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高三第二轮专题复习----语法填空(1)

高三第二轮专题复习----语法填空(1)


2012年广东高考真题

Mary will never forget the first time she saw him. He suddenly appeared in wearing class one day, 16 _________ (wear) sun had bought glasses. He walked in as if he17_______ (buy) the school. And the word quickly got around that he was from New York City.

For some reason he sat beside Mary. pleased Mary felt 18 ________ (please), because there were many empty seats in the room. But she quickly realized that it wasn?t her, it was probably the fact that she sat in 19___ last row. the

20 If he thought he could escape __ attention by sitting at the back, he was wrong. It might have made it a little 21_______ harder (hard) for everybody because it meant they had to turn around, but that didn?t stop the kids in the class. Of course whenever they turned to look at him, they had to look at Mary, 22 ______ made her feel like a star. which

“Do you need those glasses for medical reasons?” the teacher asked. The new boy shook his head. “Then I?d appreciate it if you didn?t wear them in class. I like to look at your eyes when I?m speaking to you.” The new boy looked at the teacher 23___ a few for seconds and all the other students wondered 24______ the boy would do. Then he took what 25______ off, gave a big smile and said, them “That is cool.”

年度 体裁 题材 主题 2012 记叙文 生活经历 Mary上学时的一 次难忘经历 2011 记叙文 生活经历 公交车上同智障 人交谈 2010 记叙文 情感故事 从沙漠中带水回 来送老师 2009 记叙文 生活经历 给父亲买礼物 2008 记叙文 成语故事 拔苗助长 2007 记叙文 生活经历 旅游在外受人帮 助

短文长(词)

222个
189个 195个

198个 179个 196个

年份

最多填 词 2012 2个(1题) 2011 2个(1题) 2010 1个 2009 2个(2题) 2008 2个(1题) 2007 1个

答案每词 均长

5个字母 5.4个字母 5.1个字母 3.8个字母 4.2个字母 4.1个字母

纯空格题答 案均长 2.83个字母 3.5个字母 3.3个字母 2.5个字母 3.8个字母 2.4个字母

首字母 大写 1题 0题 1题 0题 1题 1题

就命题形式而言,纯空格题设6—7个小题;用括号中 所给词的适当形式填空设3—4个小题。近六年高考情况 如下表所示:

2012年 2011年 2010年 2009年 2008年 2007年

纯空格(题) 6 6 6 6 6 7

提示词(题) 4 4 4 4 4 3

年份 介 词 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 1 1 1 2 2 2

纯空格题 连 词 冠 代 词 从句 并列 词 1 3 0 1 1 2 0 2 1 2 0 2 1 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 1 2 0 2

有提示词的题 动 词 词类 比较 谓语 非谓语 转换 等级 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0

从空格设置来看,语法填空题包括以下4个 特点: 一、考查语法
(要求牢固掌握语法知识并能灵活运用)

二、考虑语境
(要求能结合短文的语境,分析句子结构和句 子之间的逻辑关系)

三、考点分散
(要求全面了解语法知识点,每项语法知识只 设一个空,最多两空)

四、适当提示
(要求善于利用和寻找文中的提示词,一般有4空 给出提示词,文段中也会隐藏一些提示词或标志 词,提示考生该用哪种时态、语态等)

不断记忆,积累词汇;
夯实基础,学好语法;

大声朗读,培养语感;
坚持不懈,多做练习。

(一)通读全文,了解大意
(二)分析语境,试填答案 (三)重读全文,解决难题 (四)复原短文,检查核对

纯空格题的解题技巧
纯空格题是指“在空格处填入一个 适当的词”这类题。六年来,这类题 只考介词、冠词、连词和代词。那 么什么情况下填介词?何时填冠词? 何时填连词?何时填代词呢?

1、(2007)When the time came for me to say goodbye to my friends in the village, I wanted to reward the old woman for the trouble I had caused her. __ 2、(2010)His teacher took a deep drink and thanked his student very much for the sweet water. The young man went home _____a happy heart. with 介词 方法探究1: _____+限定词+名词 介词 _____ +限定词+形容词+名词

限定词有哪些?
1、冠词(a, an, the)
2、形容词性物质代词(my, his, our…) 3、可用作定语的不定代词(some, any, other, another…)

3、 (2010)A young man, while traveling through a desert, came across a spring of clear water.The ____water was sweet. 4、(2009) Besides, shopping at this time of a this year was not ____ pleasant experience: people stepped on your feet

限定词 方法探究2: _____+名词

限定词 介词+_____ +形容词+名词

5、(2010)The young man went home with a happy heart. After the student left, the teacher let another _______student taste the water.
方法探究3:限定词 +名词 _____

6、(2011)Behind him were other people to whom he was trying to talk, but after they some minutes _______ walked away and sat near me, looking annoyed.
代词 方法探究4: _____ +谓语 (缺主语)

7、 (2011) I rose from my seat and walked to the front of the bus. I sat next to the man and introduced myself. We had an amazing conversation. He got off the bus before me and I felt very happy the rest of the way home. I?m glad I made a choice. It made both us _____of feel good.

代词 方法探究5: 主语+谓语+ _____
(缺宾语或宾语不完整)

8、(2008)It is said that a shorttempered man in the Song Dynasty (960 — 1279) was very anxious to help his rice crop grow up quickly. He was thinking about ___ day and night. it

方法探究5: 主语+谓语+介词+ 代词 _____ (缺介词宾语)

9、 (2009) Jane was walking round the department store. She remembered it how difficult __was to choose a suitable Christmas present for her father.
方法探究6:代词 it +谓语+to do /that从句 _____ (缺形式主语或形式宾语)

10、(2008)He was very tired after doing this for a whole day, but he felt ______ very happy. 11、(2011)My friends walked me to the bus stop and waited with me until the ____ bus arrived. 12、 (2012) Of course whenever they turned to look at him, they had to look at Mary, ______ made her feel like a which star. 连词 方法探究7:句子+ _____ +句子

主语从句 表语从句 名词性 从句 连接从句 宾语从句 同位语从句 定语从句 由先行词决定

1、用that引导
2、用 if或 whether引导 3、用what, who, where等 引导

状语从句 有when, while, where, because, if ,than等等 连接并列句 并列连词and, so, or, but, neither… nor, either…or, for等等

温馨提示:有些题要根据特殊的句式结构来 判断空格应填的词

it 13、…and _____was only after I heard she became sick that I learned she couldn’t eat MSG (味 精)!
方法探究8:由it is…that…强调结 构形式,判断填it还是that

14、This made the goat so jealous ______ it began plotting that against (谋划对付) the donkey.

方法探究9:由so/such…that 结构来 判断)

15、Cynthia’s story shows vividly that people remember more how than much a manager cares _____ how much he pays.
方法探究10:由more…than (与其 说…,不如说)结构来判断)

does 16、Little _____ he care about what others think.

方法探究11:有时要根据部分倒装句的 结构来判断是否填do, does,did或 neither, nor, so等词)

解题思维导图
介词
_____+限定词+名词 介词 介词 _____ +限定词+形容词+名词

纯 空 格 题

冠词

冠词 _____+名词 冠词 介词+_____ +形容词+名词

连词 句子+ _____ +句子 连词 代词 _____ +名词 代词 _____ +谓语 (缺主语) 代词 主语+谓语+ 代词 (缺宾语或宾语不完整) _____ 代词 主语+谓语+ 介词+_____ (缺介词宾语) ____ 代词it +谓语+to do /that从句
(缺形式主语或形式宾语)

1. My face turned red on hearing what ______ my mother said. 2. Don’t be always particular about _______ your present work and income.

that 3. So careless was I _____ I had forgotten all about that.

4. But my mood quickly changed the when I saw _______ first question.

5. Firstly, we must understand the it language when we hear ______ spoken. 6. More and more Chinese students which go abroad for study, ______ is supported by the Chinese government.

7. Tom, _____ 8-year-old boy, an entered a hotel coffee shop. 8. I patiently walked to the library, took my seat and did some deep breathing to help relax_________. myself
9.I’m afraid we can’t have coffee because there’s ______left. none

? 各项击破

代词归纳总结
⑴ 人称代词有主格和宾格之分, 主格在句中 作主语(如He), 宾格在句中作宾语(如her)。 ⑵ 物主代词有形容词性和名词性两种, 形容 词性物主代词只能在名词前作定语(如my); 名词性物主代词在句中可作主语(如Yours)、 宾语和表语(如hers)等。

⑶ 反身代词可作动词(teach, enjoy, dress, express等)或介词(by, for等)的宾 语; 或者作主语或宾语的同位语,起加强 语气的作用, 译作“亲自, 本身, 本人”。

注意: 反身代词不能单独作主语; 在be, feel等系动词后作表语, 表示身体或精神 状态处于正常。

灵活运用 一、单句填空 用适当的代词填空。

1.She did not hesitate for long: although her father smoked a pipe only once in a while, she knew that this was a present him which was bound to please _____ .

2. It is said that a short-tempered man in the Song Dynasty (960 — 1279) was very his anxious to help ___rice crop grow up quickly.

3. When the time came for me to say goodbye to my friends in the village, I wanted to reward the old woman for the her trouble I had caused ____ .

4. Tom felt that he knew everybody?s business better than they knew it themselves . __________

5. This man might have needed the himself umbrella for ________ later during the day but preferred to give it to me.

6. Our neighbours gave us a baby itself bird yesterday that hurt ________ when it fell from its nest.

7. Isn?t it amazing how the human body heals ______ after an injury? itself


8. To save class time, our teacher has _____ students do half of the exercises in us class and complete the other half for our homework.

9. I intended to compare notes with a
they friend, but unfortunately ______couldn?t

spare me even one minute.

10. — Is your camera like Bill?s and Ann?s? — No, but it?s almost the same as yours ______.

二、语篇填空 用适当的代词填空。

Dear Mr Johnson, I saw 1 _____advertisement in the your newspaper about your finding a small white dog with some black hair on 2 ____ its head. The dog is 3_________ and I can mine/ours prove it.4 ___had a brown path on one of It My its hind legs.5___ wife was very unhappy that we had lost 6 ____ dog. our

We are grateful that 7____ found our you dog and are keeping 8 ___. Can I come it and collect it from you at 9 _____ your address given in the advertisement? Please let 10 ____ know. me Thank you, Barney Jones

语法填空 If I have a learning strategy, I?d say it?s imitation. I like watching Disney cartoons. them They are so interesting that I watch 1 _____ again and again.

I don?t remember when I began to imitate but do remember that one the dialogues, 2 ____I my day 3____English teacher said that my pronunciation and intonation were quite good.

by I think 4 __ imitation, I get not only beautiful pronunciation and intonation, but also 5 ____ a kind of “feeling” for English. My strategy is guessing the meaning of words thatquite occasionally. in the context, and I got 6____
Once I 7___________(read)an English story when I was reading came across a new word. But I was so involved in to check the story that I didn’t want to stop 8________(check) its meaning. So I looked around the word and guessed its meaning.

it Later, when I looked 9___up, I found that I was right! Since then, I began to practice this strategy. By doing this, my ability guessing 10______(able)improves and moreover, my reading speed increases!

名词与语法填空 ⑴ 单数可数名词前通常会填冠词、名词的 所有格、形容词性物主代词、不定代词 (any, another)等。 ⑵ 空格在冠词、数词、形容词性物主代词、 名词所有格后,要用括号中所给词的名词 形式。 ⑶ 在名词前作定语的可能是形容词或分词, 在名词后作定语的可能是分词短语、不定 式短语或介词短语,还可能是定语 从句。

⑷ 若有定语从句、形容词、分词短语或介 词短语等修饰,应当用所给词的名词形式。 ⑸ 作主语,或在及物动词或介词后作宾语, 要用括号中所给词的名词形式。 ⑹ 在确定用名词形式后,还要考虑该名词 是用单数还是复数、是否需要用所有格、首 字母是否需要大写。

语法专练 一、单句填空 Anne?s 1. _______ (Anne) sister Margot was very upset that the family had to move. However, she knew that she had got to go through all difficulties her family. the__________ (difficult) with

2. For the sake of people?s health and
_________ (happy), measures should happiness be taken to control and prevent pollution and everyone should make a ____________ (contribute) to it. contribution

3. In my opinion, it is wrong to cheat

in examinations (exam) because it ___________
breaks the rules of schools.

4. In my opinion, no one agrees that a

_________ (wealth) person without good wealthy health can be happy. So, just do our
best and keep fit.

5. Trials (try) by food processing plants _____ (食品加工厂) in Germany have concluded that foods covered with the glass can store longer than those stored

in normal condition.

6. Upon ______ (arrive), we began to arrival

work immediately. Some were digging
holes. Some were carrying and planting

young trees. Others were watering them.

7. Since “Life is a stage”, we are actually
all actors and _________ (act). On this actresses stage, everyone has his own role to play, and I will try my best to play my role well.

8. There are more visible changes in our

gestures and facialexpressions (express). _________

9. Lang Lang is a world-class young ________ (piano) who grew up in pianist Shenyang.

10. Whatfun it is to jump into water and ____ swim on a hot summer day!

二、语篇填空 (重点训练名词的相关用法) A high school history teacher once told us, “If you make one close friend in school, you will be most lucky. 1___ A true friend is someone who stays with you for life.” Experience shows that he was right. Good 2__________ (friend) friendships are just not easily formed.

To most of us, friendships are thought very important, but we need to have the kinds of friendships we want. Are they to be close or kept at arm?s 3______ (long)? Do we want to share length ourselves or do we want to walk on the surface? For some people, many friendships on the surface are quite enough and that?s all right.

But at some point we need to make sure that our expectations are the same as our 4 friends (friend) expectations. The _____ sharing of 5______ (person) experience personal is the surest way 6________________ to deepen /of deepening (deepen) friendships. But it must be undertaken slowly and carried on only if there are signs of interest and action in return.

What are some of the difficulties to friendship? The greatest is the attraction to expect too much too soon. Another Deep relationships take time. 7_______ main difficulty is the 8_________ selfishness (selfish) to think one “owns” the other, including his time and attention. Similarly, friendships need actions in return.

In other words, you must give as much as you take. Finally there is a question of taking care of. 9 ______ you spend Unless reasonable time together, talking 10 __ on the phone, writing letters, doing things together, friendships will die away.

灵活运用

1. He had lost his temper and his health in the war and never found _____ of either them again.

2. — Wow! You?ve got so many clothes. — But _____ of them are in fashion none now.

3. Jane was asked a lot of questions, but any she didn?t answer _____ of them. 4. ___that?s important is that you are doing your best and moving in the right direction.
All

5. To know more about the British Museum, you can use the Internet or go to the library, both or _____ .

6. It was hard for him to learn English in a neither family, in which ______ of the parents spoke the language.

7. — Which of the two computer games did you prefer? either of — Actually I didn?t like _____ them.

8. — How do you find your new classmates? — Most of them are kind. But _____ none is so good to me as Bruce.

all tired, but none of 9. They were ____

them would stop to take a rest. 10. — I?d like some more cheese. — Sorry, there?s _____ left. none

语篇填空

My friend, Emma Danicls, spent the summer of 1974 traveling in Israel. During her month long stay in Jerusalem she often went to a café1 _____ (call) called chocolate soup.

One morning when Emma went in 2 for coffee, while chatting with her new ____ friend Alex, she mentioned that she had had been just finished the book she 3 ___________ reading ________ (read) and had nothing else to read.

Alex said he had a wonderful book she that might like, and 4 _____he?d be happy to above lend it to her. As he lived just 5 ______ quickly the café he 6 _______ (quick)ran up to , get it, and handed it to Emma just minutes later.

When she opened it up, she was her surprised to see 7____ own name and address inside the cover, in her own handwriting. It turned out that the summer before, in Montreal, Emma had met a Californian.

They but 8 _____ decided to exchange addresses, 9 ___ neither of them had any paper. The man opened up a book he was carrying in his backpack and asked Emma to write her name and address inside. When he returned
to California, he left the book behind in Montreal, and his friend Alex kept 10 ____ . it When Alex later moved to Jerusalem, he took the book along.

灵活运用
一、单句填空 用适当的代词填空。

1.After the student left, the teacher let another ________student taste the water.

2. I had noticed three hens running free in my hostess?s courtyard and that night one of them ended up in a dish on my table. Other ______villagers brought me goat?s cheese and honey.

3. You are a team star! Working with others is really your cup of tea. ______

4. Neither side is prepared to talk to the other ______ unless we can smooth things over between them.

5. I felt so bad all day yesterday that I decided this morning I couldn?t another face _______ day like that.

6. Laziness, lying, stealing and so on are all easily-formed bad habits. However, other there are many _______ habits formed in

early life that are of great help.

7. We had a picnic last term and it another was a lot of fun, so let?s have ______ one this month.

8.Some people like to stay at home others on Sunday but _______ like to go shopping.

9.If you want to change for a double another $15. room you?ll have to pay _______

10. I have five pencils. One is red; the _______(=the ______ four) are black. others other

二、语篇填空 用适当的代词填空。

An old man and his son were taking a donkey to the market. The man rode the donkey and the son walked behind 1. it ___A man saw them and asked the son he why 2 ___wasn?t riding the donkey.

Then the father let 3 ___ ride it.4____ Another him man saw them and told 5____ that they them should 6 _____ ride the donkey. both
3. 指his son, 作let的宾语, 用宾格。 4. 泛指的“另一个”人。 5. 指代the father和his son, 作told的宾语。 6. 作主语they的同位语, 指这对父子“两人 都”应骑在驴背上。

So 7_____ both got on it. A woman who they saw them said, “Tell 8 ___, why are you me both riding that poor animal? 9 ___looks It so weak and tired.
7. 指代the father和his son, 作主语。 8. 与后面的you(你)相对, 应是me(我)。 9. 指前面的that poor animal。

10 ____ are so cruel!” Then, the father You and son got off the donkey and started carrying it across a bridge. When they were halfway across the bridge, the donkey struggled loose and fell into the river.
10. 由前面的you both可知。

三、语法填空 China is situated in one of the most active earthquake regions in the world and there have been many terrible earthquakes, of 1_____ the most serious occurred in Hua which County in Shanxi Province 2 ___ 1556. in
1. 指代the earthquakes, of which引导非限制性定语 从句, 相当汉语的“其中”。 2. 表示“在”某一年, 用介词in。

The earthquake affected eight provinces in Central China.3 ___covered an area It of 800 square kilometers. In some communities, 60 percent of the population 4 __________ (kill). were killed
3. 指代The earthquake。 4. 一般过去时的被动语态; 表示几分之几或百 分之几的人口作主语, 谓语动词用复数。

In all, 830, 000 people lost 5 ______lives. their The California Earthquake of the 18th of April 1906 is 6__________(bad)earthquake the worst that has ever happened in the United States.
5. 指前面“83万人的”生命; 短语; lose one?s life失 去生命。 6.由表示范围的定语从句that has ever happened in the United States可知, 要用最高级。

It took place 7___ 5:15 a.m., and lasted at for only a minute.8 ________, it caused However the worst natural disaster in the nation?s history.
7. 表示“在”某一时刻, 用介词at。 8. 前后是转折关系, 而空格前后都有标点, 用副词 however。

Fires caused by the quake burned for three days, 9__________(destory) a total destroying of 25, 000 buildings.
9. 因句子主语Fires与destroy是主动关系, 用 现在分词作状语, 表示结果。

About 500 people were killed in the city of San Francisco and 250, 000 were made 10 _________(home). In the whole of homeless California, the earthquake and fires caused about 3, 000 deaths.
10. 由常识可知, 地震和火灾应是使人“无家 可归”, homeless作补足语。

一、单句填空 用one (s), the one (s), it, that, those等填空。 1.The cost of renting a house in central Xian is higher than _____ in any other that area of the city.
1. 替代前面出现过的不可数名词the cost。

2. Helping others is a habit, _____ you one can learn even at an early age.
2. 作a habit的同位语, 句意为:帮助别人是一 种习惯, 一种从很小就可学会的习惯。

3. One of the most important questions they had to consider was _____ of public that health.
3. 替代前面提到的the question。

4. The ideal student is considered to be ____ who is motivated to learn for the one sake of learning, not the one interested only in getting high grades.
4. 泛指a student, 填不定代词one, 表示 “一 个为了学习而被激励学习的人, 而不是只对得 高分感兴趣的那种人”。

5. For _____ who don?t have time to those take a course, there are books that tell you how you can do things by yourself.
5. 指代the people“的那些人”, 也可用 the ones。

6. You must find the right courses. These are the ones that have the _______ least amount of work, the fewest tests and the kindest professors.
6. 指代the courses。

7. My father bought me a pen and I like __very much. it
替代the pen

8. We needed a new cupboard for the kitchen. So Peter made _____ from some one wood we had.
替代a cupboard

9. This dictionary is more useful than ______________ I bought yesterday. that /the one
9. 替代the dictionary。

10. Ten years ago the population of our village was twice as large as ______ of that theirs.
10. 替代“the population”; 替代不可数名词, 表示同类, 只能用that。

二、语篇填空
用适当的词(以代词为主)填空或用所给词的 适当形式填空。

Ancient China was a place where states were often at war with each other. But it when was also a time 1_____ there were many great philosophers.

1. 引导定语从句, 先行词是a time(一段时期)。

Confucius(孔子)is the philosopher2_____ whose influence has been the greatest. He stressed the importance of 3________ kindness (kind), duty and order in society.
2. 引导定语从句, 指“这个哲学家的”影响。 3. 作介词的宾语, 用名词形式。

Mencius(孟子)was a thinker whose teachings were very similar to 4 _____of those Confucius. Mencius believed that the reason why man is different from animals is 5 _____ man is good. that
4. 指代复数名词the teachings。 5. 引导表语从句, 固定句式the reason why ...is that ...(??的原因是??)。

He taught that if the government was kind, then people would be good. He believed that people were more important than rulers, and hated the state when 6 ___ treated people badly. it
6. 代替前面的the state。

Mozi(墨子)was 7________ teacher who another was very influential. Born in 476 BC, he came from a family which was very poor. He became famous for 8 ____unusual his clothes and behaviour.
7. 泛指的“另一个”。 8. 在名词前作定语, 用形容词性物主代词, 表示 “他的”用his。

He founded the philosophy called Mohism. Mozi believed that all men were equal. He taught that we should love all human beings and look after 9 _____who those are weaker than 10 ourselves ________.
9. 代替the people, 也可填the ones。 10. 由宾语从句的主语we可知, 我们应当照顾比我 们自己弱的人。

灵活运用 一、单句填空 1. Apparently, it was no longer fresh

because of the old leather container. He
asked his teacher, “Sir, the water was

awful. Why did you pretend to like ___?” it
1. 指前面提到的“水(the water)”。

2. Jane was walking round the department store. She remembered how difficult __ was to choose a it suitable Christmas present for her father.
2. 在宾语从句中作形式主语, 真正的主语 是to choose ...。

3. It is said that a short-tempered man in the Song Dynasty(960—1279)was very anxious to help his rice crop grow up quickly. He was thinking about __day it and night. But the crop was growing much slower than he expected.

3. 代替前文中的(how) to help his crop grow up quickly。

4. The fact that she was foreign made ___ difficult for her to get a job in that it country.
4. 为形式宾语, 真正的宾语是其后的不定式短语to get a job ...。

5. The doctor thought ___ would be good it for you to have a holiday.
5. 因thought后面的是一个宾语从句, 由that引导, 但that被省略了。空格处填it, 用作宾语从句的形式 主语, 宾语从句真正的主语是for you to have a holiday。

6. I like this house with a beautiful garden in front, but I don?t have enough money to buy ___ . it
6. 指代前面提到过的this house。注意it与one 的用法区别:it相当于“the+名词”, 指前面 提到的同一事物; one相当于“a+名词”, 指 相似的同类事物。

7. It was from only a few supplies that she had bought in the village _____ the that hostess cooked such a nice dinner.
7. 强调句型it is (was) ...that ...的用法。注意句中 that she had bought in the village是修饰 supplies的 定语从句, 不要误认为引导该定语从句的关系代词 that为强调句型的结构词that。句意为:女主人只 是用她在村里买来的一些东西就做出了那样一顿 佳肴。

8. John?s success has nothing to do with good luck. It is years of hard work ____ that has made him what he is today.
8. 强调句型it is ...that ...的用法。句意为:约 翰的成功与好的运气没有关系, 是多年的努力 工作才使他变成今天这个样子(成就了今天的 事业)。注:判断一个句子是否是强调句型, 可考虑将结构词it is ...that ...去掉, 若句子仍 完整、通顺, 则为强调句。

9. ____was not until he came back It from Africa that year that he met the girl he would like to marry.
9. 强调句式:it was not until ...that ... (直到……才……)。

10. — I?ve read another book this week. — Well, maybe ___ is not how much it you read but what you read that counts.
10. 强调句式的。其意为“也许重要的不是 你读了多少, 而是你读了些什么”。句中的 count意为“重要” “有重要性”, 与动词 matter意思相同。

11. It was not until 1840 ____ the official that organization known as the Penny Post was established in Great Britain and gave ordinary people cheap and efficient postal deliveries.
11. 强调句, 其构成形式是: It is/ was +被强调 部分+that +其它。

12. ___ is difficult to estimate (估计) the It total value of what was stolen as only the bank?s clients(储户)know the content of their private safes.
12. 作形式主语, 真正主语是后面的不定式。

13. ...because Greece has not requested any financial support, European Commission President said this means the government believes __ does not need it the support. 13. 指代主语the government, 故用it。

14. “To liberate people. To set them free. Before I got my wheelchair, ” she explained, “I had trouble getting around. Now I can go places! However I can free people, I want to do ___ .” it
14. 动词后面缺宾语, 填代词, 指代前面提到的 I can free people这件事。

15. The next time you are offered help, no matter what that offer may be, do not turn ___ down! it
15. 指前面的help或that offer。turn down 意为 “拒绝”。

归纳总结 英语中的介词很多, 常见的有: ⑴ 表示时间的有at, in, on, by, after,

before, since, for, during, within,

throughout, over, until/till, between
等。

⑵ 表示方位的有: into, out of, along, (a) round, down, up, from, off, at, for, to, towards, at, in, on, above, below, among, between, around, inside, outside, before,

behind, over, under, beside/by, near,
beyond, across, against, across, by/past,

over, through等。

⑶ 表示原因的有 because of, owing to, due to, for, with, at (在表示情感变化的 词后)等。

⑷ 表示方式、方法或手段的有by, in用 (某种语言或材料, 如墨水等); with用(具 体的工具); through通过 (实践或书本)等。

⑸ 表示“除??外”的有except, besides, but, except for, apart from等。
⑹ 表示“数量”的有about, around (大 约), over (超过) 等;

⑺ 表示“关于”的on; about等;

(8)表示“所属” “部分与整体关系”的of。
(9)表示(增加/减少, 相差, 高出等的)程度的 by。 (10) as (当作, 作为), like(像 ...一样)等。 (11) 能接复合宾语的介词有with和without。

(12)短语的介词。如look after,
congratulations on, get on with, do well in,

effect on等。

介词后一定要接宾语,作宾语的通 常是名词、代词或动名词,因此,做 语法填空时,若空格后是名词、代词 或动名词,且它们不是在句中作主语 或动词的宾语时,这个格空就很可能 是填介词。然后根据句子意思和具体 语境来确定填哪一个介词。

特别提醒 介词是语法填空的一个重要考点,

近年来每年都有两个小题考查介词,
占语法填空题的五分之一。

特别提醒 介词是语法填空的一个重要考点, 近年来 每年都有两个小题考查介词, 占语法填空 题的五分之一。

灵活运用

1. The young man went home _____ a with happy heart.
1. 表示“带着”愉快的心情, 此介词短语做状 语, 修饰谓语went home。

2. Jane stopped where a small crowd of men had gathered. She found some good quality pipes ____ sale. on
2. 固定搭配on sale, 表示“出售”。

3. When Jane got home, with her small but well-chosen present in her bag, her parents were already ___ table having at supper.
3. 名词(table)在句中不作主语, 也不作动词的 宾语, 很可能就是作介词的宾语; 由having supper可知, 填at; 因为at table表示“在餐桌 边, 在进餐”, 也是习惯搭配。

4. Chinese proverbs are rich and they are still widely used in Chinese people?s daily life. __________these proverbs there are Behind/In often interesting stories.
4. 指“在这些成语的背后”或“在这些成语 里”常常会有一些有趣的故事, 表示“在…… 的背后”, 用介词behind, 表示“在……里”, 用in。

5. He was very tired ___________doing after /from this for a whole day.
5. 因“他感到很累”应是“在他做了一整天 事之后”, 表示“在??之后”, 用介词after; 另外be tired from doing是固定短语,表示 “因做某事而累”, 所以也可填from。

6. I realized that the villagers who had gathered around me were arguing as to who should have the honour of receiving me ____ a guest in their house. as

6. 意思是“把我当作客人”来接待,表 示“当作, 作为”, 用介词as。

7. When the time came for me to say goodbye to my friends in the village, I wanted to reward the old woman _____ for the trouble I had caused her.
7. 表示“因??而酬谢/报答某人”是reward sb. for sth., 类似的表达还有thank sb.for sth.; praise sb.for sth.; punish sb.for sth.等。

8. Would you mind not picking the flowers in the garden? They are ___ for everyone?s enjoyment.
8. 表示“供”“给”“为”, 句意为: 请 不摘花园里的花好吗?它们是供大家欣 赏的。

9. My father warned me _______ going against to the West Coast because it was crowded with tourists. 9. 表示警告某人不要做某事, 英语有两 个句型, 一是用warn sb not to do sth, 二 是用warn sb against doing sth。

10. The dictionary is what I want, but I don?t have enough money ___ me. on
10. 意思是“我身上没有带足够多的钱”。

11. Tired, Jim was fast asleep with his against back ______ a big tree.
11. 意思是“背靠着大树”, 表示“靠着”, 用 介词against。

12. Sean has formed the habit of jogging along _____the tree-lined avenue for two hours every day.
表示“沿着”。

13. — How amazing it is that astronauts are exploring outer space! — It?s a challenge, I guess, ____man of against nature.

13. 句中的I guess 为插入语, 若撇开它不 看, 句子则为:It?s a challenge man against nature.此时可明显看出填介词of。 句意为:这是人类征服自然的挑战。

14. A great person is always putting others interests above his own. _____

14. 表示“高于, 胜过”, 句意为:一位伟大的 人总是会将别人的利益放在自己的利益之上。

15. Everybody was touched beyond ______words after they heard her moving story.

15. 表示“无法用语言表达”用beyond words。

16. It saves time in the kitchen to have things you use a lot _______ easy reach. within
16. 表示“在易于到达的距离以内”用 within easy reach (of)。

17. He invited me to a dance after the show ___ Christmas Eve. on
17. 在eve前习惯上用介词on。

18. Try on this red skirt; you will look great ___ it. in
18. 表示“穿着”。

19. Children need friends ___ their own of age to play with.
19. 意为“……年龄”。又如:We have a son of your age.我们有个儿子和你同岁。

20. I realized this would mean a wet walk home _____ the bus stop. from 20. 表示起点, “从……处”。 21. Nancy suffered from serious disease ____a and she could no longer walk. 21. 表示“患病”用suffer from。

22. She took me from a poor, unhappy college student and brought me ____ her into world, a world of smiles, love and warmth.
22. 意思是带我“进入”了她的世界。

二、语法填空 [2011佛山一模]It was a new chapter for the Paralympics movement in Asia, as the Asian Para Games opened its arms to around 2, 500 disabled athletes from all around the continent on December 12, 2010. A visually impaired(弱视)boy 16 ______ named (name) He Yuxuan was spot-lighted at the beginning of the ceremony.
16. 过去分词作后置定语。

Although he can?t see the national flag with his own eyes, 17____ eight-year-old the pupil carried the flag in his hands with 18 ___mother walking along, handed the his flag to the honor guards and saluted as the flag 19 was raised _________(raise).
17. 定冠词, 此处特指这个弱视的男孩。 18. 形容词性物主代词, 这个8岁男孩的妈妈。 19. 被动语态, 国旗被升起。

Mothers of disabled athletes from
different Asian countries and regions

entered the stadium, 20_____(sing)and sang
cheered for their children as the athletes

walked into the stadium.
20. 动词, 由and可知此处是平衡结构, 前后时 态以及词性一致。

Mothers hugged and kissed their children21when/as they passed by, giving ______ flowers and their blessings 22___ the to athletes.
21. 状语从句, when/as 表示为当。

22. 固定搭配, give something to somebody “把什么给某人”。

They were also joined by more than 300 mothers of children 23_____ a disability with from all over China. These regional athletes set their goals beyond the medals.
23. 介词, 介词短语作后置定语, with这里表 “有”的意思。

They aimed to show not only good 24 performance (s) ______________ (perform) during the seven days 25___ their image of selfbut improving and high-level sport moral.

24. 名词, performance (s)作动词show的宾语。 25. 连词, not only……but also…… 不但…… 而且……。

灵活运用 1. His teacher took a deep drink, smiled _______(warm), and thanked his warmly student very much for the sweet water.
1. 修饰动词smiled,作状语,用副词。

2. The teacher replied, “You tasted the water. I tasted the gift. The water was simply the container for an act of kindness and love. Nothing could be ________ (sweet).” sweeter

2. 意思是“没有什么比这更甜”即“这 是世界上最甜的东西”。

3. He was very tired after doing this for a whole day, but he felt very happy since the crop did “grow” ______(high).

higher 3. 指比他pluck up a few inches之前“长”得 “更高”了, 是省略了than before的隐性比较 级。

4. This proverb is saying we have to let natural things go in their _______(nature) course.
4. 在名词course前作定语, 用形容词。

5. ...we drank together and talked merrily _____ (merry) till far into the night.
5. 修饰动词talked作状语, 用副词形式。

6. ...one of the ______(bad) gift choices I worst ever made was for my high school English teacher, Ms Chen. (广州市水平测 试)
6. 由I ever made可知, 用bad的最高级。

exciting 7. Games are often ________(excite) and dramatic, but they generally aren?t very intellectual.(佛山二模)
7. 指事物(比赛)“令人兴奋的”。

8. Seated in a comfortable chair, listening to the peaceful music, you?ll be brought into a _______(relax) state of relaxed mind.
8. 作定语要用形容词, 表示人感到轻松的, 用-ed形 式的形容词, 意为“放松的心情”。

9. How much is a dish of plain ice
cream?” he asked. Some people were

now waiting for her service and the
impatient waitress grew a bit _________(patience).

“Thirty five cents” she said______ (rude). rudely
9. 前空是在系动词grew后作表语, 用形容词; 后空修饰动词said, 用副词。

largely 10. This was _______(large) because pet owners tended to be the middle age, who have less education and more health-risk factors. 10. 修饰because引导的原因状语从句, 用 副词。

11. Some of these universities have forty thousand or ______(many) students. more 11. 指比四万“更多”的学生。

12. The number of people present at the concert was _____smaller than expected. much 12. 修饰形容词比较级, 表示少“得多”。

语法填空 [2011梅州三校联考]

Nowadays, it is common that parents buy 16 ___educational an present for their children. A lot of personal computers are placed under the Christmas tree this year.
16. educational以元音开头。an educational present

17________(believe) that computers are Believing the key to success, parents are also insisting that children 18 be taught ________ (teach) to use them in school as early as possible.
17. parents与believe是主动关系。父母相信 电脑是成功的关所以坚持……。 18.insist表坚持主张时, 宾语从句中谓语动词 要用虚拟语气。insist that sb. (should) do。

The problem for school is 19 _____when that it comes to computers, parents don?t always know best. Teachers found themselves caught in the middle of the pressure problem between parent 20 _______ (press) and wise educational decisions.
19. that引导一个表语从句。 20. 根据下文and wise educational decisions, 可知and连接的两个都是名词。

Many schools are giving in to parental impatience and are purchasing hardware 21 ______ without good educational planning. Educators do not even agree on how computers should be used. Even those 22 ____believe that all who children should have access to computers warn of potential dangers to the very young.
21. 根据前文Many schools are giving in ....可知是 没有好的教育计划就购买了电脑硬件。 22. 先行词是those。

The temptation remains strong largely 23 because young children adapt so well _______ to computers. However, not every school can afford to go into computing, and that creates 24 ________ problem: a division another between the haves and the have-nots.
23. 前后两句为因果关系。 24. 前文已经出现过problem, 在此, 表示出现 另外的问题。

Very few parents are agitating for(倡 导)computer instruction in poor school districts, 25 ______ there may be barely where enough money to pay the teacher.
25. where在此引导一个定语从句, 先行词是
前文的poor school districts。那些贫穷的地

方没有足够的钱付给老师做报酬。

特别提醒 在语法填空中, 一般会有1空是考查冠词 的。解题时, 若 “(形容词+)名词”前没 有其它限定词时, 很可能就是填冠词。 然后, 根据下列三种方法确定用定冠词 还是用不定冠词。 ⑴ 理解法。不是特指, 不用the。

⑵ 翻译法。凡是可译作“一(个、本、 种……) , 有一个, 任何一个, 每一, 同一” 的, 一般用不定冠词; 凡是译文中有“这 /那……”字眼的, 一般用定冠词。

⑶ 观察法。若名词后有of短语、不定式 或者定语从句等一般用定冠词。

灵活运用 一、单句填空 用a, an或the填空。

1.A young man, while traveling through a desert, came across a spring of clear water. ____water was The sweet.
1. 特指前面提到的clear water。

2. Besides, shopping at this time of the year was not __ pleasant experience: a people stepped on your feet or pushed you with their elbows(肘部), hurrying ahead to get to a bargain.
2. 因experience表示“经历”是可数名词, 前 面没有其他限定词, 可能填冠词; 意思是“一 次愉快的经历, 表示“一次”, 应当用不定冠 词,故填a。

3. ...the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car to pull it to ___small a town some 20 kilometres away where there was a garage. 3. 意思是将车拉到离那里大约有20公里 远的“一个小镇”。表示“一个”, 用不 定冠词。

4. First impressions are the most lasting. After all, you never get __ second chance a to make ____ first impression. the
4. 序数词前用定冠词, 表特指, 即特指某一次; 用不定冠词, 指在原有基础上增加一次, 含有 another的意思。句中的a second chance相当 于another chance。

5. It?s ___ good feeling for people to a admire the Shanghai World Expo that gives them pleasure.
5. 句中a good feeling 意为“一种不错的感觉”。

6. The visitors here are greatly impressed by the fact that people from all walks of life are working hard for ___ new Jiangsu. a
6. 因为Jiangsu(江苏)前面受到描绘性定语的修饰, a new Jiangsu的意思是“一个新的江苏”。

7. There are over 58, 000 rocky objects in space, about 900 of which could fall down onto ___ earth. the

7. 表示“地球”的earth, 其前面习惯上要用定冠词。

8. If we sit near ___front of the bus, we?ll the have ___ better view. a
8. 第一空特指公共汽车的前部, 填the; 第二空泛指 或强调“更??的一个”, 故填a。

9. Everything comes with ___ price; a there is no such thing as free lunch in the world.
9. 指每一件事都是要付出代价的, 泛指 “某种”代价, 故填a。

10. In most countries, a university degree can give you ___ flying start in a life.

10. 因为a flying start泛指“成功的开始, 顺 利的开端”, 句意为:在大多数国家, 拥有大 学文凭可以让一个人的事业有个顺利的开端。

11. It took us quite a long time to get to the amusement park. It was ___ a three-hour journey.
11. 由于 journey 为可数名词, 故其前应 有不定冠词, 表示“一段三小时的路 程”。

12. We can never expect ___ bluer sky a

unless we create ___ less polluted world. a
12. 在通常情况下, 名词sky和world前面该用 定冠词;但是, 当它们受到描绘性定语的修饰 时, 就应用不定冠词, 表示“一个……的在天 空/世界”。

13. This area experienced ___ heaviest the rainfall in the month of May. ___

13. 第一空填定冠词, 是因为其后的名词受最高级 形容词的修饰; 第二空也填定冠词, 是因为特指 “五月”这个月。

14. To make up ___objective test the an teacher writes a series of questions, each of which has only one correct answer.
14. 泛指“一份”客观题试题。

15. His special air-letter may cost him less than ___ loaf of bread or his own bus a fare to work.
15. 表示数量, “一块”面包, 故用a。

16. One day while working at the cash register in the gift shop, I saw ___ elderly an couple come in with a little girl in a wheelchair.
16. 表示“一对”年长的夫妇, 用不定冠词; 因 elderly以元音开头, 故填an。

17. Students should be encouraged to use ____Internet as ___ resource. the a
17. 因the Internet(英特网)是习惯用法; a resource 意为“一种资源”。

18. — How about ___ Christmas evening the party? — I should say it was ___ success. a
18. 前者表指双方知道的“那个”圣诞晚会; 后者a success指“一个成功的晚会”。

19. — Could you tell me the way to the ___ Johnsons, please? — Sorry, we don?t have ___Johnson a here in the village.
19. 前者the Johnsons指“约翰逊一家人”; 后者a Johnson指“一个叫约翰逊的人”。

20. In ___ film Cast Away. Tom Hanks the plays ___ man named Chuck Norland. a
20. 前者是特指;后者表示“一个”叫Chuck Noland的人, 填a。

二、语法填空 [2011汕头一模] Just up the road from my home is a field, with two horses in it. From a distance, each horse looks like any other horse. But if you get a 16 ______ (close) closer look you will notice one of them is blind.
16. 形容词比较级, get a closer look指“近距 离地看一看”。

Instead of abandoning him, his owner has made him a safe and comfortable barn to live in. And if you stand nearby and listen, you will hear the sound of a coming bell 17________(come)from 18 ______ the smaller horse. Attached to 19 ___ (it) its halter is a small, copper-colored bell assisting the blind friend to follow him.
17. 动名词短语作后置定语。 18. 指“比较小的那匹马”。 19. 形容词性物主代词作定语。

20 _________ you watch them, you?ll find the horse with the bell always checking on the blind one, and that the blind horse will listen where for the bell and then slowly walk to 21_____ be led the other one is, trusting he will not 22 _____ (lead)astray. 20. 指“当……时”。 21. 关系副词where在定义从句中作地点状语。 22.be led astray “被引入歧途”。

As/When

When the horse with the bell returns to the barn each evening, he will stop 23__________ (frequent)to look back, frequently making sure that the 24 ______isn?t too other far behind to hear the bell.
23. 修饰动词stop。 24. 指“二匹马中的另一匹”。

Life does not throw us away just because we are not perfect or because we have problems or challenges. Sometimes we are the blind horse being guided by the little ringing bell of our acquaintances; 25 at other times we are the guide horse, __ who helps others to find their way.
25. 搭配: at other times在其它时候, 平时。

二、语法填空 [2011广州调研] Viennese-born composer Frederick Loewe, 16 _________we remember from whom/who his classical musicals including “My Fair Lady” and “Camelot”, was not always famous.
16. 本句中whom/who引导非限制性定语从句 修饰先行词composer Frederick Loewe, 在从 句中充当宾语。

He studied piano with the great masters of Europe and achieved huge success as a 17________ (music)and composer in his musician early years. But 18 __________ he when/after immigrated to the United States, he failed as a pianist.
17. 根据and composer及冠词修饰名词。 18. 从两分句之间的关系结合句义可知: when/after引导时间状语从句。

For a while he tried other types of work including gold mining and boxing. 19___ But he never gave up his dream and continued to play the piano and write music.
19. 该空白前后两个句子存在句意上的转折关 系。

20 __________those difficult years, he During/In could not always afford 21 ________ to make (make) payments on his piano.
20. 一个句子已经完整, 在多出的名词词组前 填介词, During/In“在……期间”。 21. 固定搭配:afford to do sth.表示有“ 足够的钱去做什么事”。

One day, bent over the keyboard, he could hear nothing but the music that he played with such rare inspiration. When he finished and looked up, he was astonished to find that he had 22 ___ an audience of three moving men who 23 ___________ (seat) on the floor. were seated
22. 冠词修饰名词表“一个”。 23. 定语从句中缺少谓语动词, be seated“坐 下”。

They said nothing and made no movement toward the piano. Instead, they dug into their pockets, pooled together enough money for the payment, placed it on the piano and walked out, empty 24_______ (hand). Moved handed by the beauty of his music, these men recognized excellence and responded to 25 __. it 24. empty handed/ empty handed“空手的”。 25. 代词, 指代his music。

二、语法填空 [2011汕头四校联考]

The Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated on the fifth day of the fifth month according to the Chinese calendar.

For thousands of years, the festival 16 ____ has ___________(mark) by eating zongzi and been marked racing dragon boats in honour of Qu Yuan, who is said to have committed suicide (自杀) by drowning himself.
解析:16. 由时间状语for thousands of years可知, 句子谓语动词应用现在完成进行时, 表示端午节一 直以来都以吃粽子和赛龙舟的方式进行庆祝, 而且 将来也会如此, 故填has been marked。

Qu was a minister of the State of Chu 17 _______(situate)in the present-day Hunan situated and Hubei provinces, during the Warring States Period. He was upright, loyal and highly respected. 18 ____he was dismissed But from office.
解析:17. 表示某地方位于何地时, 用be situated in /on, 句中“situated ...”相当于定语从句, “which was situated ...”。 解析:18. 前后两句是转折关系, 故用连词But。

Realizing 19________(realize)that the country was in the hands of evil officials, Qu leapt into River Miluo on the fifth day of the fifth month. Nearby fishermen rushed over to save him but were 20 _____ (able) unable to recover his body.
解析:19. 因逻辑主语Qu与realize是主动关系, 故 应填Realizing。 解析:20. 由but可知, 渔民未能救活他, 故用able相 反意思的unable。

The people of Chu 21 _____mourned who (哀掉)Qu?s death threw rice into the river to feed his ghost every year 22 ___ on the day of his death.
解析:21. 引导定语从句并在从句中作主语, 先行词是The people of Chu, 故应填who。 解析:22. 在具体的一天用on。

But one year, the spirit of Qu appeared and told the mourners that a huge reptile (爬行动 物) in the river had stolen the rice. The spirit then advised 23 _____ to wrap the rice and them bind it 24 ______throwing it into the river. before
解析:23. 代替the mourners, 在句中作宾语, 故应 填them。 解析:24. 因“将它裹好、绑好”应是在“将粽子 扔进河里”之前, 才不会给河里的一种爬行动物偷 吃, 故应填介词before。

During the Duanwu Festival, zongzi is eaten to symbolize (象征) the rice offerings to Qu. And the dragon-boat races symbolize 25 _____many attempts the to rescue and recover Qu?s body.
解析:25. 因many / little / few 等词在后面有 定语从句或不定式等成分修饰时, 其前面用 the表特指, 故该处填the。

二、语法填空 [2011深圳一模] Several times each year the Queen gives afternoon tea parties. But she simply sits beside a big silver plate, pouring cups of tea for everyone and 16________(skill)avoiding skillfully the cakes and sandwiches. 解析: 修饰动词应用副词形式。

At cocktail parties the Queen moves from group to group, chatting informally, and manages to make one glass of drink last 17 ___entire evening. an Tours abroad are difficult because hosts seem to have a 18 _______(believe) that the belief warmth of their welcome must be shown with wonderful state banquets(宴会).
解析: 17. 根据句意, 应填一个不定冠词, 表示“一整个晚 上”, 表泛指, 元音开头用不定冠词an。 解析:18. 不定冠词后应用名词, 再加上后面有一个同位语 从句, 解释这个名词的内容。

But the Queen has perfected the art of appearing to enjoy her meal without actually eating much. During one visit 19 ___ the Pacific islands to of Tonga, a specially — prepared dinner was arranged in her honor. The Queen looked uneasily at her plate 20 _________she when/as discovered a whole roast pig was her serving.
19. 常用介词搭配, 去某地参观要用介词to。 20. 这里强调的时间, 表示女王对发现一整头烤猪 摆在她面前作为给她的一份食物所作出的反应。

Then a turkey, some meat, an apple and bananas 21___________(carry)in for were carried each guest. But she depended 22 ____her on old favorite trick of talking with her host, King Tupou IV, and carrying on a warm conversation.
22. 因depend on/upon 是固定搭配。

21. 动词的语态和主谓一致, 本题缺谓语动词。

Sometimes the Queen will seem so carried away by foreign leader?s that political chat 23 _____she simply never has time to finish a meal before it is time to get up and make her speech.
解析:23. 结果状语从句用so ...that。

She will lift her fork to swallow a mouthful, and then put 24 __down it again to make another point, leaving almost all of her meal 25 ________ untouched (touch).
解析:24. 指代前面的her fork。 解析:25. 根据意思, 填untouched表示 “未触动过的”。

名师指津

3. Pride goes before a fall.骄者必败。(格 言或警句)
4. We often played together when we were children.我们小时候常在一起玩。

5. They?re having a meeting now.他们现 在在开会。(现在)

时态
熟读深思 熟读下列各句, 结合谓语动词的形式体会谓语 动词发生的时间或所处的状态, 理解不同时态 的用法与构成。 1. I go to school at 7:00 every morning.每 天早上我七点去上学。(经常的动作)

2. The sun rises in the east. 太阳从东方升
起。(客观真理)

6. I?m studying at an evening school.我
在上夜校。(现阶段)

7. She?s always helping others.她老是帮
助别人。(赞扬)

8. I knew you would agree. 我知道你会同
意的。(在过去某个时候看来, 将要发生的事)

9. I have seen the film already.我已经看过
那部电影了。(暗示: 我已知道电影的内容了)

10. She has been a dancer for ten years.
她已当了十年的舞蹈演员了。(从十年前开始 一直到现在)

11. When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. 警察到达时, 小偷们早就跑了。
(过去的过去)

12. When Jack arrived he learned Mary had been away for almost an hour.当杰克
到来时, 他才了解到玛丽已经离开差不多一个 小时了。

13. The Chinese have been making paper for two thousand years.中国人造纸有2000
年了。(两千年前开始造纸, 现在依然在造纸)

14. He will come if you invite him.如果你
请他, 他会来的。(在条件句中用一般现在时 代替一般将来时)

15. The plane takes off at 11:30.飞机十一
点半起飞。(时刻表中的规定)

16. Mike is coming home on Thursday.
迈克星期四回来。(近期计划, 常与表示将来 的时间状语连用)

17. What are you going to do tomorrow? 你打算明天做什么呢?(打算)

18. Look at the clouds; it?s going to rain. 你看天上的云, 快下雨了。(已有迹象表 明)

19. They are to be married in June.
他们将在六月结婚。(正式安排)

20. He is about to leave for Beijing.
他马上要去北京。(即将)

1. 时态是英语谓语动词的一种形式, 表示
动作发生的时间和所处的状态。英语中 的时态是通过动词形式本身的变化来实 现的。高考考试说明中规定要掌握的有 以下10种时态:

时态名称 构成(以 do为例) 一般现在 do/does 时
一般过去 did 时

主要用法 经常性或习惯性动作, 客观 事实, 现在的状态
在过去某个时间里所发生的 动作或存在的状态

一般将来 will/shall 在将来某一时刻要发生的动 时 do 作或存在的状态 过去将来 would do 在过去某一时刻看来将要发 时 生的动作或存在的状态

现在进 am/is/are 表示现在或现阶段正在发生 行时 doing 的动作
过去进 was/were 表示在过去某一时间内正在 行时 doing 进行的动作 将来进 will/shall 表示将来某一时间正在进行 行时 be doing 的动作 现在完 have/has 表示说话之前已发生或完成 成时 done 的动作或状态, 其结果的影响 现在依然存在; 也可表示持续 到现在的动作或状态

过去完成 had done 表示在过去某一时间或某 时 个动作之前已经发生或完 成的动作,即“过去的过

去”; 表示从过去某时开
始一直延续到另一个过去 时间的动作或状态 现在完成 have/has 表示一个从过去就开始一 been 直延续到现在并有可能继 进行时 doing 续下去的动作

2. 表示将来有多种方式, 请注意比较: ⑴ will/shall do表示单纯的将来或临时的 决定。 ⑵ be going to do表示主观打算或已有迹 象表明将要发生某事。

⑶ be about to do表示即将, 不与表示将 来时间的词连用。

⑷ do/does(一般现在时)在时刻表中规定

要发生某事或在时间、条件状语从句中。 ⑸ be to do按计划或正式安排将发生的
事。

时态与语法填空 在语法填空中, 动词是必考内容, 10空中 通常有一空是考查时态的, 其中, 最有可能考 的是一般过去时或者是第三人称单数的一般 现在时态。同时还有一空是考查非谓语动词 的。因此, 解题时, 首先要判断空格中要填的 动词是谓语动词还是非谓语动词; 若是谓语 动词, 一是根据主语与谓语动词的关系判断用 主动语态还是用被动语态, 二是根据具体的语 境来判断用哪一种时态, 进而确定所填动词的 形式。

灵活运用 一、单句填空

1. After a four-day journey, the young man _________(present) the presented water to the old man.
解析:句中the young man是主语, 其后 的present应是谓语动词, 由语境可知, 用 一般过去时。

2. ...people stepped on your feet or ______(push) you with their elbows pushed (肘部), hurrying ahead to get to a bargain.

解析:与stepped并列, 也用一般过去时。

3. Being too anxious to help an event develop often _______(result) in the results contrary to our intention.
解析:句中Being ...develop是动名词短语作 主语, result应是谓语动词, 应当考虑的是它的 时态; “急于求成, 往往会事与愿违”是客观 真理, 应当用一般现在时; 动名词作主语, 谓 语用第三人称单数形式, 故填results。

4. I was on my way to the Taiyetos Mountains. The sun was setting when my car ______(break) down near a remote broke village.

解析: 在when后面的句子中, my car是主语, break应为谓语动词; 由全文可知这是叙述过 去的经历, 用一般过去式; 再说was/were doing ...when ...did ...是一个固定句型, when 后面的句子的谓语通常用一般过去时, 表示 “正在做某事, 就在这个时候发生了另一事”。

5. — Is everyone here? — Not yet. Look, there come ____(come) the rest of our guests!
解析:由于以here和there开头引出的倒装 句通常只用于一般时态, 又因为句子主语 the rest of our guests为复数, 故填come。

6. Barbara is easy to recognize as she?s the only one of the women who ______ wears (wear) evening dress.
解析: 根据句意, 此处谈的是一般情况, 要用

一般现在时; 由于one of the women前有

only修饰, 说明其后的定语从句是修饰one的, 而不是修饰women的, 所以定语从句中的谓 语动词要用单数; 故填wears。

7. Every few years, the coal workers _____(have) their lungs X-rayed to have ensure their health.
解析:根据句中的every few years(每隔 几年)可知, 动作带有经常性和规律性, 故 用一般现在时。

8. The book has been translated into thirty languages since it ______ came (come) on the market in 1973.
解析:主句用现在完成时, since引导的 从句用一般过去时。

9. When you are home, give a call to let me know you __________(arrive) have arrived safely.
解析:根据常识, 说话人应该是叫对方已 经到家后才打电话报平安, 故选现在完成 时。

10. Up to now, the program has saved _______ (save) thousands of children who would otherwise have died.
解析:短语up to now的意思是“到现在 为止”, 指从过去某时开始持续到现在的 一段时间, 通常与现在完成时连用。

11. For many years, people _____ have _______(dream) of electric cars. dreamed However, making them has been more difficult than predicted.
解析:根据句意和句中的时态has been, 以及for many years(多年来)可知, 要用 现在完成时。

12. — When shall we restart our business? — Not until we have finished __________(finish) our plan.
解析: 根据句意和常识可知, 人们通常 是先制定计划, 然后付诸实施, 故空格处 填现在完成时比较符合句子语境。

13. — I?m not finished with my dinner yet. are waiting — But our friends ____________ (wait) for us.

解析:对话的意思是:“我还有没吃完 饭。”“但是我们的朋友在等我们了。”

14. I walked slowly through the market, were selling where people ___________(sell) all kinds of fruits and vegetables. I studied the prices carefully and bought what I needed. 解析:根据常识, 在“我慢慢走过市场 时”, 在市场那里有各种蔬菜水果在卖, “我”才会“仔细研究其价格”“买下需 要的东西”。

15. — Were you surprised by the ending of the film? — No, I ________(read) the book, so had read I already knew the story.

解析:由语境可知, “看这本书”应该是 在“看电影”之前, 故用过去完成时。

16. It took me a long time before I was able to fully appreciate what

they had done ________(do) for me.
解析:句中do的动作应发生took之前, 故 用过去完成时。

17. I?m tired out. I __________________ have been shopping (shop) all afternoon and I don?t seem to have finished anything.

解析:因为“很累”是因为“整个下午 一直在购物”导致的, 又由don?t seem可 知, 现在仍在购物, 故用现在完成进行时。

18. I have to see the doctor have been coughing because I _________________ (cough) a lot lately.

解析:由lately可知, 用现在 完成进行时。

19. The palace caught fires three times in the last century, and little of the original building ________(remain) now. remains 解析:意思是说, 由于三次失火, 原来的 建筑现在就没有留下来了。remain=be left被留下来。

20. I thought for a moment, rolled (roll) _____ down the window, and gestured to the man.

解析: 从后文的and 可知, roll的时态应与 thought和gestured一致, 要用一般过去时。 注意, 由and连接的两个或多个先后发生 的系列动词时, 其时态一致。

熟读深思 朗读下列被动句, 体会被动语态的用法; 观察 谓语部分, 思考各种时态被动语态的构成。

被动语态

1. The G8 is made up of political leaders.(M4, P 22)

2. The Group of Eight, or G8, was formed by eight of the world?s wealthiest nations in 1998.(M4, P 22)

3. The news is being celebrated by crowds in the streets.(M4, P 23)
4. At 12:45 UK time today, the name of the host city for the 2012 Olympic Games was being announced by IOC in Singapore.(M4, P 23)

5. Reforms have been demanded by people from all over the world.(M4, P 22) 6. London?s name had been announced twice before.(M4, P 23)

7. It is going to be remembered as a historical meeting this year, as the topic of Africa will be discussed in detail.(M4, P 22)

8. They want the leaders to cancel the debt of Africa?s poorest countries so that the problems there can be prevented from getting any worse.(M4, P 22)

归纳总结

不知道或没有必要说明动作的执行
者是谁, 或者需要突出或强调动作的承受 者时, 就用被动语态。被动语态由“be+

过去分词”构成, 时态、人称和数的变化
是通过be来体现的。以do为例, 请细读下

表:

时态

被动语态的构成

1 一般现在时 am/is/are +done

2 一般过去时 was/were +done 3 现在进行时 am/is/are being +done 4 过去进行时 was/were being +done
5 现在完成时 have been +done

6 过去完成时 had been +done
7 一般将来时 be going to/will be+ done 8 含情态动词 情态动词+be +done

注意: 1. 只有及物动词才有被动语态。但cost, have, own, lack, agree with, suffer from, belong to等及物动词或及物的短语动词 也没有被动语态。 2. 像happen, take place等不及物动词是 没有被动语态的。

4. 以下情况常用主动形式表示被动含义: ⑴ 系动词feel, look, seem, appear, taste, sound, smell, prove, remain等用主动形 式表示被动意义, 主语通常是事物。如: The material feels very soft.这种料子摸 起来很柔软。

⑵ write, read, clean, sell, wash, cook, open, close, lock等的否定式或与well, badly, easily等副词连用, 主语由内在品 质或性能使谓语得以实现或不能实现时。 如: The book sells well.那本书很畅销。 The window won?t open. 这扇窗开不了。

⑶ cook, bake, make, print, pack, build, work out等动词用于进行时态时。如: The fish is cooking.鱼正在煮。
语态与广东高考 语态在语法填空中是可能要考的内容, 特别是 一般现在时或一般过去时的被动语态。若掌 握好被动语态, 在写作中适当运用, 可使句子 更加多样化, 有时甚至会更加自然、生动。

灵活运用 一、单句填空

1. Her mother was excited. “Your father has at last decided to stop smoking, ” Jane ____________(inform). was informed 解析: 因Jane是主语, 其后的inform应是谓 语动词; 因Jane与inform是被动关系, 又是 一般过去时, 故用一般过去时的被动语态。

is being 2. The church tower which ___________ restored _______ (restore) will be open to tourists soon. The work is almost finished.

解析:根据句中的 ...will be open to tourists soon (不久将对游客开放) 以及 The work is almost finished (工程差不 多快结束了) 可知, the church tower的 修复工程还正在进行, 故用现在进行时 的被动语态。

3. This coastal area was named (name) _________ a national wildlife reserve last year.
解析:由于this coastal area与name之间 为被动关系, 再根据句中的last year可知, 用一般过去时的被动语态。

are 4. Linda, make sure the tables _____ ____(set) before the guests arrive. set 解析: 由于table(桌子)与set (摆, 放置) 之 间为被动关系, 要用被动语态; 又因为 make sure后接从句通常要用一般现在时 表示将来意义, 故用一般现在时的被动语 态。

5. You?ve failed to do what you were expected _____________(expect) to and I?m afraid the teacher will blame you.
解析:由expect sb.to do sth(期待某人做 某事)可知, m意思是指没有做“过去安 排好要做的事”, 于是担心受惩罚, 故用 一般过去时的被动语态

6. Professor James will give us a lecture on the Western culture, but when and where hasn’t been decided ________________ (not, decide) yet.
解析:由yet可知, 至今还没有决定, 故用 现在完成时的被动语态。

7. People say that a smile can _________ be passed (pass) from one person to another, but acts of kindness from strangers are even more so.
解析:因a smile与pass是被动关系, 故用 被动语态, 注意情态动词后用原形。

is assigned 8. When research __________(assign), the professor expects the student to take it actively and to complete it with minimum guidance.
解析:谓语动词, 因research(研究工作)与

assign(分配)是被动关系, 又根据前后时态 (如expects)可知, 此空应用一般现在时的被
动语态。

9. The meeting ___________(hold) will be held tomorrow. 解析:因会议是被举行, tomorrow表明用一
般将来时。

10. All the tickets had been sold ____________(sell) out when they rushed there. 解析:因rushed是过去的动作, 在此之前就
是过去的过去, 用过去完成时; 票被卖完, 故 用过去完成时的被动语态。

11. The cloth ________(wash) well. washes
解析:因这种布料本身的品质决定着好洗, 用主动形式表被动含义。

12. The door won?t _____ (shut). shut
解析:由主语的内在品质问题使得谓语不能 实现, 即门坏了不能关, 用主动形式表被动含 义。

13. The story ________(sound) very sounds interesting. 解析:系动词没有被动语态。

14. This is not an easy job and ________ can’t be finished ________(不能完成)in such a short time. 解析:因this与finish是被动关系; “不能” 要用情态动词, 故填can?t be finished。

15. Great changes have taken place _____________ (发生) in my home town in the past ten years.
解析:不及物动词没有被动语态; 由in the past 15 years可知, 用现在完成时。

灵活运用 一、动词填空 1. If I _____(be) you, I would do it in a were different way. 解析:与现在事实相反。 2. If you had followed my advice just now, you would be ________(be) fine now. 解析: 与现在事实相反。

3. He hesitated for a moment before kicking the ball, otherwise he would have scored _______________ (score) a goal. 解析:与过去事实相反。
4. If I _____(have) a million dollars, I would had first donate some of the money to poor children in remote mountainous areas. 解析:与现在事实相反。

5. If I hadn?t attended high school, I would have _______ _____(be) a student of an occupational school. been 解析:与过去事实相反。

6. _____(be) I to be a teacher in the future, Were first of all, I would try my best to give students lessons, guiding them into a correct direction and arousing their interest in the subjects. 解析:将来可能性不大的假设。

7. If I had happened (happen) to be present at __________ the scene, first, I would have come to help the injured and sent him to the nearest hospital or dialed 120 for help. 解析:与过去事实相反的情况。 8. If the injured had been bleeding badly, I ______________ would have stopped (stop) the blood immediately using a bandage or a handkerchief if possible. 解析:与过去事实相反。

灵活运用

一、动词填空

1. If she had been warned earlier, she _________________(not break) the rules. wouldn?t have broken
2. I wish I had seen ________(see) her yesterday. 3. The doctor ordered that she (should) ______ _____(stay) in bed for a few days. stay

4. It is very important that you ________ (should) master _______(master) the skills of computer.

5. English teachers give advice that we (should) make _____________(make) good use of every chance to speak English.

6. It is high time that we took/should take ____________ (take) some measures to protect the wild animals. 7. I would rather she _______ (come) came tomorrow.

8. If I were ten years younger, I _______ would ______(start) all over again. start

9. How I wish every family ____ (have) a had large house with a beautiful garden!

10. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it _____(be) broken. were

11. Jane?s pale face suggested that she _____(be) ill, and her parents suggested was that she should have (have) a medical __________ examination.

二、语法填空[2011六校联考] Americans love pets. In America, there are more families with pets 16 ____those than with children. It is common 17____ U.S. that homes have some sorts of pets, such as monkeys, snakes and even wolves.

16. 在美国, 有宠物的家庭超过有孩子的家庭。 故填than。 17. 句中it是形式主语, that从句是真正的主语。

But Americans? all-time favorites are cats and dogs, because dogs can offer protection from thieves and unwelcome visitors and cats can help get rid 18 ___ of the home unwanted pests. Beneath keeping pets, there lies a basic American belief: Pets have a right to be treated well.

18. 因get rid of系固定搭配, 意为: 摆脱, 去掉。

In Houston, Texas, dogs can have their dinner 19 _________(deliver) to their delivered homes, just like pizza. Pets can even go with 20 _____owners on vacation. their
解析:19. 宾语与宾语补足语存在被动关系, 故填delivered。 解析:20. 宠物可以和它们的主人一起去度 假, 故填their。

Besides, at least 75 animal welfare organizations exist in America which provide care and adoption services for 21 _______(home) and ill—treated animals. homeless To pay for the high—tech health care, for people can buy health insurance 22 ____ their pets.
21. 根据空后的ill-treated animals(受虐待的动物), 空应是homeless, 表示“无家可归的动物”。 22. 因buy something for somebody系固定搭配。

Pets are 23 ___basic to American as culture as hot dogs or apple pie. By now researchers 24 have discovered(discover) _____________ that interacting with animals lowers a person?s blood pressure.
解析:23. 句意为:宠物是美国文化中很基本的 一部分, 就如热狗和苹果派一样as +形容词比较 级as, 故填as。 解析:24. 根据时间状语by now, 此空应填现在完 成时。

Pets even encourage social relationships: They give their owners an appearance of friendliness, and they provide 25 __ good a topic of conversation.
解析:25. “一个”好的谈话主题。

二、语法填空 [2011湛江一模]

In the international business there is always a great need for creative talents. On the other hand creative people are also searching for areas 16______ they where can put their talents to use.
解析:16. 因为先行词是areas表示地点, 再根 据关系词在从句中是作状语, 故此处应填写关 系副词where。

A talent to be noticed nowadays is much 17______(easy)than it used to be in the old easier times. In the early days, for example, if one wanted to be a singer, he or she had to have a great amount of talent in singing. That was the only way they could promote 18themselves ________ and be recognized.
解析:17. 由than可知。 解析:18. 根据下文“promoting oneself”判断此处 应填themselves。句意为:那是他们推销自己和使 自己得到别人认可的唯一方法。

Now sources like the Internet help a great deal in promoting oneself. The Internet is like a global village. 19_____ Seated (seat) in your home you are capable 20 __ finding a lot of sources. of
解析:19. 因seat作动词时, 意为“使……就 座, 使坐下”。seat sb./oneself=sb. be seated。 解析:20. 搭配:be capable of doing sth有能 力做某事。

People with 21________(vary)of talents can varieties be recognized through the Internet. 22 Thus/ _____ Therefore/So the Internet is 23 an __________ , __opportunity to put forward one?s talents, creativity, and powers in order to be noticed.
21. 搭配:varieties of各种各样的。 22. 根据上下文因果联系, 可知此处表结果。Thus/ Therefore/So都可以作副词, 表示“因此, 所以”。 23. 此处泛指一种机会, 且因为opportunity是元音 音素开头, 故不定冠词应用an。

Keeping in mind 24 ____a talent that unexposed is the talent unfound. Now we are lucky enough to show our 25 ______ hidden (hide) talents, without trying very hard and just by sitting at home.
解析:24. 引导的从句是作动词短语keep in mind的宾语。 解析:25. 动词hide与talents存在被动的关系, 表示“潜在的才华”。

并列连词 熟读深思
熟读下列句子, 体会并列连词的意义和用法。

1. He helps me and I help him.他帮我, 我 帮他。

2. After class, not only do I listen to English programs on TV and on the radio but I?ve also learned a lot from the Internet and other sources. 课后,
我不但收听电视和收音机上的英语节目, 而且我还从网络和其它资源中学到许多 东西。

3. I was just leaving when the telephone rang. 我正要离开, 电话铃响了。 4. Hurry up, or (else) you?ll be late. 快点,
否则就会迟到了。

5. Either Tom is coming or his sisters are.
不是汤姆就是她的姐妹们要来。

6. It never rains but it pours. 不雨则
已, 雨则倾盆。

7. I like tea while she likes coffee. 我
喜欢喝茶而她喜欢喝咖啡。

8. I am thirsty, for it is hot. 我口渴, 因
为天气太热。

9. The manager was ill so I went in her place. 经理病了所以我代她去。

归纳总结 1. 并列连词可以连接两个对等的(或平行 的)词、短语或句子, 常用的并列连词有: ⑴ 表示联合: and (同, 和), when (=and just at this time就在这时) , not only ...but (also) ...(不仅……而且……), neither ...nor ... (既不……也不……).

⑵ 表示选择: or (或者, 否则), otherwise (否 则), or else (否则), either...or (不是??就是)
⑶ 表示转折: but (但是, 可是, 只是因为), yet (可是), not ...but ... (不是??而是??) ⑷ 表示因果: for (因为) 和so (所以, 因此) ⑸ 表示对比: while (而, 却)

2.一点说明: when表示“就在此时”时, 主要用于was/were doing sth. when sth./ sb. Did; was/were about to do sth. when sth./ sb. Did; was/were on the point of doing sth. when sth./ sb. did等句型中, 表 示“当某人或某物正在或正要做某事, 就 在这时突然又发生了另一事”。

3. 三点注意: ⑴ so不与because连用。 ⑵ but, while不与although连用, 但yet, still可与although连用。 ⑶ not only ...but also ...连接两个句子时, 前一分句用部分倒装。

并列复合句与广东高考 在语法填空中很可能要求考生填入一个

适当的并列连词。另外, 基础写作要求只
能用5句话, 熟练掌握并列复合句, 对我们

合并句子, 非常有用。

一、单句填空 用适当的连词填空或用括号中 所给动词的适当形式填空。

1. He was very tired after doing this for a whole day, ________he felt very happy but/yet since the crop did “grow” higher.
解析:1. 因very happy与前面的very tired是 转折关系, 而这两句之间是逗号且没有连词, 故填连词but或yet。

2. I then realized she had no arms ____ or legs, just a head, neck and torso.
2. 在否定句中表示并列, 用or。

3. He took the old man not just across the river, ____ to his home. but
3. 搭配: not just ...but (also) ...不但……而且; 句意为: 他不但送老人过河, 而且送老人到家

4. ...the government of a developed country may well prefer to see a slowly increasing population, rather than one which is stable __ in decline. or
解析: 4. 表选择, “或者”。意思是: 一个 发达国家的政府想看到的是慢速增长的 人口而不是一个稳定不变的人口或下降 的人口。

5. ...people do not connect their success with ability ___ with factors such as luck. but

5. “not ...but”结构, 表“不是??而是??”。

6. The sport first appeared in 1896, ____ but none were contested during the 1904 and 1928 Games.
6. 前后两句之间是转折关系。

7. It is often said that the joy of traveling is not in arriving at your destination ___ but in the journey itself.
7. 表示“不是……而是……”是not ...but ...。

8. Stand over there and you?ll be able to ___ see the oil painting better.

8. 这是“祈使句(表条件)+and+简单句”句型。

9. He found it increasingly difficult to read, ___ his eyesight was beginning to for fail.
9. 补充说明原因用for。

10. He was about halfway through his meal? _____ a familiar voice came to his when ears.
10. 表示“就在这个时候(突然)”用when。

11. Start out right away, __ you?ll miss or the first train.
11. 这是“祈使句+or+陈述句”句型。

12. We were swimming in the lake ____ when suddenly the storm started.

12. 表示正在做某事时, 突然又发生另一件事。

13. We are going to the bookstore in John?s car. You can come with us ____ or you can meet us there later.

表示选择

14. At last, we found ourselves in a pleasant park with trees providing shade and ___(sit) down to eat our picnic lunch. sat
14. 与found是并列谓语, 故用一般过去时。

15. Some of us don?t have much pocket money, ___they feel unhappy. so
15. 前因后果, 引出结果, 用so。

16. 79.3% of the surveyed netizens say that their main motivation is to help their parents to live a better life _____ while 67.7% claim that they work hard in order to change their own fate.
16. 表示对比或对照, 相当于“而, 却”。

二、语法填空 Sometimes Chinese English teachers are puzzled by such questions, “Have you got any skills in reading comprehension?” Actually, many of the teachers can?t give students 1 ___ efficient way to deal with an reading.

解析: 1. 指“一种”有效的方法, 表示“一种” 用不定冠词, efficient以元音音素开头, 故用an。

Anyway, 2 _____often simply say, they “Read more and practice more, and will get you 3 _______ (get) more experience in reading comprehension.”
解析:2. 指代前文中的the teachers。 解析:3. 在“祈使句+and+陈述句”句型中, 陈述句的谓语动词要用一般将来时。

Frankly, these teachers? good 4 _________ suggestions (suggest)are only helpful to arouse students? interest in reading 5 ____not helpful to deal but with the questions in the examinations of reading comprehension.
解析: 4. 作主语用名词, 谓语(系动词)是are, 可见 此名词要用复数。 解析: 5. 因helpful to ...与not helpful to ...显然转折 关系, 用but连接两个形容词短语作表语。

Personally, I think the skill for reading on comprehension should be based 6 __ the knowledge of English writing.7 _____ the Since English passages are written under some rules or principles, the science of reading and understanding may have a close relationship with writing.

6. 固定搭配be based on意为“以??为基础; 在??的基础上”。 7. 此处since引导一个原因状语从句, 意为“既然”。

Reading comprehension can?t be independent from the knowledge of writing. So 8_____ (do) to do better in reading comprehension, we should learn the knowledge of writing, study 9 _____ how questions are designed and the relationship 10 _______ questions and the reading materials. between
8. 作目的状语, 要用动词不定式。 9. 引导宾语从句, 并在从句中作方式状语, 即研究问 题是“如何”设计的。 10. 固定结构between ...and ...表示“在……与…… 之间”。

灵活运用 一、连词填空 用适当的连词填空, 并指出从 句的类型。

1. One day, he came up with an idea _____he would pluck up all of his crop a that few inches. He did so the next day.
解析:1. 引导同位语从句, 说明idea的具体 内容; 从句的结构和意义完整, 用that引导。

2. ...when I realized that the villagers who had gathered around me were arguing as to ______ should have the who honour of receiving me as a guest in their house.
解析:2. 在介词to后应是宾语, 不难判断作宾 语的是一个宾语从句; 引导宾语从句且在从 句中作主语; 又因为“有幸接待我”的应是 人, 故填who。

3. I want to be liked and loved for _____ I am inside. what
解析:3. 引导宾语从句并在宾语从句中 用作表语。句意为: 我想因为自己内在的 东西而受人喜欢和热爱。

4. Part of the reason Charles Dickens loved his own novel, David Copperfield, was _____ it was rather closely modeled that on his own life.

解析: 固定句式: The reason (for/ why...) is that ... (??的原因是??) 中的that引 导表语从句。

5. _____ some people regard as a What drawback is seen as a plus by many others.

解析: 引导主语从句并在主语从句中作动词 regard的宾语, 相当于the thing that。句意为: 被一些人视为不利因素的东西在另外许多人 看来则是有利的因素。

6. Cindy shut the door heavily and burst into tears. No one in the office knew ____ why she was so angry.
解析: 引导宾语从句, 表示“??的原因” “为什么??”, 用why。句意是: 没有人知道 他如此生气的原因。

7. — I prefer shutting myself in and listening to music all day on Sundays. — That?s _____I don?t agree. You where should have a more active life.
解析:引导表语从句, 表示“??的地方”, 用where。

8. — Have you finished the book? — No. I?ve read up to ______the where children discover the secret cave.
解析: 引导宾语从句, 用作介词to的宾语, 其意为 “??的地方”。

9. It never occurred to me ____ you that could succeed in persuading him to change his mind.

解析:9. 引导主语从句, 句首的it为形式主语。 句型It never occurred to me that ...的意思是 “我从来没有想到……”。

10. Before the sales start, I make a list of _____ my kids will need for the what coming season.
解析: 引导宾语从句并在从句中作动词need 的宾语, 用连接代词what, 表示“所??的东 西”。

11. How much one enjoys himself travelling depends largely on _____ who he goes with, whether his friends or relatives.
解析: 引导宾语从句并在从句中作with的宾语, 指人, 用who。句意为:一个人去旅行的愉悦 程度在很大程度上取决于他与谁一起去, 无论 是朋友还是亲属。

what 12. Thank you for ____ you?ve said, I hope I will never be too busy to help others.

解析: 引导名词性从句作介词宾语, what 本身在句中作have said的宾语。

13. ...and also the bike was used to get groceries, saving us from having to walk long distances from _____ we where live.
解析: 引导名词性从句, 作from的宾语, 意思是“我们所住的地方”。

14. Professors do not have the time to explain _____a university library how works; they expect...
解析: 引导宾语从句, 意思是“教授没有 时间解释一座大学图书馆是怎样运作 的”。

15. The news _____ our athletes won that another gold medal was reported in yesterday?s newspaper.
解析: 引导同位语从句, 说明the news的 具体内容; 同位语从句的意义和句子成分 完整, 用that。

16. What _____was most important to her, she told me, was her family.
解析: 引导主语从句并在主语从句中作主 语, 相当于the thing that。

二、语法填空 [2011珠海一模] Many years ago, when I worked as a volunteer at Stanford Hospital, I got to know a little girl 16 ______(name)Lisa named who was suffering from a rare and serious disease. 解析:16. 过去分词短语作后置定语。

Her only chance of recovery appeared to be a blood transfusion 17 _____her five-year-old from brother, 18 ____had miraculously (奇迹般地) who survived the same disease and had developed the antibodies (抗体) needed to fight the 19 ________(ill). illness
解析:17. 从她5岁的弟弟身上输血。 解析:18. 关系代词引导非限制定语从句并在从句中 作主语, 先行词是前面的her five-year-old brother。 解析:19. 定冠词后面应是名词。

The doctor explained the situation to her little brother, and asked the boy 20 ____ if/ _______ he would be willing to give his whether blood to his sister. I saw him hesitate for only a moment before taking 21 ___deep a breath and saying, “Yes, I?ll do it if it can save Lisa.”
解析:20. 连接词引导宾语从句的用法, 根据句意 为“是否”。 解析: 21.冠词在固定搭配的用法, take a deep breath意为“做一次深呼吸”。

As the transfusion progressed, he lay in a bed next to his sister and 22_______ smiled (smile), as we all did, seeing the color returning 23 ___ her cheeks. to

22. 由上下文时态可知, 这里为并列谓语。 23. 搭配return to返回到??, 重新恢复??。

Then his face grew pale and his smile faded. He looked up at the doctor and asked with a trembling voice, ”Will I start to die right away?” Being young, the boy had misunderstood ____________ 24(understand) the doctor; he thought he was going to have to give her all 25 ____ blood. his

24. 根据上下文可知他误会了医生。 25. 这里指小男孩以为要把自己所有的血捐给姐姐。

灵活运用

1. We understand this lesson best _____ when we receive gifts of love from children.

解析:引导时间状语从句, 表示“当……时”。

2. Once they decide which college to go to, ____ students should research the admission procedures.
解析: 引导状语从句, 表示“一旦”。

3. The girl had hardly rung the bell ____ when the door was opened suddenly, and her friend rushed out to greet her.
解析:3. 因hardly ...when ...是固定句式, 表 示“刚……就”。

4. The old man asked Lucy to move to another chair _______ he wanted to sit because next to his wife.
解析:4. 引导原因状语从句。

5. The little boy won?t go to sleep unless ____ his mother tells him a story.
解析:5. 引导条件状语从句, 表示“除非, 如果不”, 用unless。

6. John thinks it won?t be long ______ before he is ready for his new job.
解析:6. 固定句式:it won?t be long before ...不久之后就……。

7. I?m sorry you?ve been waiting so long, but it?ll still be some time beforeBrian _____ gets back.
7. 表示“要过一段时间才……”的句型是It?ll be some time before ...。

8. Although/Though/While the Internet ______________________ is of great help, I don?t think it?s a good idea to spend too much time on it.
8. 表示“尽管, 虽然”, 引导让步状语从句。

9. ________ hungry I am, I never seem to However be able to finish off this loaf of bread.
9. 表示“不管多么”, 后接形容词或副词, 用 however, 相当于no matter how。

10. A small car is big enough for a family of three unless you need more space for _____ baggage.
10. 句意为: 一辆小型轿车对一个三口之家来说已 经够大了, 除非你需要更多的空间放行李。

11. You?d better not leave the medicine ______ kids can get at it. where
解析:11. 引导地点状语从句, 意为“在……的地 方”, 用where。

12. Don?t promise anything ______ you unless are one hundred percent sure.
解析: 12. 句意为:除非你有百分之百的把握, 否 则别答应任何事情。

13. All people, whether they are old or ______ young, rich or poor, have been trying their best to help those in need since the disaster.
解析: 13. 引导让步状语从句, 意为“无 论??还是??”, 用 whether ...or ...句 型。

14. — Did you return Fred?s call? — I didn?t need to _______ I?ll see because him tomorrow.

14. 不必给他回电话, “因为”明天我要去看他。

15. There were some chairs left over when ___ everyone had sat down.
15. 句意为:当所有人都就座后, 还有几把椅 子剩下。

二、语法填空 [2011揭阳一模] Research has shown that motivation is very important in learning a language; you need to be enthusiastic at it and to be interested in it. Different people will have different motives (动机) — the desire 16 ___promotion, the hope of being able to study for abroad, and the pure intellectual enjoyment are only some of the possible motives.

16. 搭配:desire for 对……的渴望。

But actually wanting to learn is 17 ____ most the important motive of all. Courage is an essential attribute in learning a language. 18 ___ takes a lot of courage to speak a foreign It language either in front of your friends19___ or to native speakers, but don?t be afraid of making mistakes-that is the way we learn.
17. 最高级前要用定冠词。 18. 句型:It takes/took sb. some time to do sth.花某人多长 时间去做某事。It 是形式主语,真正的主语是后面的不定 式。 19. 搭配:either ...or ...或……或……。

Nowadays there are many different forms of English, each with its own construction and accent, and so long as understood you can make yourself 20__________ (understand) and can understand what is said to you, you have succeeded in communicating, which is the purpose of any language.
20. 句型:make sb. understood 使某人被理 解。过去分词作make的宾语补足语。

Curiosity is not only a possible motivation; it is also of great help in your learning. Remember that a language is not just a grammatical system. It is the outcome of a certain culture or different cultures. It is no learning good 21_________(learn)strings of words and lists of grammatical rules unless you know as much as possible about the background of the language.
21. 句型:It?s no use/good doing sth.做某事是没有 用处/好处的。

So learn as much as 22_____ can about you the different cultures which influence English-watch television programs, listen to the radio, try to obtain newspapers which 23__________ (write) are written by native speakers.
22. 搭配:as much as you can 尽可能多的。 23. 定语从句中缺少谓语动词。

They will show you 24 _____ a language how is really used. English language is not an abstract system. Instead, it is a living form of 25 __________(express). expression 24. 引导宾语从句。 25. 作介词后宾语。

灵活运用 一、单句填空 用适当的关系词填空。

1. He filled his leather container so that he could bring some back to an elder _____had been his teacher. who
解析: 1. 引导定语从句并在从句中作主语, 先行词是表示人的an elder, 故填who。

2. Jane paused in front of a counter ______ some attractive ties were on where display.
解析:因两句之间没有连词, 必定是填连 词; 后句是定语从句, 要填的词在从句中

作地点状语, 故填关系副词where。

3. ...the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car to pull it to a small town some 20 kilometers away _____ where there was a garage.

解析:先行词是a small town, 并在定语从句 中作状语, 用where(=in which)引导定语从句。 注意, 先行词与定语从句之间被some 20 kilometers away隔开了。

4. Children who are not active or ____ whose diet is high in fat will gain weight quickly.
解析: 引导定语从句并在定语从句中作定语, 修饰diet, 故用关系代词whose。

5. Stephen Hawking believes that the earth is unlikely to be the only planet ______ life has developed gradually. where
解析: 引导定语从句并在从句中作地点状语。

6. I?ve become good friends with several of the students in my school ____I met in who the English speech contest last year.
解析:引导定语从句并在从句中作met的宾语, 先行词是表示人的students, 故用关系代词 who。注意: 先行词与关系代词之间被in my school分隔开了, 要注意分辨。

7. The girl arranged to have piano lessons at the training centre with where her sister ______ she would stay for an hour.
解析:引导定语从句, 用以修饰先行词 the training centre。where在此相当于 and there。

8. As a child, Jack studied in a village school, _____ is named after his which grandfather.
解析: 引导非限制性定语从句, 并在定语从句 中作主语, 先行词是village school。

9. I refuse to accept the blame for something ____ was someone else?s fault. that
解析: 引导定语从句并在从句中作主语, 先行词something指事物, 多用that。

10. That?s the new machine _____ whose parts are too small to be seen.
解析:引导定语从句并在从句中作定语, 意思是“这台新机器的零部件”小得看 不清, 故用whose。

11. I saw this beautiful girl, ______ whose smile just melted me and almost instantly gave me a completely new sense of what life is all about.
解析:引导非限制性定语从句, 指“那 个女孩的”微笑。

12. The long history of the Chinese Knot
dates back to ancient times _____ people when

first used knots for fastening, wrapping,
hunting and fishing.

解析:引导定语从句, 指代ancient times。

13. In a developing country where a _____ vastly expanded population is pressing hard upon the limits of food, space and natural resources ...
解析:引导定语从句修饰a developing country, where 本身在从句中作状语。

14. They will fly to Washington, _____ where they plan to stay for two or three days.
解析: 先行词为地点名词, 并在定语从句中作 状语。

15. He _____ laughs last laughs best. who
解析: 先行词是表示泛指的he时, 关系代词只 能用who。

16. Those _____ want to see the movie who should book the tickets in advance.
解析:先行词是指人的those时,关系代词只 能用who。

17. This is the very book _____ I am that looking for.
解析:先行词由the very修饰的事物时, 只能 用关系代词that。

18. He will tell you everything _____ that he heard about.
先行词是指事物的everything时, 关系代词只 能用that。

19. All _____ glitters is not gold. that
先行词是指物的all时, 关系代词只能用that。

20. This is the boy whose mother is a _____ teacher.
解析:作定语, 指“那个男孩的”母亲。

21. I?ll never forget the day ______ I when spent my holiday in Hawaii.
解析:先行词是表示时间的词, 且在定语从句 中作状语, 相当于on which, 故用关系副词。

22. I?ll never forget the day __________ I which/that spent there.
解析:虽然先行词是表示时间的词, 但在定语 从句中作spent的宾语, 故用关系代词。

23. The school ______ I learned English where was very large.
解析:先行词是表示地点的词, 且在定语 从句中作状语, 用关系副词。

24. The school __________I visited which/that yesterday was very large.
解析:虽然先行词是表示地点的词, 但在定语 从句中作visited的宾语, 故用关系代词。

why 25. Can you tell me the reason _____ you were absent today?
解析:先行词是reason, 在定语从句中作 状语, 相当于for which, 故用关系副词why。

26. The reason __________ he gave which/that for not coming was that his mother didn?t allow him to.
解析: 先行词虽然是reason, 但在定语从 句中作gave的宾语, 故用关系代词。

二、语法填空

[2011清远一模] During the Spring and Autumn Period, the State of Wu launched an attack against the State of Yue. The king of Wu was seriously wounded and soon died. 16____ son Fu His Chai became the new king. Fu was determined to revenge (复仇). 16. 指吴王的儿子。

He trained his army strictly 17 _____ it until was a perfect fighting force. Three years later, he led his army 18 against ______the State of Yue and caught its king Gou Jian.

解析:17. 根据句子结构, 前后有两个句子, 故此空 应填一个连词, 在根据句意, 应填until, 表示 “Fucai把他的部队训练成一支完美的作战部队”。 解析:18. 三年后Fucai带领他的部队攻打越国。 故填against。

In order to avenge his father?s19_____ death (die), Fu let him live in a shabby stone house by his father?s tomb and ordered him to raise horses for him. Gou pretended to be loyal to Fu 20 ____he but never forgot his humiliation(羞辱).
19. 名词所有格后面应填名词, 故填death。 20. 前后两个分句是转折关系, 故填but。

Many years later, he 21_______(set)free. Gou was set secretly accumulated a military force after he went back to his own state. In order to make himself tougher he slept on firewood and ate a gall-bladder 22 ______ having dinner and before going to bed every night.
解析:21. 缺谓语, 根据Many years later和前后时 态, 应用一般过去时, 加上he与set是被动关系, 故填 was set free。 解析:22. 根据结构动词-ing形式前要填介词, 根据句子意思填before, 因为睡柴火和吃胆囊是 发生在吃饭和睡觉前。故填before。

At the same time he administered his developing state carefully, 23__________ (develop) agriculture. After a few years, his country became strong. Then Gou seized a favorable opportunity to wipe off the State of Wu.
解析: 填一个动词-ing形式作administered his state carefully的伴随状语。

Later, people use it to describe one 24 _____stands self-imposed (自愿接受的) who hardships to 25_________ (strong) one?s strengthen determination to realize one?s ambition.
解析:24. 先行词one, 后面应填一个关系代词 who, 在从句中作主语。
解析:25. 动词不定式符号后面接动词原 形。strong的名词是strength, 而它的动词 是strengthen。

语法活用 “介词+关系代词(whom/which)”引导的 定语从句 熟读深思 以下各句选自课文原句, 都含有“介词+ 关系代词”引导的定语从句, 请朗读并思 考: ⑴ 直接在介词后, 用什么样的关系代词? ⑵ 如何选用介词?

1. Have you ever dreamed of playing in front of thousands of people at a concert, at which everyone is clapping and appreciating your music? 2. They may start as a group of high-school students, for whom practising their music in someone?s house is the first step to fame.

3. Later, they may give performances in pubs or clubs, for which they are paid in cash. 4. The musicians were to play jokes on each other as well as play music, most of which was based loosely on the Beatles.

5. However, after a year or so in which they became more serious about their work.

6. The man with whom my father is talking now is a policeman.=The man (who/whom/)my father is talking with now is a policeman.

归纳总结 1. 在“介词+关系代词”中, 先行词指人时只 能用 ______, 先行词指物时只能用 _______; whom which 但当介词不直接放在关系代词前面, 而位于定 语从句末尾时, 先行词指人时关系代词可以用 _____/_______/_____ , 先行词指物时, 关系代 who whom that 词可以用 which /_____, 这时这些关系代词 ______ that 往往可以省略。

2. 研析句3 (pay ...for ...)可知, 介词由定
语从句中的 谓语动词 ________与介词的搭配关系 来确定。由句1和句5可知, 介词由定语从

句中的_______来确定; 有时需要根据全 先行词 句的意思, 综合考虑才能确定。

1. The newly built café the walls of , ______ are painted light green, is really a which peaceful place for us, specially after hard work.
解析:引导非限制性定语从句, of表示所属 关系, the walls of which在含义上相当于and the walls of it (这座咖啡馆的墙)。

2. The settlement is home to nearly 1, 000 people, many of ______ left their whom village homes for a better life in the city.
解析:引导定语从句并在从句中作介词of 的 宾语, 先行词是人, 故用whom。of表示部分与 整体的关系, many of whom相当于and many of them (其中许多人)。

3. The growing speed of a plant is influenced by a number of factors, most of ______are beyond our control. which
3. 此处的most of which相当于and most of them。

4. The man pulled out a gold watch, the hands of which ______were made of small diamonds
4. “名词+of which”引导的定语从句。the hands of which也可说成whose hands。

5. This is the pen with ______I wrote the which letter.
解析:5. 先行词是the pen, 在介词后用关系 代词which。

6. The man came from ______ I learned whom the news.
解析:6. 先行词是the man, 在介词后用关系 代词whom。

7. Here is the hero whom/who/that ______________we are proud of.
解析:先行词是the hero, 不是直接在介词后, 关系代词作介词of 的宾语, 可用whom, who, that;若将of放到空格前, 只能填whom。 8. The day ___________he was born on is which/that October 10th 解析:关系代词作介词on的宾语, 但不直接在 on后面, 可以填which或that。

9. She was educated at Beijing university, ______which she went to have her after advanced study abroad.
解析:这里的after which相当于and after that, 指“在北京大学读书之后”。

10. Alice asked the policeman ____ whom with she worked to contact her whenever there was an accident.
解析:搭配:work with sb.同某人一起工作。

11. In the dark street, there wasn?t a single person ___whom she could to turn for help.
搭配: turn to sb. for help向某人求助。

12. I have many friends, ___whom of some are businessmen.
解析:表示部分与整体的关系, of whom some are businessmen相当于and some of them are businessmen。

13. The girl ______whom my father to/with is talking at the school gate is my elder sister.
解析: 由talk with /to sb.可知。

14. They will visit the farm ___ which on my brother works.
解析:由on the farm可知。

15. Water is very important for us, _______ which we can?t live. without
解析:指没有水我们就不能生存。

二、语法填空 [2011惠州三模]
A peek at Chinese rare names.

Hello, Mr. Death! Unhappy with your name? Then spare a thought for those rare Chinese families whose surnames mean “zero”, “ghost”16 ___ even “death”. or
16. 一个人只有一个名字, 是“零” “鬼”, 还是“死”。

A man in China?s southern province of Jiangxi has spent the last 20 years compiling a list of 17________(usual) unusual family names, according to national 18 ___________(broadcast), the China broadcaster Central Television.
17. 根据意思,应是“那个江西人花了20年时间 收集不寻常的或少见的姓”。 18. 这里是“根据中央电视台的播音员说的话”, 故填broadcaster。

Most Chinese people share a few common surnames, Zhang, Wang, Li , Liu and Chen. The Chinese expression for “ordinary people” literally 19 ______ means (mean) “the old one hundred surnames”.
解析:19. 根据前后的时态此空应填一般现在 时, 再根据主语是The Chinese expression for “ordinary people”是单数, 因此谓语动词要用 单数。

20 ____Cheng Yinglian?s interest was But piqued after reading a newspaper many years ago and 21discovering (discover) a _________ person with the surname Gui, meaning “ghost”, CCTV said.

20. 此空承接上一段,与上一段是转折关系。 21. 根据句意, 此空是与reading 并列, 故填 discovering。

22 Since ____then, he has scoured newspapers, books and other publications to find similar rare surnames, coming up 23 with ___ about 2, 000 to date.
22. 根据句子的时态, 这里应填Since then, 表 示 “从那时起”。 23. 根据意思, 这里是“迄今为止他找到了 2000个罕见的姓氏”用come up with。故填 with。

Those he has found include Ling, or “zero”, Cu, or “vinegar”, Miao, or “second” and Yi, or “one”. In China, many parents go out of their way to give 24 _____children auspicious names 25 their __________ suggest they will grow up to which/that be healthy, strong and rich.
24. 给他们的孩子吉兆的名字, 故填their。 25. 根据句子结构, 此空应填关系代词which/ that, 修饰先行词auspicious names, which/that在从句中 作主语。

灵活运用 一、专项填空 用which或as填空。

1. After graduating from college, I took some time off to go traveling, _____turned out to be a wise decision. which
1. 引导非限制性定语从句, 先行词是前面 整个主句。

2. I looked into their eyes, I found they didn?t care, ______told me it would be which useless, but when I looked into yours, I saw kindness.
解析:引导非限制性定语从句, which指前面 整个句子。

3. Jim passed the driving test, ______ which surprised everybody in the office.

解析:译成“这”, 相当于and this, 用which。

4. ___ is often the case, we have worked As out the production plan. 解析:固定搭配: as is often the case这是 常有的事。
5. ___ is mentioned above, paper is first As made in China. 解析:表示“正如”, 用as。

6. Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others, _____, which of course, made the others envy him.
可译作“这”

7. ___ is reported in the newspapers, As talks between the two countries are making progress.
表示“正如”

8. The result of the experiment was very good, ______we hadn?t expect. which
意料之外的事, 用which

9. The weather turned out to be very good, ______was more than we could which expect.
没有想到的, 意料之外的, 只能用which。

10. ___is known to all, the moon As travels round the earth once every month.
习惯搭配: as is known to all众所周知。

二、语法填空 [2011六校联考] Last summer, I went

to Hanwang, an area severely damaged during the Wenchuan earthquake. I visited some of the 16________ (survive) survivors and helped the local volunteers. At Hanwang, there were no tall buildings and the air was very dirty and people were crowded.
16. 句意: 看望幸存者(没用复数形式不给分)。

I lived with volunteers 17 _____all from around China in makeshift (临时的) accommodation. They had been working there for more than six months, some giving up jobs to help with educating the about kids. They never complained18_____ the poor conditions that I couldn?t bear at first.
17. 来自全国各地的志愿者用介词from。 18. “对??抱怨”用complain about。

Rather, they were thankful to have the chance 19_______ (rebuild)the damaged to rebuild areas. I respected their work. My main task was to visit some of the children 20 ___charity organization was supporting. a One of them was disabled, having broken a leg during the earthquake.
19. 动词不定式作定语, 修饰the chance。 20. 第一次提到一家慈善机构用a, 所冠的名词作定 语从句的主语。

A 21_________(poison)spider had bitten poisonous was living another girl while she 22_________ (live) in a tent after the earthquake. She had had to endure(忍受)the transplant of a piece of skin from one leg to the other.
21. 名词前面用形容词形式, 故填poisonous。 22. 因while从句用过去进行时态表示当时的情况, 主句的动作发生在这个动作之中。

These children had had terrible bad luck, 23 ____they were still full of hope despite the but situation. Their grades were amazingly good, 24 which ______was one reason the charity group chose to help them. All the people I visited were grateful, not only for surviving but to the country for helping 25 ______. them
23. 前后是明显的转折关系, 故用but。 24. 此空填which引导非限制性定语从句修饰前面 的主句, 且在从句中作主语。 25. 指代前面提到的all the people。


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