I. Grammar and Vocabulary Section A Directions: After reading the passages below, fill in the blanks to make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank. (A) One of my most surprising findings as a student is 1 parents do not always accept your adulthood. I was always told that once you get to college, your parents realize that you have been living 2 your own and can make your own decisions. This idea was rejected 3 I came home for Thanksgiving. At first, everything was going as 4 （Smoothly） as possible. The first night I went to the Berkeley campus to visit my friend Sara, without any argument from my mother. 5 when I called her to say I had decided to spend the night at Sara’s dorm, my mom informed me that she wanted me home at one a.m. I was wild with anger! I 6 (make) my own decisions how late a young man should stay out for several months. However much I tried to reason with my mother, she insisted things are different when I am home, and that they were the 7 paying my bills. And kids, this is true. No matter how much you want to fight it, mommy and daddy are still holding the purse strings, whether you are 18 or not. Sometimes it is best to sit back, shut up, and do 8 they ask. (B) A land free from destruction, plus wealth, natural resources, and labor supply — all these were important factors in helping England to become the center for the Industrial Revolution, but they were not enough. Something else 1 (need) to start the industrial process. That “something special” was men — creative individuals 2 could invent machines, find new sources of power, and establish business organizations to reshape society. The men who created the machines of the Industrial Revolution came from many backgrounds and many occupations. Many of them were more inventors than scientists. A pure scientist appreciates 3 (conduct) his research accurately. He is not necessarily working 4 his findings can be used. An inventor or one interested in applied science is usually trying to make something that has a concrete(具体的) use. He may strive 5 (solve) a problem by using the theories of science or by experimenting through trial and error. Regardless of his method, he is working to obtain 6 specific result: the construction of a harvesting machine, the burning of a light bulb, or one of many other objectives. Many of the people who developed the machines of the Industrial Revolution were inventors, not 7 (train) scientists. A few were both scientists and inventors. Even those who had little or no training in science 8 not have made their inventions if a groundwork had not been laid by scientists years before. Section B Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need. A. adapt B. natives G. established H. practically C. identities I. route
D. cost-saving E. alert J. enrolled K. significant
Officials at Boston College have made what may be a critical decision: they’ve stopped giving out new email accounts to incoming students. The officials realized that the students had already established digital 1 by the time they entered college, so the new email addresses were just not being used, but, 2 , the college will offer forwarding (转发) services. Starting next year, freshman 3 at Boston College won’t be given an actual email account complete with login and inbox, just an email address. This address in the format of johnsmith@bc. edu will simply forward mail to the student’s already 4 inbox, be it Gmail, Windows Live Mail, Yahoo Mail, AOL, or whatever else they may be using. The college reached a smart decision after first looking into outsourcing （外包） their email to the cloud. While the Boston College decision may have been made for 5 reasons more than anything, we can easily imagine this as being the start of a new trend. Can you even imagine a U.S. college student who didn’t have an email address of their own by the time they were a freshman? It’s 6 unheard of. Today’s students are digital 7 immersed (浸润) in technology from the day they were born. It simply doesn’t make sense to give them yet another account to manage when they enter college. By going this 8 , there are still some challenges to overcome, though. For example, a student who changes their email carrier will probably forget to 9 the institution to the change and could then miss out on 10 messages from the university with regard to their courses, scholarship, safety information, etc. In the end, we think the decision Boston College made could easily be the start of a new trend. We’re sure the students like it, too. II. Reading Comprehension Section A All over the world, people admire the beauty and grace of butterflies. Butterflies come in every color imaginable, and their 1 display an incredible variety of patterns. The largest butterfly, Queen Alexandra’s Birdwing, has a wingspan (翼展) of up to 280 millimeters and lives in Papua New Guinea. The smallest, the Western Pygmy Blue in the southern U.S., has a wingspan of only 12 millimeters. Sadly, some of these beautiful creatures are now 2 . Estimates indicate that between 15 and 20 thousand species of butterflies exist around the world. A number of these species are endangered, over 20 in Japan 3. Although that number may seem small, losing even one species would be 4 . Nowadays scientists even look to butterflies as a 5 of the environment’s health, since they are 6 to environmental changes. Many environmentalists around the world are eager to protect the endangered butterflies from extinction. The American Museum of Natural History in New York, for example, has an unusual butterfly exhibit. This exhibit 7 the important role that butterflies play in our environment. In recent years, environmental groups have made significant progress in 8 endangered butterfly populations. Governments throughout Asia have passed laws to help protect endangered wildlife, including butterflies. An area called Butterfly Valley in Assam, India, has become the focus of conscious 9 to protect the butterflies’ habitat (栖息地). Other projects in Serbia, Japan, and Canada are also hoping to 10 . Some of these efforts are already starting to work. The population of the El Segundo Blue Butterfly in California, for instance, has increased by 8 percent since 2010.
Finding a cure for the butterfly crisis is, 11 , not just for environmental groups. 12 citizens can plant butterfly gardens to support and enjoy these gentle creatures. A group of female prisoners in Belfair, Washington, are helping to rescue an endangered species called Taylor’s Checkerspot. They recognize how 13 seemingly insignificant creatures can be. The world cannot afford to lose any butterflies. As environmentalist John Muir once 15 , “When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it 15 to everything else in the Universe.” 1. A. colors B. bodies C. wings D. feelers 2. A. out of control B. in great danger C. on the fly D. out of date 3. A. nearby B. though C. besides D. alone 4. A. predictable B. possible C. imaginable D. terrible 5. A. factor B. picture C. measure D. display 6. A. exposed B. accustomed C. sensitive D. resistant 7. A. highlights B. changes C. replaces D. finds 8. A. preserving B. controlling C. observing D. recognizing 9. A. projects B. efforts C. steps D. groups 10. A. set an example B. keep the promise C. make a difference D. take the time 11. A. however B. furthermore C. otherwise D. therefore 12. A. Distinguished B. Leading C. Senior D. Ordinary 13. A. graceful B. significant C. pitiful D. mysterious 14. A. proposed B. commented C. promised D. recommended 15. A. restricted B. adapted C. contributed D. tied Section B: A(CET4) Classified advertising is that advertising which is grouped in certain sections of the paper and is thus distinguished from display advertising. Such groupings as “Help Wanted”, “Real Estate”, “Lost and Found” are made, the rate charged being less than for display advertising. Classified advertisements are a convenience to the reader and a saving to the advertiser. The reader who is interested in a particular kind of advertisement finds all advertisements of that type grouped for him. The advertisers may, on this account, use a very small advertisement if it were placed among larger advertisements in the paper. It is evident that the reader approaches the classified advertisement in a different frame of mind from that in which he approaches the other advertisements in the paper. He turns to a page of classified advertisements to search for the particular advertisement that will meet his needs. As his attention is voluntary, the advertiser does not need to rely too much extent on display type to get the reader’s attention. Formerly all classified advertisements were of the same size and did not have display type. With the increase in the number of such advertisements, however, each advertiser within a certain group is competing with others in the same group for the reader’s attention. In many cases, the result has been an increase in the size of the space used and the addition of headlines and pictures. In that way, the classified advertisement has in reality advertisement. This is particularly true of real estate advertising? 1. All of the following facts are advantages of classified advertisement for advertisers EXCEPT that ____. A) classified advertisement charges less money
B) it is easier to attract the attention of the target consumers C) it provides more information for the readers D) it does not have to rely too much on display type 2. One of the examples given of types of classified advertisement is ____ A) houses for sale B) people who are asking for help C) people who are lost D) job vacancies 3. What sort of attitude do people have when they look at classified advertisement, according to the writer? A) They are in the frame of mind to buy anything. B) They are looking for something they need. C) They feel lost because there are so many advertisements. D) They feel the same as when they look at display advertisements. 4. According to the passage, in which way have the classified advertisements changed nowadays? A) They depend more on display type. B) More money is charged for them. C) They are divided into more groups. D) They are less formal. 5. Why have classified advertisements changed in appearance? A) Because people no longer want headlines and pictures. B) Because real estate advertising is particularly truthful now. C) Because the increase in the number of such advertisements means they have to be small now. D) Because there are more advertisements now and more competition among advertisers. B（高考） A team of engineers at Harvard University has been inspired by Nature to create the first robotic fly. The mechanical fly has become a platform for a series of new high-tech integrated systems. Designed to do what a fly does naturally, the tiny machine is the size of a fat housefly. Its mini wings allow it to stay in the air and perform controlled flight tasks. “It’s extremely important for us to think about this as a whole system and not just the sum of a bunch of individual components (元件),” said Robert Wood, the Harvard engineering professor who has been working on the robotic fly project for over a decade. A few years ago, his team got the go-ahead to start piecing together the components. “The added difficulty with a project like this is that actually none of those components are off the shelf and so we have to develop them all on our own,” he said. They engineered a series of systems to start and drive the robotic fly. “The seemingly simple system which just moves the wings has a number of interdependencies on the individual components, each of which individually has to perform well, but then has to be matched well to everything it’s connected to,” said Wood. The flight device was built into a set of power, computation, sensing and control systems. Wood says the success of the project proves that the flying robot with these tiny components can be built and manufactured. While this first robotic flyer is linked to a small, off-board power source, the goal is eventually to equip it with a built-in power source, so that it might someday perform data-gathering work at rescue sites, in farmers’ fields or on the battlefield. “Basically it should be able to take off, land and fly around,” he said. Wood says the design offers a new way to study flight mechanics and control at insect-scale. Yet, the power, sensing and computation technologies on board could have much broader applications. “You can start thinking about using them to answer open scientific questions, you know, to study biology in ways that would be difficult with the animals, but using these robots instead,” he said. “So there are a lot of technologies and open interesting scientific questions that
are really what drives us on a day to day basis.” 1. The difficulty the team of engineers met with while making the robotic fly was that __________. A. they had no model in their mind B. they did not have sufficient time C. they had no ready-made components D. they could not assemble the components 2. It can be inferred from paragraphs 3 and 4 that the robotic fly __________. A. consists of a flight device and a control system B. can just fly in limited areas at the present time C. can collect information from many sources D. has been put into wide application 3. Which of the following can be learned from the passage? A. The robotic flyer is designed to learn about insects. B. Animals are not allowed in biological experiments. C. There used to be few ways to study how insects fly. D. Wood’s design can replace animals in some experiments. 4. Which of the following might be the best title of the passage? A. Father of Robotic Fly B. Inspiration from Engineering Science C. Robotic Fly Imitates Real Life Insect D. Harvard Breaks Through in Insect Study C（模拟） Psychologists take opposing views of how external rewards, from warm praise to old cash, affect motivation and creativity. Behaviorists, who study the relation between actions and argue that rewards can improve performance at work and school. Some other researchers who study various aspects of mental life, maintain those rewards often destroy creativity by encouraging dependence on approval and gifts from others. The latter view has gained many supporters, especially among educators. But the careful use of small monetary rewards sparks in grade-school children suggesting that properly presented inducements indeed aid inventiveness, according to a study in the June Journal Personality and Social Psychology. “If they know they're working for a reward and can focus on a relatively challenging task, they show the most creativity,” says Robert Esenberger of the University of Delaware in Newark. “But it's easy to kill creativity by giving rewards for poor performance or creating too much anticipation for rewards.” A teacher who continually draws attention to rewards or who hands out high grades for ordinary achievement ends up with uninspired students, Esenberger holds. As an example of the latter point, he notes growing efforts at major universities to tighten grading standards and restore falling grades. In earlier grades, the use of so-called token economics, in which students handle challenging problems and receive performance-based points toward valued rewards, shows promise in raising effort and creativity, the Delaware psychologist claims. 1. Psychologists are divided with regard to their attitudes toward ____. A) the choice between spiritual encouragement and monetary rewards B) the appropriate amount of external rewards C) the study of relationship between actions and D) the effects of external rewards on students' performance
2. What is the view held by many educators concerning external rewards for students? A) They approve of external rewards. B) They don't think external rewards. C) They have doubts about external rewards. D) They believe external rewards can motivate small children, but not college students. 3. According to the result of the study mentioned in the passage, what should educators do to stimulate motivation and creativity? A) Give rewards for performances which deserve them. B) Always promise rewards. C) Assign tasks which are not very challenging. D) Be more lenient to students when mistakes are made. 4. It can be inferred from the passage that major universities are trying to tighten their grading standards because they believe ____. A) rewarding poor performance may kill the creativity of students’ B) punishment is more effective than rewarding C) failing uninspired students helps improve their overall academic standards D) discouraging the students anticipation for easy rewards is matter of urgency 5.Which of the following facts about “token economics” is not correct? A) Students are assigned challenging tasks. B) Rewards are given for good performances. C) Students are evaluated according to the effort they put into the task. D) With token economics, students’ creativity can be enhanced. D（模拟） “There is a senseless concept that children grow up and leave home when they are 18, and the truth is far from that,” says sociologist Larry Bumpass of the University of Wisconsin. Today, unexpected numbers of young adults are living with their parents. Analysts raised a variety of reasons for this return to the nest. One important reason is that the marriage age is rising, a condition that makes home and its pleasantness particularly attractive to young people, which is second to skyrocketing housing costs to which young people find their wings attached. Besides, a high divorce rate and a declining remarriage rate are sending economically pressed and emotionally hurt survivors back to parental shelters. For some, the expense of an away-from-home college education has become so great that many students now attend local schools. Living at home, says Knighton, a school teacher, continues to give her security and moral support. Her mother agreed, “It is ridiculous for the kids to pay all that money for rent. It makes sense for kids to stay at home.” But sharing the family home requires adjustments for all. There are the quarrels over bathrooms, telephones and privacy. Some families, however, manage the delicate balancing act. But for others, it proves too difficult. Michelle Del Turco, 24, has been home three times — and left three times. “What I considered a social drink, my dad considered an alcohol problem,” she explains. “He never liked anyone I dated, so I either had to hide away to meet them at friends’ houses.” It is really hard to say how long adult children should live with their parents before moving on. Nevertheless, it is commonly recognized that lengthy homecomings are a mistake and they
accidentally destroy the advantage of brief visits that will strengthen the relationship between parents and children. Children, struggling to establish separate identities, can end up with “a sense of inadequacy, defeat and failure.” And aging parents, who should be enjoying some financial and personal freedom, find themselves stuck with responsibilities, which is definitely a stress for them. (Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN EIGHT WORDS.) 1. What’s the most important reason for young adults’ returning to the nest? 2. Knighton enjoys living at home due to ________. 3. What has resulted in the Michelle Del Turco’s unhappy experience with her dad? 4. From the passage, we can conclude it is ________ that benefit(s) both adult children and their parents to avoid lengthy homecomings.
I. Grammar and Vocabulary （A）1. that 2. On 3. When 4. Smoothly(平稳地) 5. But 6. had been making 7. ones 8. what/whatever （B）1. was needed 2. who/that 3. conducting 4. so that 5. to solve 6. a 7. trained 8. might/could/would B. 1. C 2. F 3. J 4. G 5. D 6. H(practically 几乎，事实上) 7. B 8. I 9. E 10. K II.Reading Comprehension sectionA:1~5 CBDDC 6~10 CAABC 11~15 ADBBD section B: A 篇 keys： 1. C 分类广告的优越性不包括为读者提供更多的信息。分类广告的优越性在于收费低、无需 很多的展现形式，以及更易吸引对某类广告感兴趣的读者的注意力。 2. A 本题考察对“Real Estate”的理解，它的意思是“房地产”，故选项 A 正确。 3. B 当读者看分类广告时，他们会搜索自己需要的信息。 4. A 根据文章，分类广告更多地依赖展现形式。推断题。文章最后指出，由于竞争的加剧， 分类广告商们不得不用大标题和图片来吸引读者的注意力。故选项 A 正确。 5. D 分类广告的变化是由于“With the increase in the number of such advertisements, however, each advertiser within a certain group is competing with others in the same group for the reader’s attention”，故选项 D 正确。 B 篇 keys：CBDC C 篇 keys： 1. D 心理学家认为外界的奖励对学生会有不同的影响。事实辨析题。根据文章第一句话 “Psychologists take opposing views of how external re wards, from warm praise to old cash, affect motivation and creativity”可知，心理学家的分歧在于来自外界的奖励对学生的积极性 和创造性究竟有什么影响，故选项 D 正确. 2. C 许多教育家对外界的奖励持怀疑态度。文章第二段第一句话提到，后一种观点得到了许 多教育工作者的支持，从第一段中可知，后一种观点是：奖励会促使学生对别人的赞许和馈 赠产生依赖心理， 因此奖励会破坏创造精神。 由此可知， 他们对奖励的正面作用持怀疑态度。 故选项 C 正确。 3. A 根据文中的研究结果表明， 教育家通过给予学生应得的奖励来提高他们的积极性和创造 性。文章第三段指出，给予学生恰当的奖励，可使他们发挥更大的创造性，但如果对糟糕的 表现也给予奖励，或让学生对奖励有太多的期许，反而会扼杀创造性。故选项 A 正确。 4. B 从文中可以得知，一些重点大学试图加强等级标准，因为他们相信惩罚比奖励更有效。 事实辨析题。 从文中第四段可知， 许多大学之所以严格考试的评分标准， 是因为 “A teacher ... who hands out high grades for ordinary achievement ends up with uninspired students” 。 5. C 根据学生的表现对他们作出评价。事实辨析题。根据最后一段的意思，在这种奖励制度 下，要根据学生的表现对他们做出评价，而不仅仅是他们花费了多少精力来完成任务，故选 项 C 正确。 D 篇：1. skyrocketing housing costs 2. a sense of security and moral support 3. They failed to manage the delicate balancing act. 4. brief visits