Grammar The passive voice
语态(voice)是个语法范畴，它是一种动词形 式，表示动词的主语与该动词所表示的动作之 间的主动和被动关系。当主语是动作的执行者 时，动词用主动语态（Active Voice）；如果 主语是动作的承受者，动词便用被动语态 （Passive Voice）。 We cleaned the classroom yesterday. 昨天我们打扫了教室。 The classroom was cleaned by us yesterday. 昨天教室被我们打扫了。
English. 主动语态 by us. 宾语 被动语态
English is spoken 主语 谓语
动词的被动语态由“助动词be+及物动 词的过去分词”构成。当主动句变为被 动句时，原来的宾语变成了主语，原来 的主语变成了介词by 的宾语。主动句与 被动句的结构虽然不同，但动作的执行 者和承受者的关系并没有改变。 即：be+ done (+ by)
结构： be+ done (+ by)
在被动句中有时用by- 词组，有时不用。一般 来说，当动作的执行者为谁不甚清楚，不甚重 要或难以说出时，通常不用by。但有时为了强 调动作执行者或者由于上下和结构上的需要则 必须使用 by 词组。例如： Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. 《哈姆雷特》是莎士比亚写的。
The task has been finished. 任务已经完成了。
He is regarded as a brilliant. 一般现在时： am / is / are done 他被认为很有才气。 This book was written in done 一般过去时： was / were 1969. 这本书是1969年写成的。 being done 现在进行时： am is / are The broken bike /is being repaired now.
过去进行时： was / were being 那辆坏了的自行车正在被修理。 done He told us the cat/was being done 现在完成时： have has been washed when 过去完成时： had we called him. been done The pen has been used for several going 一般将来时： shall / will be done ; be years. 他告诉我们打电话时他正在给猫洗澡。 这支钢笔已经用了几年。 to be done He said the factory had been opened . 当句中含有情态动词时，句子结构为 can / must 他说这家工厂已经开张。 / have to…be done The work will be finished in three hours. 工作将于三小时后完成。 The baby must be looked after well. 这孩子必须被好好照顾。
The structure of the simple future voice shall/will do sth. be going to do sth. be to do sth. be about to do sth.
Grammar The usage of the future passive voice 将来时的被动语态 1.We will discuss the problem at the meeting. The problem will be discussed at the meeting.
2.I will finish my homework in ten minutes. My. Homework will be finished in ten minutes. 3.They will invite us to the party. We will/shall be invited to the party.
将来时的被动语态的基本形式： 主语+will/shall be done…… Shall 用于第一人称，will用于各种人称
Have a try!
Turn the following sentences into the future passive voice. They will have a show tomorrow. A show will be had (by them) tomorrow. He will give a talk soon. A talk will be given(by him) soon.
一般将来时的被动语态在各种句式中的用法 The 30th Olympic Games will be hosted by London in the year 2012.
否定式：主语+will/shall not be done… The 30th Olympic Games will not be hosted by London in the year 2012. 一般疑问式：Will +主语+be done…? Will the 30th Olympic Games be hosted by London in the year 2012?
特殊疑问式： 特殊疑问词+will+主语+be done…? When will the 30th Olympic Games be hosted in the year 2012?
1.The rabbits will eat the carrots.
The carrots will be eaten by the rabbits.
Will the carrots be eaten by the rabbits?
What will be eaten by the rabbits?
The carrots will not be eaten by the rabbits.
be going to do sth. be going to be done
常用来表示按计划或安排将来要发生的 被动动作。 E.g.:那座旧的图书馆很快要被拆除了。 The old library is going to be pulled down soon. E.g.:他的新书下个月就要出版了。 His new book is going to be published next month.
be to do sth. be to be done
E.g.:这个任务要在10分钟之内完成。 The task is to be finished in ten minutes. E.g.:你们的家庭作业明天必须要交上来。 Your homework is to be handed in tomorrow.
be about to do sth. be about to be done
The wall is about to be painted by the worker.
Let us practice
1.They will give her a gold medal.（被动语态） She will be given a gold medal. 2.The construction workers are going to put down the old temple.（被动语态） The old temple is going to be pulled down.
3. We are to repair the machine tomorrow.（被动语 态）
The machine is to be repaired by us tomorrow. 4. These trees are going to be cut down ．(否定式） These trees are not going to be cut down．
5.many new sport venues will be built for the Beijing Olympic Games.(一般疑问句） Will many new sport venues be built for the Beijing Olympic Games? 6. The sports meeting is to be held on Dec. 5. When is the sports meeting to be held? 7.The football match is going to be held in our school next week . Where is the football match going to be held next week?
People speak English almost all over the world. 世界各地都有人讲英语。 English is spoken almost all over the world.
I gave the book to Mr. Smith yesterday. 昨天我给了史密斯先生一本书。
The book was given to Mr. Smith yesterday ( by me).
Mr. Smith was given a book yesterday (by me).
People believe that he is an honest boy. 大家认为他 是个诚实的孩子。 The boy is believed to be an honest one. It is believed that he is an honest boy. 方法1) 把宾语从句里的主语变成被动句的主语，同 时把宾语从句中的谓语变成不定式短语。 方法2) 用先行的it作形式主语，把宾语从句变成后 置的主语从句； 练习： We all think that we could win the game.
we are thought to win the game. It is thought that we could win the game.
3. 含有动词短语的句子转换。 They have never listened to him. 人家从不听他的话。 He has never been listened to.
注意：含动词词组的被动语态，须将其看作一 个 整体，不可把它们分隔开来,不要丢漏动词短语中的副 词或介词。
练习： They take good care of the baby. The baby is taken good care of by them.
4. 主动句中动词不带to, 但在被动句中带to的几种情况：
He made me do the work. I was made to do the work by him.
注意：make, let, have/feel, hear, see, watch等词
练习： we heard him say good-bye to his friends. He was heard to say good-bye to his friends.
1、主语是物，谓语是表示主语特征或属性 的动词。常见的这类动词有write, read, wear, wash, clean, sell, run等。这些动词常与副词 连用。例如：
The machine runs well. This pen writes quite smoothly. This kind of book sells well.
2、表示主语状态特征的连系动词：look, feel, smell, taste, sound, prove, appear等。 例如： —Do you like the material? C —Yes, it ________ very soft. A. is feeling B. felt C. feels D. is felt Your idea sounds reasonable.
What he said proved to be correct.
3. be worth 后接动名词的主动式表示被动意义。
His suggestion is not worth considering.
4、汉语中含有“据说”、“据悉”、 “有人说”、“大家说”等时。 It is said that one day he climbed to the top of a house. It was reported that her mother died of SARS. 众所周知…… It is well known that… 据推测说…… It is supposed that…
B 1.An exhibition of paintings ____ at the museum next week． A．are to be held B. is to be held C. are holding D．will hold 2. Every possible means ____, but none ____ C successful．(2000年上海春招题） A. has tried; has proved B．tried; proves C. has been tried; proves D. is being tried; is proved B 3.The question he asked is hard ____ ． A. for answer B. to answer C. to be answered D. answering
?4．By the end of last year, another new D gymnasium ____ in Beijing.(2003年上海春招 题)
A. would be completed C. has been complete B. was beingcompleted D. had been completed
?5．More than a dozen students in that school B ＿＿＿ abroad to study medicine last year. (2005年上海高考题) A. sent B. were sent C. had sent D. had been sent
? 6.－－Why did you leave that position? D －－ I ＿＿ a better position at IBM. (2005年北京高考题) A. offer B. offered C. am offered D. was offered D ? 7. More patients ＿＿ in hospital this year than last year. (2004年江苏高考题) A. treated B. have treated C. had been treated D. have been treated ? 8. Sarah, hurry up. I’m afraid you wouldn’t have A time to ＿＿before the party. (2004 年全国高考卷) A. get changed B. get change C. get changing D. get to change
C ?9. Rainforests ＿＿and burned at such a speed that they will disappear from the earth in the future. (2002年上海春招题) A. cut B. are cut C. are being cut D. had been cut
? 10. After a fire broke out in the lab, a lot of B equipment＿＿. (2005年北京春招题) A. is damaged B. had been damaged C. damaged D. was damaged
? 11.The mayor of Beijing says that all construction work for the Beijing Olympics ＿＿by 2006. C (2004年北京卷) A. has been completed B. has completed C. will have been completed D. will have completed ? 12. I feel it is your husband who ______ for the A spoiled child. (2002年上海高考题) A. is to blame B. is doing to blame C. is to be blame D. should blame B ? 13.Great changes ______in the city ,and a lot of factories______.（2003NMET) A. have been taken place…have been set up B. have taken place…have been set up C. have taken place…have set up D. were taken place…were set up
?14.——Do you like the material? C ——Yes, it______ very soft. (NMET) A. is feeling B. felt C. feels D. is felt
C ?15. The Olympic Games, ____in 776 BC ,did not include women players until 1912.(NMET)
A.first playing C. first played B. to be first played D. to be first playing
II. 下列句子均有一处错误，请指出并改 正。 1. Don’t worry! You will not be laughed for that. laughed后加at 2. The film is so interesting that it will watch again and again. watch→be watched 3. I promise this matter will be take care of. take→taken
4. The man who gives orders is in the charge of the army. 去掉第二个the 5. He is lucky enough to be admitted to a volunteer of the coming Olympic Games.