and a pink one?

After practicing in pairs, the activity could become a class-based competition.

students need to guess what they are. They might also suggest ways in which the description might be improved. Some possible examples might include: These feel hard when you touch them. They are light in weight — you can easily carry five hundred of them. They are about 15 centimeters long, and have about the same size circumference as a pencil. You would certainly need to use your eyes to use them, although you could hold them correctly without seeing them. They are used as eating utensils—but only in pairs! (Chopsticks) This object is smooth and almost round. It feels quite hard to the touch, but is very easily broken. When it is broken it can, in some circumstances, give off an extremely

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Students might be asked to read aloud their written descriptions and the rest of the





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from his students.

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9. The lecturer was very popular because he was so receptive to suggestions and ideas

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8. Explanatory notes can be found at the bottom of every page.

bad smell. However, in other circumstances, it can be very pleasant to eat when it has been cooked.
Unit 11 Understanding the text Part A: Comprehending the text 1. The author believes that everybody is equally superstitious.[F] 2. The text suggests that the British are the most superstitious people in the world.[F] 3. The British Admiralty disproved the belief that Fridays are unlucky.[F] 4. Superstition has more to do with logic than with religion.[F] 5. Some superstitions originally related to actions which did, in fact, mean the person would have an easier or more difficult time in the future.[T] 6. The modern practice of holding “housewarming parties” when a house is newly occupied is related to ancient beliefs of primitive peoples and to the Romans.[T] 7. Some people believe that if they leave a white cloth on the table overnight, somebody in the family will die.[T] 8. Some superstitions have more than one origin.[T] 9. The author believes that superstitions are absurd.[F] 10. The author is not superstitious.[F] Part B: Interpreting the text Answer the following as fully as possible. 1. How would you describe the author’s attitude towards superstitions? The author has an “open mind” : while the origin of some can be explained historically, and perhaps don’t “make sense” in the modern world, superstitions remain an important consideration in the lives of many people today. 2. The British Admiralty has repeatedly said that the story of the ship called “Friday” is not true. However, British seamen still believe it to be true. Why do you think this is? Many possible reasons: ? Their forebears (past “generations” of seamen) believed ---the credibility therefore grows with each new generation. ? Bureaucrats don’t always tell the truth. Sailors know this and may not believe the denials by the Admiralty. ? Seamen live a dangerous life; even the least superstitious sailors don’t want to take extra risks so they would naturally be cautious. 3. Why, do you think, are there so many superstitions concerning the kitchen and food? Paragraph 6 is important here. The underlying reason is probably that good food and drink is essential to good physical health. 4. The author suggests that although superstitions are probably nonsense, they are still important and useful. Why is this? Because they can never “ be defeated by logical reason”. Human beings, in other words, are not just rational beings and by implication we should remember this when we think other people are superstitious. 5. Explain the author’s intentions in writing the last sentence of the text. Again several points can be made. For example, the author does not have any proof about the

(An egg)

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“truth”; the sentence helps the author to “keep his /her options open”---i.e. a definite conclusion is avoided; the sentence refers back to a number of common superstitions; the reference to four superstitions in one sentence adds a lighthearted and humorous note --- the exclamation mark signals this light note.

Developing your skills Part A: Summarizing information in table format Complete the table by filling in any missing information. Action sweeping out the ho us e at N e w Ye ar Believed Result bring bad luck Reason/Origin(if known) Chinese believe in strong links between living and dead

avoiding

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doing so m et hi ng im po rta





Friday

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is a “ d a n g er o us

choosing

certain nu m be rs fo r ca r re gi str ati on s

bring good luck

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slightly different tone change suggests good luck

Friday was the day when Jesus died

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nt on Fr id ay s touching wood keeping salt “s af e” --no t sp ill in g it bring good luck salt protects life

” d a y

trees are home for a special god the only way to preserve meat in winter

taking embers from ol d fir ep la ce to ne w ho m e

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stirring food in the wr on g di re cti on



bring good luck from th e ol d to th e n e w h o

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the meal would be sp oi lt

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the “right ” direction is the same as the movement of the sun---i.e. it was “natural” and “normal” and therefore good household gods protect the home; their home is the fireplace

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m e cutting a cross in loaf of br ea d w hil e ba ki ng not allowing 13 pe op le to ea t fr o m th e sa m e m at eri al help bread to rise and th e d e vi l to le a v e prevent bad luck and b et ra y al prevent the devil from hiding inside the loaf

avoiding

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walking un de ra la dd er





protection from death

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ladders were associated with public execution

Part B: Using topic sentences to help structure a text Underline the key words in the following topic sentences taken from the text.

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13 people were at the table for Jesus’ last supper

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paragraph 5: To primitive societies, it was essential that the home was blessed…… paragraph 6: Work in the kitchen is an area of life that is particularly rich in superstitions. paragraph 7: Even the dining table has superstitious significance. paragraph 8: Outside the house, there are many more superstitions that may bring good or bad fortune. Now look at the notes below, which give information about superstitions in Scotland. Write a paragraph describing the superstitions in Scotland. Underline the key words in the topic sentence of your paragraph.

Part B: Word families The words in the box below can be grouped into four “families”—words that are related to the same topic. Place each word under the appropriate picture. pixie sprite fairy nymph elf blanket bedspread sheet cover shroud amulet mascot charm enchantment spell fireplace hearth mantel piece fender chimney

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In today’s more scientific age, many superstitions have disappeared from common belief, particularly those relating to ghosts or the devil. However, some superstitions remain. These tend to be related to certain events or activities. One example is anything to do with business because any business wants all the good fortune it can get. Another example is when people need to go on a voyage or if they need to fly – as both can be dangerous, people fear the price of ignoring superstitious beliefs may be too high.





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Extending your vocabulary Part A: Synonyms Replace each of the underlined words or expressions in the paragraph below with words from paragraphs 1—3 of the text at the beginning of this unit. Do not alter the meaning of the paragraph.

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Christmas and New Year are important festivals in Scotland, and many superstitions are associated with them. For example, you should carry a piece of coal on your first visit of the New Year to the house of your friends: this will “bring them good luck”. And you should hope that the first visitor to your home will have dark hair, as this will bring good luck to you. And at Christmas certain decorations are believed to bring special blessings, while dreams of her future husband can be induced, according to the superstition, if a young woman sleeps with some mistletoe under her pillow.

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Unit 12 Understanding the text Part A: Comprehending the text Make notes on the information given in the story by completing the table below. Main Characters Relationship between Marie and Jim Relationship between Marie and Jim Genevieve Critical Event ? Problem(s ) Faced by Marie Jim ? Solution(s) to the Problem(s) ? ? ? Marie, Jim, Genevieve Husband and wife friends a dance They had little “meeting of minds” about the importance of the dance. They had little money. Marie persuaded Jim. They limited their expenditure. They agreed to make it an “only event of its kind”. $2500 Genevieve’s

Surprise at the End of the Story Main Message of the Story

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? ? ? ?
? cheerful.

Price of the New Necklace

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necklace had pearls.

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fake

Real friendship is not based on pretence.

?

?

? ? ?

Before the Incident Marie and Genevieve had a relationship which Marie thought was friendship. Jim supported Marie, but couldn’t afford the luxuries that Marie thought were important. Pretentious and rather shallow. Housewife; “life quite comfortable”. Unrealistic; too much concerned with others’ opinions.





Part B: Interpreting the text Marie changed a lot at the end of the story because of an incident. The major details can be summarized in the flowchart below. Complete the flowchart by filling in the missing information.

After the Incident Genevieve didn’t want to continue the relationship. Marie went out to work; she enjoyed it, and stopped pretending to be wealthy. More realistic, down-to-earth, honest and likeable. “Taking in other people’s washing … sewing”; job in a shoe-shop. Realistic about what could make her happy/probably more

Developing your skills

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Part A: Understanding a story Read the story again, and then answer the questions below in the spaces provided. 1. Give three examples of first-person narration in the story. ? “Nonsense. If there’s anything … persuade him to come with you. ” ? “Why have you taken it off?” ? “I never did like fake pearls. You can always tell they’re fake.” 2. Give three examples of narrator’s description. ? In a fashionable part … who liked to pretend she was. ? He was a very down-to-earth … without pretence. ? But the more they discussed it … his wife not to go to the ball. 3. Identify the setting of the story. New York in about 1950 . 4. Identify the various scenes of the story. ? Marie talking with Genevieve, and being persuaded by her. ? Jim talking with Marie, and being persuaded by her. ? Jim and Marie enjoying the dance. ? Disappearance of the necklace. ? Purchase of a replacement necklace---for $2500 and Marie consequently having to go to work to earn money to help pay for it. ? Genevieve’s rejection of Marie because “women who went out to work” were not “her sort of people”. Genevieve was a snob. ? Marie’s character changes as a result of her experiences --- she enjoys working; and she sees now the foolishness of pretence and pretentiousness. ? Marie later learns the necklace had been a fake --- a “cheap old thing”! 5. Describe the three main characters. Marie: Not wealthy but liked people to think she was(at the beginning of the story). Rather selfish at the beginning of the story. Beautiful. Honest. Proud. Jim : Down-to-earth --- no pretence. Liked a simple life. Worked hard. Comfortable about who he was. Sensible --- careful with money. Good family man. Loved his wife. Honest. Proud. Genevieve: Rich. Rather patronizing. Arrogant(snobbish). Not very considerate or genuine towards her friends. 6. Outline the different stages of the story. Stage One: Jim working hard to improve financial situation of his family, planning for the future. Marie rather selfish and wanting to show people she was wealthier than she really was. Went out with Genevieve to expensive places. Stage Two: Persuading Jim to go to the Ball (and spend more money on Marie). Preparing For the Ball. Rented suit for Jim and borrowed clothes and necklace for Marie. Stage Three: The Ball. Marie happy and beautiful. Jim proud of his wife. Lost necklace. Stage Four: Marie had to work to repay necklace. Jim was also working very hard. No

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more Stage Five: has Improved for them even though they have had to work hard and are poorer than before. Marie no longer pretends to be something she isn’t. Life is good for them. 7. Identify the turning point of the story. There are several possible answers to this question, but they all relate to the same event … the losing of the necklace. It could be said the turning point is when Marie borrows the necklace ( or even when Jim agrees to go to the Ball) --- but they are all turning points because the necklace was eventually lost. Extending your vocabulary Part A: adjectives Which of the following adjectives could be used to describe Marie’s character before she lost the necklace. Define each of the adjectives and say whether or not you think they could be used to describe Marie’s character. Follow the example. 1. pretentious: means behaving in a way that is intended to impress other people but seems false or too deliberate. Marie was pretentious because she liked to pretend to be rich. 2. luxurious: means surrounded by luxury. Marie was too poor to enjoy luxurious surroundings. (This adjective is not used to describe people, but rather situations and settings.) 3. absent-minded: means forgetful. Marie almost certainly was absent-minded---assuming that she lost the necklace rather than that it was stolen from her. 4. pragmatic: means realistic and accepting the boundaries of reality. Marie was not pragmatic at the beginning of the story---but her experience taught her pragmatism. 5. sophisticated: means appreciative of pleasures and activities which are “superior” and “above average”. Marie aspired to sophistication at the beginning of the story but developed a pragmatic attitude after her experiences: her new pragmatism mirrors Jim’s, and perhaps she sees a certain falseness in Genevieve” so-called sophistication. 6. innocent: means child-like; and easily persuaded by “superior” people. Innocence in children is beautiful; for Marie her innocence caused her unnecessary worry. 7. unrealistic: means not being able to face facts. This is an antonym of pragmatism in many ways. Marie becomes realistic as the story develops. 8. tactful: if someone is tactful, he/she tries to “sweeten the pill”---i.e. state what is true in as gentle a way as possible. Marie did use tact in persuading Jim to go to the dance. Part B: Vocabulary in context How would you describe Jim and Genevieve? Based on what you know about them in the story, use three adjectives to describe each of them. Write your answers and explain your choices in the table below. Follow the example. going to expensive places. Marie started to realize she was wrong before. They have paid off the loan (and found out the necklace was not real). Life

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Adjective down-to-earth Jim pragmatic good-hearted persuasive Genevieve snobbish unkind

Reason Jim never pretended to be rich. Jim was realistic about his situation. Jim tried hard to protect and please Marie. She persuaded Marie to persuade Jim. She “turned her back on” Marie when she had to take a job. She was neither a real friend nor was she tactful in referring to the necklace she had loaned Marie.

Part B: 1. The ideas and themes apply to people of any age and from all cultures: they draw on universal human experience. 2. He anger the man by being too stern and perhaps self-righteous. Perhaps he “tried to give one lesson too many”… 3. Encourage students either to draw on their experience--- e.g. perhaps a classmate in their secondary school was too “cocky” and self-confident and did not do as well, in the end, as those who “ plodded” conscientiously through their studies. The teacher might also introduce the proverb “He who laughs last, laughs longest.” 4. For this exercise, fiction will probably be more productive; and group-work discussion and invention is recommended. An example: A young man who is too proud ( teach “ too big for his boots” ) boasts and “brags” so much about his abilities that the manager who has just offered him a job begins to worry about his reliability and his maturity. The manager consults a senior colleague, and together they decide that the young man is not suitable: at the end of his first week he is dismissed.

Developing your skills
Explaining the meanings of proverbs 3 -7- 10-5- 9- 1- 4- 6- 8-2 Let sleeping dogs lie. If something potentially dangerous or troublesome is peaceful and not bothering anybody, do not disturb it or in any way “re-waken” it. ’t teach an old god new tricks. You can can’

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Part A: d

b

d

b

c c

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Unit 17

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Somebody who has been doing something in one way for a long time finds it very difficult to change the way he or she does it. The older a person gets, the more difficult it is to accept change. Beware of a silent dog and still water. Things that are potentially dangerous but which at that time look peaceful and harmless should be treated with caution. If you lie down with dogs, you will get up with fleas. If a person associates with bad people, he or she will take on some of their bad habits or reputations.

Expanding your vocabulary
Table one 5 Flying Rushing Dashing roaring 4 Speeding Sprinting Hurrying shooting 3 Marching Striding Hastening Nipping springing 3 Pleasant Lovely pretty

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The old man was trudging along the sidewalk. The hare dashed off and the tortoise inched forward. The donkey, with its heavy load, plodded laboriously along the mountain path. The view from the mountain is magnificent. Miss White looked stunning as she posed for photographs.

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5 Gorgeous Exquisite Stunning stupendous



4 Wonderful Magnificent marvellous



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2 Ambling Strolling moving

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1 Inching Creeping Edging Trudging plodding 1 Repulsive Revolting Hideous grotesque 2 Awful dreadful terrible horrible ghastly frightful horrendous



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Part B: Interpreting the text 1. Human beings believe dreams may carry significant or helpful messages. 2. The writer dislikes the pressures of modern life but appreciates scientific developments. 3. It can just measure brain activity; this is not the same as understanding what dreams are. 4. That dreams are mysterious; fascinating to many people throughout history; perhaps ultimately unfathomable.

Developing your skills 1. Life in the past Small villages Slow

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Understanding the text Part A: comprehending the text 1. he dreams of the consequences of his meanness; many people believe dreams carry a message. 2. foretell future events; heed any warnings that come in dreams. 3. the pace of life is now very hectic. 4. know the working of the brain; gain a little knowledge about the activities in the brain. 5. eye movements; less relaxed 6. the person needs to relax as fully as possible; periods of REM sleep occur regurly 7. believe that dreaming is necessary and useful; may help us remember important things in the present. 8. attempted to study dreams scientifically; probably dishonest.





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Unit 18

Modern life Cities Fast/ hectic

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Same routine Continuity Not great or many regular

Frequent changes Change Many and varied Sometimes difficult

2. Up: Sleep is an interesting topic today because many people have problems with sleeping. Left: EEGs, psychology and sociology give some insights. Right: Jung and Freud attempted scientific studies— not a lot of success. Down: Beware of charlatants – in dark roms and on internet.

2. really happen 3. beforehand 5. make sth tidy by removing what is inside it 7. stop doing

Creative Reading Unit 19 Comprehending the text

Relevant Qualifications

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Reason(s) Application

Applicant 1 Applicant 2 for Serious, good at Learn more about communicating, international hardworking business skills, improve English Nothing specific Degree, including business-oriented electives, diploma in statistics





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Applicant 3 Work international business



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Part B: 1. pay attention 4. admittedly 6. at last

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in Nothing specified, but references to “business qualifications”, appears to be still an undergraduate Nothing Ran own business Nothing specific, specific---except at university, but a general liking perhaps claimed chosen as “Young for people “ readiness for Businessman of the business Year” Writing chess, Sport, world Scuba diving,

Relevant Experience

Interests

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Extending your vocabulary Part A: 1. immemorial 2. plague 3. circumstances 4. varied 5. flatter 6. obsessed 7. locusts 8. pulse 9. Sociology 10. pressures

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accounts, fishing

affairs, literature

Personality

Outing and keen

orienteering, international penfriends, snooker, darts Confident, varied Sociable, friendly, experience, serious confident

Intrepreting the text 1. What are the components of the MBA course?
Full range of options, including accounts, financial management, marketing, product development, general management and administration, global business, corporate finance, study tours abroad and within USA.

4. What suggestions would you make o the two unsuccessful applicants when they write to apply for another MBA course so they can improve their reponses? When university tutors or company personnel officers receive applications which they reject, they usually simply write a brief letter to applicants to say they have been unsuccessful. However, some tutors or employers do give feedback( especially after an interview) to indicate how an application could have been improved. This guidance can be very helpful for applicants to develop subsequent applicants. Students here can take on this advisory role: they should be encouraged to look for specific weaknesses in the letters and suggest how to improve them( by omissions or inclusion). Do not accept very general statements; always get the students to say exactly “how” the improvements should be made.

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3. How would you rank the three applicants? On paper, candidate 2 is clearly the strongest. But does this mean he /she is the “best”? If you know your students’ abilities well, encourage the strongest ones to develop arguments supporting the other two candidates; encourage debate: is it a good idea, for example, to invite all candidates for personal interview? “ Do we have time?” “Can we afford the costs?”





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2. what kind of applicants will benefit more from the course? Those with particular: a) academic qualifications b) personal qualities c) experience For tasks b) and c), group work is probably more useful than pair work. (More than two people are likely to sit on the selection panel.)

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Creative Reading Unit

20

Letter

1

Letter

3

Letter

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Letter

4

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Letter

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Writer’s Problem Tracy’s Advice Former “best friend” is now not People change. Remember the friendly at all. good times you shared. And change yourself , too—seek new friends to share your present interests. Parents always argue. Especially Not too much you can do. Tell about money . After last argument Mum you are hurt by arguments Dad disappeared for two weeks. and you love both Mum and Dad. Maybe talk to another close family member about this. Mum always criticizes me. She says Maybe you need to talk to a I’m not as good as my sister. grown-up in your family. Maybe your Mum grumbles because she loves you so much, and she gets irritable because of her job plus her housework. Try to feel good about her. I’m fatter than any of my friends, Stop worrying. Just accept that and therefore am depressed. a) you are not overweight, and b) you’ll probably lose some teenage weight very soon. Watch your diet. Exercise. Think positively: you are great—being a bit bigger than your friends is no real problem. Long-absent and divorced Dad Your own ideas are right---these phoned “ out of the blue”. Haven’t new doubts and questions are seen him for many years—but he useless. Don’t blame anyone--didn’t want to speak to me; wanted but tell your Mum your feeling, to speak to his “ real daughter” (my and ask her if your Dad was sister). So I am very confused and telling the truth about his “ real don’t know who my real Dad is; also daughter”. (Be patient with your feel insecure about my Mum and Mum , but you have the right to jealous of sister. I want to just forget know). Helplines can also it, but am afraid he’ll phone again advise you if you and your Mum and say some more nasty things. can’t sort it out.

Interpreting the text 1) Most writers of such advice are older women, like an aunt. They advise about personal problems which often cause agony. 2) When Linda is older many more things--- good and bad--- will have happened to her. At that time her present “ big” problem will seem small and insignificant. 3) Her Mum would probably be sensitive about Jane’s emphasizing the “ bit of extra money “ ; she might realize that Jane thinks it’s her “fault for being too greedy “ . Tracy advises not raising an critical comments. 4) They grumble because they’re worried, and they’re because “ they love you so much “ . 5) Tracy has given a lot of reasons for Billie to “stop worrying “ . Those reasons far outweigh the “problem “: Tracy advises Billie to think about the good things rather than the bad---especially since nothing is really “bad” except Billie’s “bad” ( and negative ) thinking. 6) Her Dad has raised doubts in her mind; she now feels “ bad about my Mum “ and doesn’t know “what sort of a person my mother really is”. She is now jealous of her sister , the “real daughter “ of the man she regarded as her Dad, and does not know who her father was, “if it wasn’t Dad”. She is confused--- and worried that he will phone again and confuse her further.

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