International Cargo Transportation
Methods of the Delivery
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ocean transport Railway transport Air transport River and lake transport Postal transport Road transport Pipelines transport Land bridge transport International multimode transport
? Ocean transport is the most widely used form of transportation in international trade as well as the most efficient form in terms of energy. ? It is a cheap mode of transport for delivery large quantities of goods over long distance.
The types of ocean vessel
? Shipping by Chartering ? Liner/regular shipping liner
Shipping by Chartering租船 运输
? Voyage charter 定程租船 ? Time charter 定期租船 ? Demise charter 光船租船
? The voyage charter is one for the carriage of goods from one specified port to another, or for a round trip. ? It includes single voyage charter, return voyage charter and successive voyage charter.
? The charterer charters the ship for a period of time during which the ship is deployed and managed by the charterer. What concerns the charterer most is the period, not the voyage. The chartering may be for a period of one year or of several years.
? It is also called bare-boat charter, the charterer takes a lease of the entire ship for an agreed time. ? Demise charter belongs to time charter. ? The differences are: as to time charter, during the period of chartering, the ship-owner provides the charterer with a crew, while as to bare-boat charter, the ship-owner only provides the charterer with a bare-boat, the charterer shall employ the crew and pay the crew’s wages and provisions, ship’s maintenance and stores etc. by himself, apart form those expenses he is responsible for under the time charter.
? The charter party is a contract concluded between the ship-owner and the charterer when the latter charters the ship or booking shipping space from the former. ? It stipulates the rights and obligations of the two parties. ? The main terms include: the interested parties, name and flag of the ship, description and quantity of the shipments, time of chartering, freight, loading and unloading expenses, time limit of loading and unloading, demurrage and dispatch money.
The methods to stipulate the expenses of loading and unloading
? ? ? ? The ship-owner bears gross terms The ship-owner is free in (F.I.) The ship-owner is free out (F.O.). The ship-owner is free in and out (F.I.O.). When adopting this method, the interested parties shall indicate who will bear the expenses of stowing and trimming. If that, the interested parties shall stipulate “ ship-owner is free in and out, stowed, trimmed (F.I.O.S.T.).
Liner/regular shipping liner 班轮运输
The main features of liners usually include: ? The liner has a regular line, port, timetable and comparatively fixed freight, which is the basic features of liners. ? The ship-owner usually leases part of shipping space instead of the whole ship. ? The carrier is responsible for loading and unloading operations, i.e. Gross Terms. ? The B/L drawn by the shipping company is the shipping contract between the carrier and the consignor.
Freight of liner班轮运费
? Freight= Basic freight + surcharge
The basic standards for calculating freight
? By weight ton ( W/T), which is indicated by “W” in the tariff. ? By measurement ton, (M/T), which is indicated by “M” in the tariff. ? By total FOB value of cargoes, which is indicated by “A.V.” in the tariff. ? By either W/T or M/T, whichever the higher, which is indicated by “W/M” in the tariff. ? By either W/T or M/T and plus a certain percentage of A.V., which is indicated by “W/M plus A.V.”. ? By the number of cargoes. ? Arranged by the carrier and consignor.
? Railway transport at home ? Railway transport to H.K. and Macao ? International railway transport between two countries ? International railway through transport
The main transport documents for railway transport
? Railway bill of lading and its duplicate. ? The railway bill is the transportation contract and binding upon the consignee, the consignor and the railway department. ? The railway bill together with the goods is transported from the place of dispatch to the place of destination and then is delivered to the consignee after he has paid off the freight and other charges. ? The consignor may make exchange settlement with the bank against the duplicate of railway bill.
? The advantages of air transport: high speed and quick transit, low risk of damage and pilferage with very competitive insurance, saving in packing cost, reducing amount of capital tied up in transit. ? The disadvantages of air transport: expensive freight,the limited capacity of air freight, overall dimensions of acceptable cargo, weight restrictions, subject to the influence of weather ? It is suitable: time pressing, small quantity of cargoes, urgent need, light but precious.
The air transport can be divided into:
? ? ? ? Scheduled airliner班机运输 Charter carrier包机运输 Consolidation集中托运 Air express急件运送
? Also called air consignment note, is a document or consignment note used for the carriage of goods by air supplied by the carrier to the consignor.
Airway bill has the following features:
? It is a transport contract signed between the consignor/shipper and the carrier/airline. ? It is a receipt from the airline acknowledging the receipt of the consignment from the shipper. ? It is an internationally standardized document mostly printed in English and in the official language of the country of departure.
There are usually 12 copies of each airway bill.
? Copies 1, 2 and 3 are originals. ? The No. 1 Original waybill is retained by the airline for filing and accounting purposes.---”For the carrier” ? The No. 2 Original waybill is to be carried with the consignment and delivered to the consignee at the destination.---”For the consignee” ? The No. 3 Original waybill is for the shipper, who may present it to the negotiating bank as a shipping document evidencing shipment having been made.--”For the consignor”
? It is simple and convenient, and delivery is made simply when a receipt of the goods posted is obtained. ? It is a kind of international and “doorto-door” transport.
International Combined Transport/International Multimodal Transport国际多式联运
? It means that the conveyance of cargo includes at least two modes of transport by which the goods are carried from the place of dispatch to destination on the basis of combined transport or a multimodal transport contract. ? Under this method, the container is used an inter-medium and make up of an international multimodal and join transport mode by sea, air and land.
Container Transport集装箱 运输
? Container transport falls into two kinds: a. Full container load (FCL) b. Less than container load (LCL)
? Time of Delivery ? Port of shipment and port of destination ? Partial shipment and transshipment ? Shipping advice
Time of delivery
? It refers to the time limit during which the seller shall deliver the goods to the buyer at the agreed place by the agreed methods.
The ways to stipulate the time of delivery in the contract
? Stipulate the definite time of delivery: ? Stipulate a period of fixed time, the seller can arrange shipment during whichever date. ? Stipulate shipment within …days after receipt of the L/C. ? Stipulate the goods shall be shipped in the near future.
Port of shipment and port of destination
When stipulating the port of shipment, we shall pay attention to: ? The port of shipment shall be close to the origin of the goods. ? We should take into consideration the loading and unloading, and specific transportation conditions and the standards of freight and various charges at home and abroad. ? Under the FOB terms, the buyer is responsible for chartering a ship. The depth of the port of shipment shall be suitable to ship chartered by the buyer. ? In export trade, it is the usual practice to designate only one port of shipment in one transaction, but exceptionally, when large amounts of goods are involved and, in particular, the goods are stored at
When determining the port of destination, we should note:
? We should not accept the port in the country with which our government does not permit to do business. ? The stipulation on the port of destination shall be definite and specific. ? If we have to choose a port which has no direct liner to stop by or the trips are few, we should stipulate “transshipment to be permitted” in the contract. ? The port of destination shall be the one at which the vessel may safely arrive and be always afloat.
? As to the business with an inland country, we usually choose a port which is nearest to the country. ? Facilities in the port of loading or unloading are also very important and therefore reasonable attention should be given to issues. ? Pay attention to the names of foreign ports. Many ports have the same names.
? Training: ? 1.Example: W/M or A/V Freight? ? The goods of USD20000 FOB value is going to be shipped to New York. ? The freight rate is USD30/T. ? Gross Weight 5.8T ? Measurement: 6 m? ? A/V 1.5%
? (1)W freight: 30 x 5.8=USD174 ? (2)M freight: 30 x 6= USD180 ? (3) A/V freight: 20000 x 1.5%=USD300 ? A/V freight is the highest so the freight will be USD300.
? Eight sets tools are packed in a carton. The size of carton is 52cm x 40cm x 30cm. Gross weight is 15kgs per carton. Please count the maximum quantity load of 20 foot container.（2.45x2.45x6.1, 18T） Practically:25cum,17.5T
? 0.52m x 0.40m x0.30m=0.0624 m? ? W : 17.5/ 0.015= 1167 cartons ? M: 25/0.0624=400cartons Quantity： 8 x 400 =3200 sets ?
出口纸箱装货物共100箱，报价为每箱 40美元FOB某港，基本费率为每运费 吨26美元或按AV.收取1.5%，以W/M or Ad Val. 选择法计算。每箱体积为 1.4cm*1.3cm*1.1cm, 毛重为每箱 2kg，并加收燃油附加费10%，求总运 费。
? ? ? ?
解：(1)W freight: 26 x 2=USD52 (2)M freight: 26 x 1.4x1.3x1.1= USD52.05 (3) A/V freight: 40 x 1.5%=USD0.6 A/V freight is the highest so the basic freight will be USD60. ? Total freight: 60x(1＋10%)x100=USD6600
? 2、我国出口一批货物，价格为$35/箱， CFR Liverpool英方要求发报 ? FOB价。已知货物体积为45×40×25（ cm3），毛重为每箱35kg，每运费吨 ? 基本运费率为120美元（W/M），附加 费有燃料费20%，港口拥挤费10%， ? 求改报FOB价。