Unit 5 Travelling abroad
Learning about Language
1 Complete each of the sentences with one of the words in brackets in its proper form.
1. Sara ______________ acknowledged ( acknowledged, acknowledgement ) her mistake and
2. The report ___________ contradicts (contradict /
contradiction) what we saw in our physics
3. The _______________ recommendation (recommend / recommendation) I would make is that you apply for a passport and then arrange to get your visa to England as soon as possible. occupied (occupy/occupation) 4. I am too _________ with my own essay for this seminar to help you with yours. 5. This new videophone will meet almost all our ___________ requirement (require/requirement).
6. The chemist ________ analysed (analyse/analysis) the coffee and found it contained poison. 7. Watching Rugby matches gave me much comfort (comfort/comfortable) after I broke ________ my leg and missed playing the game for four months. 8. After four years of study, you will gain ____________ qualification (qualified/qualification) in marketing and have a bachelor’s degree.
9. I’ve got lots of ___________ preparation (prepare / preparation) to do for the dinner party tonight. 10. Xie Lei found she could _______ adjust (adjust/ adjustment) to the routine of life in England because her host family were so helpful.
2 Complete this passage with the words and phrases below in their proper forms. cafeteria, motherland, adjust to, idiom,
tutor, requirement, draft, substitute, routine,
academic, lecture, recommend, queue,
occupy, fit in, autonomous
I have studied for six months at a British university, adjusted well ____ and feel that I have ________ to the life away from my motherland __________. I live in student accommodation. cafeteria I go by minibus After eating breakfast at the ________ lecture halls or the library. My tutor to the university ______ recommends ___________ that I only work for six hours each day autonomous learner. He thinks and behave as a/an ___________ substitute some optional activities such as I should _________ clubs for extra _________ academic work on my essays. I am not sure whether I will be able to meet the requirement of my course or not, as it takes so long ____________
for me to do my work.
drafts of my essays as an example, it Take revising ______
occupies too much of my time. However, my _____ tutor ________
tells me that if I join in more social activities I will idioms So improve my understanding of English _______. I spend some time in a club in the afternoon. In the queue for my meal at the cafeteria evening, I usually ______
and then go home. Day in and day out I follow
routine I ______ almost the same _______. fit in quite well.
The Attributive Clause 2
或原因的名词时, 就要分别用关系副词 when,
where, why来引导, 在从句中作状语。关系
副词 when, where, why 的含义相当于“介词
+ which”结构, 因此常常可以和“介词+
1. I remembered the day when (on which)
I first came to the school. 2. Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born.
3. Is this the reason why (for which) he
refused to help you?
选择关系代词, 还是关系副词首先要 判断先行词在定语从句中充当的成分： 关系代词一般充当主语、宾语 (whose
1. This is the factory where I stayed last year.
2. This is the factory which I visited last year.
3. I’ll never forget the days when I worked
with you in the city.
4. I’ll never forget the days that I spent
with you in the city.
Choose the best answer. 1. Is this the museum ____ B you visited a few days ago? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 2. Is this museum ____ D you visited a few days ago? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one
Fill in the blanks.
1. The reason ____________he that/which/-gave us is enough.
why he was late is unknown. 2. The reason _____
that / which do 3. We must learn to act in ways ___________
not harm other living things.
that/in which/- he talks. 4. I don’t like the way ______________
5. This is the way ____________ that/which/-- he thought of
to solve the problem.
1. 根据介词和定语从句中谓语动词的习惯搭配。 Who is the man with whom you just shook hands? In the dark street there wasn’t a single person D she could turn for help。 _____ A. that B. who C. from whom D. to whom 析: 答案为 D 。介词 to 和定语从句中的 turn 构成固定搭配 turn to sb. for help, 意为“向 某人求助”。
2. 根据定语从句意思的需要, 此时不但要注意 其前的搭配也要注意其后的搭配。 He had a bad cold, because of which he didn’t attend the meeting. In the office I never seem to have time until D many people have got home. after 5:30pm ____ A. whose time B. that C. on which D. by which 析:答案为D。根据句意“到下午5:30 时， 许多人已经到家了”,且定语从句中又用了完 成时,故应用介词 by。
1) 介词后面的关系词不能省略。 2) that 前不能有介词。 3) 某些在从句中充当时间，地点或原因状语 的“介词+关系词“结构可以同关系副词when， where 和 why 互换。 This is the house in which I lived two years ago. This is the house where I lived two years ago.
4. whose可转换为“of +关系代词”型。 They live in a house, whose door opens to the south. They lived in a house, of which the door opens to the south.
They lived in a house, the door of which
open to the south.
Fill in the blanks with proper prepositions.
1. The sun gives us heat and light, _________ without
which we can’t live. 2. The student ______ about whom we were talking is the best student in our class. 3. I’ll never forget the day _____ on which she said good-bye to me.
4. Who can give me the reason _____ for which he hasn’t turned up yet? 5. In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person _________ to whom she could turn for help. 6. He paid the boy $10 for washing the windows, ______________ most of which hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year.
词在意义上不可缺少的定语, 如果去掉, 主句就
会失去意义或意义不完整。这种从句和先行词 的关系十分密切, 写时不用逗号和主句分开。 I was the only person in my office who was invited. 我是我们办公室唯一被邀请的人。 (如果把从句去掉, 整个句子的含义就变了)
句和主句之间往往用逗号隔开。在讲话时语调 上须停顿，一般不用that引导。 His dog, which was then very old, became ill and died. 他的狗当时很老了, 生病后就死了。 (去掉从句，主句的意义仍然完整：他的狗生病
2) Yesterday I met Li Lei, who seemed to be very busy. 昨天我碰上李雷了，他好象很忙。 (去掉从句, 意义仍然完整: 昨天我碰上李雷了) 2. 非限制性定语从句中的一些问题： a. 非限制性定语从句中, 指物时, 用which而不用 that。 1) Football, which is a very interesting game, is played all over the world. 2) All the books there, which have beautiful pictures in them, were written by him.
b. 指人时主格用who, 宾格用whom, 物主格用
1) Miss Howe, whom you met in the library,
is our new teacher.
2) The Arabs, who are famous for their
horses and camels, use these animals for work and in sports. 3) Li Ming, whose mother has been ill for two days, is absent from school today.
c. 另外关系副词when (指时间), where (指地
点) 也可以引导非限制性定语从句 (注意关系
1) He lives in the city, where there is a high
2) The People’s Republic of China was
founded in 1949, when he was born.
d. 介词加关系代词也可以引导非限定性定语 从句。
1) Wu Dong, with whom I went to see the
film, enjoyed it very much.
2) Her bag, in which she put all her books,
has not been found.
3) The story about the Long March, of
which this is an example, are well written.
3. as, which 非限定性定语从句
由as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句，as 和
which可代整个主句，相当于and this 或 and
As we know, smoking is harmful to one’s
The sun heats the earth, which is very
important to us.
常用于the same...as, such... as , as... as和so...as 结构中。as 引导的定语从句常采用省略形式。 I have never seen such a lazy man as you (are).
Let children read such books as will make
them better and wiser.
(作主语) Take as many as you want. 你想要多少就拿多少。(作宾语) Here is so big a stone as no man can lift. 这儿有一块没人能搬走的那么大的石头。 (作宾语)
注: the same...后既可以用that 也可以用 as 来引导
定语从句, that “同一的”即指同一事物; 而后者引导
定语从句时, as “相似”即指同类事物。如:
1) This is the same pen that I lost yesterday.
(This sentence means: This pen is mine. I lost it yesterday.) 2) This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. (This sentence means: This pen is very much like mine that I lost yesterday. In fact, it isn’t mine.)
as 和 which 的区别
连贯，在从句中作主语，或用作及物动词的 宾语。 e.g. He married her, which/as was natural． I was very useful to him, which/as he
1. as 既可以指前面提到过的事实或情况, 因此as
可以放在句首、句末, 也可以插入主句中, 而which
(有时也可用as)。 如： As our teacher points out, that book is of benefit to everyone. Heat is a form of energy, as is known to all of us． This machine, as might be expected, has stopped operating．
2. As 含有正如、按照、正像之意, as 一般用 在肯定句中, 而 which 则可以用于含否定 意义的句子中，如： He failed in the exam again, as was expected. He failed in the exam again, which was unexpected．
3. 当关系代词代表主句引起的结果， 又做主谓宾补结构中的主语时， 多用which, 如： He saw the girl, which delighted him． He didn’t pass the exam, which made
his mother angry．
4. 下列固定结构, 一般不能用which, 如：
as has been said before 如前所述
as often happens
as is well known as we know
as will be shown in Fig 3
正如我们知道的那样 正如我们大家看到的那样 如下
as may be imagined 这可以想象得出来 as we all can see as follows
Suggested answers to Ex2 on Page 41.
1.Mark Twain, who was a famous American author, wrote The Million Pound Banknote. 2.The bird cages, some of which were in poor condition, were sold by the shopkeeper at half price. 3.Joan passed her exam, which surprised me a great deal. 4.The minibus which I usually take on the campus had an accident yesterday.
5 Shenghou-V, which was sent into space on October 15th, 2003, was China’s first manned spaceship. 6 The dogs, all of which were small and wite with long hair, barked loudly. 7 The battery to which the robot toys were connected failed to work last night. 8 I asked the doctor to tell me the reason why my hands are numb somethimes.
Suggested answers to Ex3 on Page 41.
1.Peter, who people used to think was quiet, danced and sang all evening.;
2.For my birthday, Sharon gave me a picture (which) she had painted especially for me. 3.The operation, which improved my grandfather’s hearing, was performed in a famous hospital. 4.I saw many historical sites when I went on a tour around China, which was very exciting.
5 The two traffic accidents happened on the same morning, when there was a heavy fog.
6 Tang Ling volunteered to help the welfare house, where she teaches the homeless children.
7 As far as I’m concerned, Anne, whose daughter is in my class, should not be going to America next year.
8 He went on a bus tour with a group of people, most of whom had never travelled before.
Suggested answers to Ex4 on Page 41. 1. Daniel, who is a trained and experienced climber, is the best choice for your enterprise. 2. Julie wants to make a few revisions to the book, which is about to be printed. 3. Abigail, who seemed too small and weak for heavy work, always wished to drill for oil on an oilfield. 4. Jamie, whose parents lived on a remote part of the highlands, hated the idea of travelling overnight to Scotland on the train. 5. The other day Sam saw the snake, which had been frightening all the children, sliding away fast into the rocks.
Find more information about the
attributive clause and remember