Unit 4 Astronomy: the science of the stars
Syllabus Vocabulary A．释义记词 1．religion believing in a god 2．chain 3．gravity 4．satellite 5．float n. row of metal rings joined together n. the force of attraction n. thing that goes around a planet vi. & vt. & n. stay on top of a liquid n. one of the different ways of
B．语境填词 system， theory， crash， pull， fundamental 6．I help my friend pull through. 7．He crashed his car into a wall and fortunately he was not hurt. 8．A strange virus struck my computer system so that it broke down.
9．One theory about the moon is that it is a piece broken off from the earth. 10．There is a fundamental difference in attitude between these two politicians.
C．提示猜词 11.atmosphere n．?搭配： ～pressure大气压； home～家 庭气氛 近义词： air, gas 反
12．multiply vi. & vt.?搭配： ～five by ten用十乘五 义词： divide
13．thus adv.?搭配： as～像这样； ～and～如此这般， 以这种方式 近义词： therefore
15．pull n. & vt. & vi.?搭配： ～off驶离； ～out拉出；驶 出； ～over把车开过来； ～through渡过难关 draw 反义词： push 近义词： drag,
D．联想构词 16．violent adj.猛烈的；激烈的；强暴的?violently adv.强 烈地；猛烈地；激烈地?violence n．暴力；暴力行为 17．harmful adj.有害的?harm n．伤害；损害；危害?
harm vt.伤害；损害；危害?harmless adj.无害的
18．exist vi.存在；生存?existence n．存在；生存；生活 (方式) 19．puzzle n．谜；难题 vt. & vi.(使)迷惑；(使)为难? puzzled adj.困惑的；迷惑的?puzzling adj.使人困惑的；难解的 20．gentle adj.温和的；文雅的?gently adv.有教养地；温柔 地?gentleman n．绅士
Key Phrases E．短语完形 21．in time及时；终于 22．lay eggs下蛋 23．give birth to产生；分娩 24．in one's turn轮到某人；接着 25．prevent ...from 阻止；制止 26．block out 挡住(光线)
27．cheer up感到高兴；感到振奋 28．now that既然 29．break out突然发生；爆发 30．watch out密切注视；当心；提防
F．短语填空(选择以上短语填空) 31．A war broke_out in Syria in the year of 2013. 32．Now_that everyone is here, let's start work. 33．I arrived at the cinema just in_time for the film. 34．Nothing can prevent him from carrying out the plan. 35．I do hope he can cheer up and accept the challenge of life bravely.
Key Sentences G．原句诵读 36．No one knows exactly how the earth began, as (引导词) it happened so long ago. 37．The earth became so violent that it was not clear whether (引导词) the shape would last or not. 38．What (引导词) is even more important is that as the earth cooled down, water began to appear on its surface.
39．It was not immediately obvious that (引导词) water was to be fundamental to the development of life. 40．Why (引导词) they suddenly disappeared still remains a mystery. 41．“We are too far from the earth now to feel (feel) its pull, ” he explained, “so we feel as if there is no gravity at all...”
42．When we get closer to the moon, we shall feel its gravity pulling (pull) us, but it will not be as strong a pull as the earth's. 43．“Oh dear，” I cried, “walking does need a bit of practice now that (引导词) gravity has changed.” 44．We watched, amazed as fire broke out on the outside of the spaceship as (引导词) the earth's gravity increased.
Grammar H．单元语法填空(主语从句) 45．Whether (That, Whether) we will go for an outing tomorrow remains unknown. 46．It is very likely that (that, whether) they will hold a meeting. 47．What (That, What) we can't get seems better than what we have.
Words 考点1 【教材原句】 harmful adj.有害的
What many scientists believe is that the
continued presence of water allowed the earth to dissolve harmful gases and acids into the oceans and seas.
Many people are aware of the harmful effects of smoking. 很多人都意识到吸烟的危害。 Drinking much can be harmful to your health. 喝太多酒会对你的健康有害。
对 点 自 测 Ⅰ.写作巧表达 在床上看书会对你的眼睛有害。 ①Reading in bed is harmful to your eyes. ②Reading in bed will do harm to your eyes. ③Reading in bed will do your eyes harm. 先向他道歉没什么坏处。
④There is no harm in apologizing to him first. ⑤It does no harm to apologize to him first. Ⅱ.翻译句子 ⑥我对她并无恶意。 I_mean_no_harm_to_her.
They laid eggs too and existed on the earth
for more than 140 million years. 【要点提示】 不用于进行时。 exist只作不及物动词，不用于被动语态，也
【归纳拓展】 ?1?exist vi.生存；存在 exist in存在于?? exist on ?＝live on?靠??生存 ?2?existence n.存在；生活 in existence存在 come into existence出现；产生 bring sth. into existence使某物出现；产生
Many strange ideas existed in his mind. 他脑袋里装着许多怪主意。 The kitty exists on milk. 这只小猫靠牛奶生存。
对 点 自 测 Ⅰ.单句改错 ①Few of these monkeys are existing in the
wild.are_existing→exist ②We were existed on a diet of rice.去掉were
Ⅱ.语法填空(介、副词) ③They cannot exist on such a small income. ④Scientists have many theories about how the universe first came into existence. ⑤The custom of arranged marriages still exists in many countries. ⑥The elephant is the largest land animal in existence.
vt. & vi.(使)迷惑；(使)为难
How life began on earth is one of the biggest
puzzles that scientists found hard to solve. 【要点提示】 语从句。 puzzle在句中作可数名词，其后that引导定
【归纳拓展】 ?1?puzzle vt. & vi.?使?迷惑 puzzle sb.使某人迷惑 puzzle over/about sth.苦苦思考某事 ?2?puzzled adj.迷惑的；不解的 be puzzled about/as to对??感到迷惑 puzzled look/expression迷惑的表情
She had a puzzled look on her face. 她满脸迷惑的表情。 The deeper meaning of the poem remains a puzzle. 这首诗的深层含义仍然是个谜。
对 点 自 测 Ⅰ.对号入座 ①Why he left puzzled me much.C A.n.谜；猜谜 B．n.难题 C．vt.使迷惑；使为难 D．vi.迷惑；为难 ②I'm in a puzzle and don't know how to solve it.B ③I bought a book of puzzles for children.A ④Jim puzzled over this question all evening.D
Ⅱ.语法填空(介、副词) ⑤They are still puzzling about/over how the accident has happened. ⑥I'm puzzled about what to do next.
n. & vt.拉(力)；拖；牵引力
As the rocket rose into the air, we were
pushed back into our seats because we were trying to escape the pull of the earth's gravity.
【归纳拓展】 pull away?使?离开；拉开；拉走 pull down拆毁 pull in?车?进站；拉进；停车 pull off?成功地?完成；扯下；脱去 pull out拔出；退出；抽去；?车、船等?驶出；摆脱困境 pull over驶到路边 pull on穿戴 pull up停车；停下；拔除 pull through使从?受伤?中活下来；渡过难关
Jack pulled the drawer open. 杰克拉开了抽屉。 Could you please pull the blind? 请把百叶窗拉开好吗？ He will pull through his illness soon. 他很快就会恢复健康的。
对 点 自 测 Ⅰ.语法填空(介、副词) ①The project became so expensive that we had to pull out. ②Linda finally pull off the tough task. ③The school bus pulled over and picked up some students. ④Luckily the train had just pulled in so I got on the train on time. ⑤Seeing a boy struggling in the river, the PLA man pulled off his uniform and jumped into the river.
Ⅱ.短语填空 ⑥The bus pulling up outside the inn will soon take the visitors downtown. ⑦They are pulling down those houses to make room for a new hotel. ⑧She pulled up the weeds by the roots. ⑨He's very ill, but with careful nursing, he'll pull through. ⑩Hearing the alarm ringing, I pulled on my shoes and rushed out.
Phrases 考点5 【教材原句】 in time 及时；终于
They were in time to produce carbon,
nitrogen, water vapour and other gases, which were to make the earth's atmosphere.
“总有一天”的意思，此时，句子谓语动词一般用将来时。 I stepped back, just in time to avoid the racing car. 我向后退了一步，正好及时避开了赛车。 If you keep on, you will succeed in time. 如果坚持下去，总有一天你会成功的。
He always comes to work on time. 他总是按时上班。 At no time will smoking be permitted here. 这里绝不允许吸烟。 They will leave China in no time. 他们很快就会离开中国。 Don't recite all together; one at a time. 不要一起背，一次背一个。
对 点 自 测 Ⅰ.补全短语 ①at all times 无论何时；一直 ②at a time 每次；一次 ③at any time 随时；在任何时候 ④at no time 在任何时候都不；决不(位于句首时，句子倒 装)
⑤at one time 从前；曾经；一度 ⑥at the time 在那时 ⑦at the same time 同时；但是；然而 ⑧at times 有时 ⑨from time to time 有时；不时 ⑩in time 及时；迟早；总有一天；最后；终于 ?in no time 立即；马上 ?on time 准时
Ⅱ.对号入座 ?He started as a worker and A.及时 B．迟早；总有一 天 C．最后；终于 in time became the manager.C ?Work hard and you will succeed in time.B ?The doctor came in time to save her life.A
prevent ... from 阻止；制止 They are putting too much carbon dioxide
into the atmosphere, which prevents heat from escaping from the earth into space. 【要点提示】 prevent/stop ... from doing sth.“阻止??做
【归纳拓展】 prevent/stop ... (from) doing sth.阻止??做某事 protect sb. from ...保护某人不受??侵袭 keep sb. from doing sth.阻止某人做某事(from不可省略) keep sb. doing sth.让某人一直做某事
His advice prevented/kept/stopped me from making a serious mistake. 他的建议使我免于犯下一个严重的错误。 He keeps the child staying at home all day. 他让小孩子在家待了一整天。
对 点 自 测 Ⅰ.单句改错 ①We were prevented attending the meeting.prevented后加 from ②We must keep them getting to know our secret.them后加 from
Ⅱ.翻译句子 ③什么也不能阻止他这样做。 Nothing_can_prevent/stop/keep_him_from_doing_so. ④在夏天，你要保护你的眼睛使其免受阳光的伤害。 In_summer_you_should_protect_your_eyes_from_the_sun.
Ⅲ.同义句转换 ⑤The rain prevented us catching the train. ?We were prevented from catching the train by the rain.
cheer up 感到高兴；感到振奋 I cheered up immediately and floated
weightlessly around in our spaceship cabin watching the earth become smaller and the moon larger.
【归纳拓展】 ?1?cheer v. & n.欢呼；?使?振奋 cheer sb. up使某人高兴；振奋 cheer ... on为??加油 Cheers！干杯！ ?2?cheerful adj.欢乐的；高兴的
We went to the hospital to cheer up the wounded. 我们去医院慰问伤员。 Accompanied by cheerful music, they began to dance. 伴随着欢快的音乐，他们跳起舞来。
对 点 自 测 Ⅰ.语法填空(介、副词) ①The crowd cheered up as the teams entered the field. ②They cheered their favourite team on. ③I'm taking Lily out to cheer her up. Ⅱ.选词填空(cheer, cheerful) ④Three cheers for the winners! ⑤He tried hard to keep us cheerful.
Sentences 考点8 【教材原句】 “make it＋形容词/名词＋不定式”结构 This produced a chain reaction, which made
it possible for life to develop. 【要点提示】 句中made it possible for life to develop实际
【归纳拓展】 ?1?当不定式短语或从句等作宾语时，多用it作形式宾语，构 成的句型主要有： make＋it＋形容词/名词＋不定式 make＋it＋形容词/名词＋从句 make＋it＋no good/no use/no value， etc.＋doing sth. ?2?常用于这种句型的动词还有： find， feel等。 think， consider，
She made it a rule to jog every day. 她养成了天天慢跑的习惯。 They made it clear to the public that they did an important and necessary job. 他们向公众表明他们所做的工作重要且必要。
对 点 自 测 Ⅰ.语法填空(不多于3个单词) ①He made it a rule to_take (take) part in some physical labour though he is old. ②We think it no good reading (read) in bed.
Ⅱ.完成句子 ③The bad weather made it impossible for us to go on. 糟糕的天气使我们无法进行下去。 ④They want to make it clear to the public that they do an important job. 他们想让公众清楚他们做的是一项重要的工作。 ⑤I feel it my duty to help you. 我觉得我有责任帮助你。
But when I tried to step forward, I found I
was carried twice as far as on the earth and fell over.
【归纳拓展】 ?1?A＋倍数＋as＋原级＋as＋B ?2?A＋倍数＋比较级＋than＋B 少倍 ?3?A＋倍数＋the size/height/length/width 等＋of＋B 是 B 的多少倍 ?4?A＋倍数＋what 从句 A 正好 A 是 B 的多少倍 A 比 B 大?高、宽、长等?多
They have three times as many cows as we have. 他们的牛是我们的牛的三倍。 China is almost twice the size of Mexico. ＝The size of China is almost twice that of Mexico. 中国的面积几乎是墨西哥的两倍。 (2013· 全国卷Ⅰ)Her gaze returns；she looks at it for twice as long as she did at the previous card. 她的目光转回来；她看着这张卡片，时间是看以前那张的两 倍。
对 点 自 测 Ⅰ.句式分析 ①My room is twice as big as his. 句意：我的房间是他的房间的两倍大。 结构：A＋倍数＋as＋形容词原级＋as＋B ②This rope is three times longer than that one. 句意：这根绳子比那根绳子长三倍。 结构：A＋倍数＋(形容词的)比较级＋than＋B
③This hill is four times the height of that one. 句意：这座小山的高度是那座的四倍。 结构：A＋倍数＋the_height_of＋B ④The width of the road is three times what it was two years ago. 句意：这条路是两年前的三倍宽。 结构：A＋倍数＋what从句
Ⅱ.写作巧表达 这座房子是那座房子的三倍大。 ⑤This house is three times the size of that one. ⑥This house is three times as big as that one. ⑦The size of this house is three times of that one. ⑧This house is twice bigger than that one.
“Oh, dear，” I cried, “walking does need
a bit of practice now that gravity has changed.” 【要点提示】 now that“既然”，是一个从属连词，引导
原因状语从句，用于引出一个新的原因。 Now that everyone is here let's start work. 既然人到齐了，咱们开始吧。 Now that she feels sorry, please forgive her. 既然她已经感到抱歉，就请原谅她吧。
now that, because, since, as, for
now that：“既然”，相当于since，引导原因状语从句， 说明已经成为事实的原因，其中that可以省去。 because：语气最强，用于回答why提问的问句，表示直接 的原因。
since和as：语气比because弱，表示显而易见或已为人知 的原因。since侧重主句， as主从并重。 for：为并列连词，它连接并列句，用来补充说明理由或 提供一种解释，不一定是真正的原因。
对 点 自 测 Ⅰ.完成句子 ①Now that you don't understand it,_why not ask for help? 既然你不明白，为什么不请求帮忙呢？ ②Now that they have got to know each other a little better, they get along just fine. 由于彼此之间有了进一步了解，他们相处得不错。
Ⅱ.对比填空 ③— Why did you do this? — Because it is good for you. ④Since/Now_that you have known it, I won't repeat it. ⑤Wear strong shoes as we shall do a lot of walking. ⑥It rained last night, for the ground is wet.