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(高考非谓语动词用法总结)

(高考非谓语动词用法总结)


非谓语动词用法总结 非谓语动词是历年高考英语的重要考点之一,也是较难掌握的难点之一。它贯穿于英语 学习和考试过程的始终。但是,只要认真分析、透彻理解、看透本质、准确把握,就一 定能在高考中运筹帷幄,游刃有余。 一.非谓语动词区别简表 类别 区别 含义 成分 主动被动同位或将来 (名词)主语、宾语、表 语 补语 主动或(正在)进行 被动或完成 to do doing done

(动名词)主语、宾语、表语、 (过去分词) 定语(表用途) 作定语、状 语、补语、 表 语(多表状 态)

(不定式)定语、状语、 (现在分词)定语、状语、补语

否定 时态

(not) to do 一般:to do 进行:to be doing 完成:to have done 完 成 进 行 :to have been doing

(not)doing 一般:doing 进行:本身 完成进行:无 一般被动:being done 进行被动:本身 完成被动:having been done 完成进行被动:无

(not)done 一般: done 进行:无

完成:having done(只作状语) 完成:本身

语态

一般被动:to be done 进行被动:无 完成被动:to have been done 完成进行被动:无

本身

作用

作目的状语、条件状语、 作时间状语、条件状语、原因 原因状语、结果状语 状语、结果状语、方式状语、 伴随状语、让步状语

作时间状语、 条件状语、 原 因状语、 方式 状语、 伴随状 语、 让步状语

二.不定式的用法 不定式不可作谓语,但它可以有自己的宾语、状语,构成不定式短语,在句中可以作 主语、宾语、表语、定语(表用途) 、状语或补足语。高考对不定式的考查主要有不定 式的时态、语态、作用、否定、省略、连词+不定式等。 1.作主语 1

不定式作主语表示具体的动作,通常指一件已知的事或目的。 不定式作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 eg:To say is a thing,to do is another.(说是一回事,做是另外一回事。) (2)不定式短语较长时,通常放在谓语之后,用 it 作形式主语。 eg:① It is important to learn English well.(学好英语是重要的。) ② It is necessary for us to do the job well.(我们做好这项工作是必要的。) ③ It is a great honor to be invited to give a speech here.(被邀请在这儿发表演讲是一 个极大的荣幸。) 2.作宾语 (1)常只用不定式作宾语的动词有: want,wish,hope,long,expect,desire,intend,decide,ask,promise,aim,offer,agree,plan,learn, choose,refuse,fail,manage,pretend 等。 eg:① He refused to help me.(他拒绝帮助我.) ② She has agreed to come tomorrow.(他已同意明天来.) (2) 不定式较长时,作宾语,也可用 it 代替,放在后面。 eg;I find it difficult to do the job well. (3) “特殊疑问词﹢不定式 to do 结构”具有名词特征,可作宾语。 eg:① She didn’t know whether to go or not. ② They haven’t decided when and where to build the school. (4)不定式可作介 but,except,besides“除……之外”的宾语,介词前有实义动词 do 的 任何一种形式,后边的不定式就无 to,否则必带 to。 eg:① I want to do nothing but play the computer games。 ② I have no choice but to wait。 3.动词不定式作表语 (1)不定式作表语放在 be 和其他系动词后,说明主语的内容。同样,“特殊疑问词+ 不定式”具有名词特征,也可作表语。 eg:① My job is to sweep the floor. ② His goal was to enter the key university of Beijing. ③ The first question is how to find a better way to learn English well. (2)不定式作主语时,表语也必须为不定式,结构必须保持一致。 eg:To see is to believe. (3)如果主语部分的谓语动词或非谓语动词是实义动词 do 的某种形式, 那么作表语的不 定式可以省去 to. eg:① The first thing to do is find her. ② The only thing he could do was tell the truth. 4.不定式作定语 不定式作定语常放在所修饰的名词或代词后。

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eg:① I have something important to tell you.(不定式与被修饰名词构成被动关系。) ② His wish to be an artist has never come true.( 不定式与被修饰名词构成同位关系。) He is the right man to do the job. ( 不定式与被修饰名词构成主动关系。) The little girl was unhappy because she had no friends to play with. ( 不定式与被修饰 名词构成主动关系。)(注:若不定式为不及物动词,其后须加上相应的介词。) 5.不定式作状语 不定式作状语主要是表示目的、条件、原因和结果,可位于句首或句末,但句首时通 常用逗号隔开。 eg:① We set off early that morning to catch the first bus.(目的) ② To get a good result,she worked very hard.(目的) ③ I feel it an honor to be invited to the party.(条件) ④ She was very happy to get the first prize.(原因) ⑤ He worked hard only to fail.(结果) (注:1.不定式常用在 so as 或 in order 后,与它们一起作谓语,表示目的,但 so as 引起 的不定式不可置于句首。 eg: In order to avoid mistakes,check your homework. 2.不定式表目的常和 only 连用,往往表示出乎意料的意想不到的不愿得到的结果。 eg:He hurried to the station only to find the train had left.) 3.“形容词+enough+不定式”和“too+形容词或副词(不表情感)+不定式” 也可作 结果状语。 eg:① He is old enough to go to school. ②He is too weak to raise the stone. 但“too+表情感形容词 ( pleased,ready,glad,willing,anxious 等) +to do”表示肯定意义, too 前面可用 only,but 等词修饰。 eg:① They were (only) too anxious to leave.(他们只是太急于离开了。) ② She is (only) too pleased to go home.(她非常高兴可以回家了。) 6.不定式作补语 不定式作补语表示动作的完成。宾语与作补语的不定式之间是主动关系。 (1)后接动词不定式作宾补的常见动词有: want,wish,expect,prefer,like,hate,ask,beg,request,require,beg,get,advise,persuade,invite ,order,remind,permit,allow,send,callon,wouldlike/love,arrange for,depend on 等。 eg: ① She wanted me to arrive there early. ② Our headmaster call on us to work hard. (2)动词不定式可作感官动词(五看二听一感觉即: see,look at,watch,observe,notice,hear,listen to,feel)和使让动词(let,make,have 等) 后面的宾补时,不定式符号 to 要省略,但如果句子变被动结构,必须带 to.表示动作的 完成。

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eg: ① He made them climb the hill. ② They were made to climb the hill. (3)动词不定式可作形容词的补足语 动词不定式可作形容词的补足语,句型为: (一)主语+系动词+表语( adj 为 convenient/easy/expensive/difficult/hard/impossible/pleasent 等)+to do.(注:to do 常 用主动表被动,其中 do 为 vt,主语为 to do 的宾语。) (二)主语+find/think/consider/believe/make 等+宾语+ adj+to do.(注:其中 to do 常用主动表被动,其中 do 为 vt,主语为 to do 的宾语。) eg: ① He is easy to fool. ② The woman is easy to work with. ③ He found the job difficult to work out. (4) “ 特殊疑问 词+不定式 to do” 具 有名词特征, 可作宾补 。 ( 谓语动词多 为 show,know,teach,tell 等。) eg:I’ll tell you how to get there 7 不定式作评注性状语或插入语 不定式可以作评注性状语或插入语,放在句子前面、中间或末尾。常见的有 to be frank, to be honest, to tell the truth, to begin with,to start with, to be short 等。 eg:To begin with,I think you are wrong. 三.动名词用法 动名词具有动词和名词的特点,有一般式和完成式,有主动式和被动式,可作主语、 宾语、表语和定语.否定形式在其前面加 not. (1)动名词作主语 动名词作主语表示抽象动作,指一件已知的事或经验。 eg:① Driving a car on the crowded road is boring. ② Reading is my hobby. (2)常只用动名词作宾语的动词有: admit,avoid,appreciate,consider,dislike,enjoy,escape,excuse,finish,imagine,keep,mind,m iss,practise,risk,resist,suggest 等。 eg:① I can’t imagine marrying her. ② She managed to escape being punished. 以下动词词组后面只接动名词作宾语:give up,belong to,look forward to,keep on,insist on,be busy,get down to,be devoted to,have difficulty/trouble(in),have a good/wonderful time (in)等。 eg:① I’m looking forward to hearing from you soon. ② He gave up smoking three years. (3)动名词可作表语

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动名词可作表语,一般为主语的内容.表示一般性或习惯性的动作。在概念上可以和主 语划等号。把主语和表语倒过来,句子的基本含义不变。 eg:His hobby is painting. (4)动名词可作定语 动名词可作定语,表示所修饰事物的功能或用途。 eg:He often studies in the reading room. 四.现在分词 现在分词具有动词、形容词和副词的特征,在句中作定语、状语、补语和表语。 1 作定语 现在分词作定语,单个 v-ing 放在被修饰的名词前;如果短语作定语,则放在所修饰词 的后面。v-ing 作定语和被修饰词之间为主动关系,表示动作正在同时进行或经常性发 生。 eg:① the falling leaves=the leaves which are falling ② the rising sun=the sun which is rising ③ I saw him go into the house facing south. 2 作状语 动词-ing 或其短语作状语时,可以表示时间、条件、原因、结果、让步、方式、伴随 等。表示时间关系的动词-ing 短语可由连词 while 或 when 引出。 eg:① Hearing the news,they got excited.(时间) ② Having finished his homework,she was playing on the playground.(原因) ③ Studying hard,you are sure to get the first prize.(条件) 3 作补语 现在分词作补语表示动作正在进行,宾语与作补语的现在分词之间是主动关系。 后面常接现在分词作宾补的动词有感官动词(五看二听一感觉 see,look at,watch,observe,notice,hear,listen to,feel)使让动词( have,get)以及其他类动词 leave,keep,catch,set 等。表示动作正在进行。 eg:① I saw them playing games on the playground yesterday. ② Don’t leave him waiting outside the room. 4作表语 现在分词作表语相当于形容词,常表示主语所具有的特征,含有主动意味。大多数使 动词的现在分词通常可作表语,常见的有: interesting,amusing,boring,tiring,pleasing,exciting,moving,disappointing,surpring,enco uraging 等。 eg:① His story was very moving. ② The speech is really boring. 5作评注性状语或插入语 可以作评注性状语或插入语,放在句子前面、中间或末尾。

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注:“连词+doing 短语”一般情况下,分词作状语时,只能根据逻辑关系而不能根据语 法特征来判定它是时间状语、条件状语或让步状语等。因此,有时会遇到很难判断其 归属的情形。但如果在其前加上 when,if,once,since 等连词,就会很清楚地表明状语的 性质。对于这种结构,也可作另外的解释,即在连词与现在分词之间省略了主语和 be 动词。 五.过去分词 过去分词既有副词的特征又有动词的特征,在句中可作定语、状语、补语、表语等成 分。 (1)作定语 过去分词作定语,它和被修饰词之间是被动、完成关系,单个过去分词作定语放在前, 过去分词短语作定语放在后。其中及物动词的过去分词表示完成或被动概念,不及物 动词的过去分词只表示完成概念,没有被动的意味。 eg:① the risen sun = the sun which has risen ② fallen leaves= leaves which has fallen ③ This is the house built several years ago.=This is the house which was built sveral years ago. (2)作状语 过去分词在句中作状语,说明动作发生的背景或情况。它和被修饰词之间是被动关系。 它在句中可以作时间、条件、原因、方式、让步和伴随状语。 eg:① Tired out, they stopped to have a rest.(原因) ② Taken around the city, we were impressed by the city’s new look. ③ Though warned of the danger ,he still went skating on the thin ice. (3)作补语 及物动词的过去分词作补语,和宾语之间构成被动关系。不及物动词的过去分词作宾 补表状态和完成。 (1)可以带过去分词作宾补的动词有感官动词(五看二听一感觉) ,使役动词 have,get,make 等,以及其他类动 keep,leave,like,want,wish 等。 eg:① I can’t get the car going. ② I had my leg broken last week. (4)作表语 过去分词作表语表示被动意义,主语常是人,一般用来表示感受和状态,可以用作表 语的常见的过去分词有: astonished,delighted,disappointed,excited,experienced,exhausted,frightened,interested, puzzled,qualitied,satisfied,upset 等,有些过去分词作表语实际上已经构成固定短语。 如: be interested in,be satisfied with,be covered with,be dressed in,be seated,be locked 等。 能用这些分词作表语的系动词有 be,get,remain,stay 等。 eg:① The door remained locked. 6

② We were greatly encouraged when we heard the speech. 六.非谓语动词的独立结构 非谓语动词的独立结构为“名词或代词+非谓语动词” 或“with+名词/代词+非谓语动 词”。在语法上是一个独立的短语,不是句子(即:非谓语动词的逻辑主语与主句主语 不一致,须保留之后所构成的结构) 。可放在句首或句尾。 (一) 名词或代词+非谓语动词 (1)名词/代词+不定式 名词或代词通常为动作的执行者,与不定式构成逻辑上的主谓关系,可位于句首或句 末。 eg:He will send me ﹩100 first,the rest to follow in a year. (2) 名词/代词+现在分词 名词或代词通常为现在分词所表示的动作的执行者,与现在分词构成逻辑上的主谓关 系。 eg① :Time permiting,we finish the work.(表条件) ② Spring coming on,the trees turns green.(表时间) (3)名词/代词+过去分词 名词或代词通常为过去分词所表示的动作的承受者。与过去分词构成逻辑上的动宾关 系或系表关系。 eg: ① The sigal given,the bus started. exhausted,they sank down one by one.(表原因) (二)with+名词/代词+非谓语动词 (1)with+名词/代词+不定式 不定式和宾语之间是被动关系,表示动作尚未发生。 eg:With nothing to do,they went out for a walk.(表原因) (2)with+名词/代词+现在分词 宾语和动词-ing 之间是主动关系,表示的动作和谓语动词的动作同时发生。 eg:The boy slept with the light burning.(表伴随) (3) with+名词/代词+过去分词 不定式和宾语之间是被动关系,表示动作已经完成。 eg:They stayed inside with the door locked.(表伴随) 七.非谓语动词的区别问题 (一)动词后接 to do 不定式还是 doing 动名词的情况: (1)只能接 to do 不定式的动词有: want,wish,hope,long,expect,desire,intend,decide,ask,promise,aim,offer,agree,plan,learn, choose,refuse,fail,manage,pretend 等。 ( 2 ) 常 只 用 动 名 词 作 宾 语 的 动 词 有 : admit,avoid,appreciate,consider ( 考 虑 ) dislike,enjoy,escape,excuse,finish,imagine,keep,mind,miss,practise,risk,resist,suggest 7 ② Their strength

等。 (3)动词后二者都可跟,意义不同的有: remember to do sth remember doing sth forget to do sth forget doing sth regret to do sth regret doing sth go on to do sth go on doing sth stop to do sth stop doing sth try to do sth try doing sth mean to do sth mean doing sth 记起要做某事 记起做过某事 忘记要做某事 忘记做过某事 后悔要做某事 后悔做过某事 接着做另外一件事 接着做同一件事 停下来开始做另外一件某事 停止做正在做的某事 尽力做某事 试着做某事 打算(意欲,企图)做某事 意味着做某事 不能帮忙做某事 情不自禁地做某事

can’t help (to) do sth can’t help doing sth

(4)动词后二者都可跟,意义相同的有: begin,start,like,love,prefer,hate 等。但是区 别在于:后接动名词时表示经常性的动作,后接不定式时表示的是具体的特定的动作。 eg:I like playing football,but I don’t like play now. 重点提示:在下列情况下 begin 和 start 后只接不定式: Ⅰ .主语是物不是人。 eg:Spring came on and the snow began to melt. Ⅱ .二者用于进行时 eg:It’s beginning to rain. Ⅲ .二者后接表示心理活动或状态的动词。 eg:I began to realize how stupid I was. Ⅳ .二者后接不定式的被动式。 eg:The new type of computer began to be developed in the 1980’s. (二)“感官动词+宾语+宾补(to do sth/doing sth)”的区别 感官动词+宾语+宾补(to do sth)表示事实或全过程 感官动词+宾语+宾补( doing sth)表示片段或进行 eg:The missing boys were last seen playing near the river. Did you see a pencil-box lying on the ground just now. (三)个别“使让动词+宾语+宾补”的特别词的用法 1)have+宾语+宾补 have+宾语+do“让…做某事”, 不定式作宾补可以指现在、 将来或可能发生的动作。

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eg:① They had me repeat the message. ② I won’t have you say such things. ③ I won’t have you blame it on me. have+宾语+doing “让…一直做某事”, 现在分词作宾补可以表示主语有意让别人去做 或无意引起某人可能去做或表示遭遇。 eg:① Tom tried to have her talking.But no use. ② I won’t have you speaking to your parents like that. (注: have+宾语+ doing 用于 否定句,have 有容忍之意。) ③ Why should we have the boy standing in the corner the whole morning. have +宾语+ done “ 使 …被做 ” 过去分词作宾补可表示主语有意识的行为或表示 “ 遭 遇”、“经历”(动作违背主语的意愿) eg:We ought to have her examined by a doctor. The old woman had her handbag stolen. 2)get+宾语+宾补 get+宾语+to do(= have+宾语+do) “让…做某事”有时则是“说服/劝说某人做某事” eg:I will get the publisher to illustrate(加上插图) the book. get+宾语+doing“使…(静的物体)动起来”,具有进行含义。 eg:I shall soon get the machine working. 3)get+宾语+done“让…被做”用法与 have+宾语+ done 基本相同。 eg:He got his wrist broken. 习题练习:(2011全国卷I) 27. The next thing he saw was smoke ______ from behind the house. A. rose B.rising B. to join B: said C. to rise C.joined C. to say D. risen D. having joined D.saying (2011全国卷II)15. The island, ______ to the mainland by a bridge, is easy to go to. A. joining A. says (2011全国卷II)18.Sarah pretended to be cheerful, ______nothing about the argument. (2011北京卷)25. It’s important for the figures _________ regularly. A. to be updated B. to have been updated on your feet.A. to keep A. complain A. saved B. keeping B. complaining B. saving C. to update D. to have updated D. to have kept D. to be complained (2011北京卷)33. Sit down, Emma. You will only make yourself more tired, ________ C. having kept (2011上海卷) 27. It’s no use ____________ without taking action. C. being complained C. to be saved (2011上海卷) 32. The rare fish, _____ from the cooking pot, has been returned to the sea. D. having saved (2011上海卷) 33. At one point I made up my mind to talk to Uncle Sam. Then I changed my mind, ____ that he could do nothing to help. A. to realize B. realized C. realizing D. being realized

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(2011上海卷) 40. Today we have chat rooms, text messaging, emailing… but we seem _____ the art of communicating face-to-face. A. losing house. A. leading B. to be losing B. leads C. to be lost C. led D. having lost D. to lead C. saying D. to say (2011山东卷)27. Look over there—there’s a very long, winding path______ up to the (2011江西卷) 32. On receiving a phone call from his wife _____ she had a fall, Mr Gordon immediately rushed home from office.A. says B. said supermarkets has caused heated debate among citizens. A. compared B. comparing B. breaking C. compares C. broken C. to lose D. being compared D. to break D. having lost (2011安徽卷)30. Tom asked the candy makers if they could make the chocolate easier _____ into small pieces.A. break A. lose B. lost (2011浙江卷)14. Even the best writers sometimes find themselves ______ for words. (2011浙江卷)19. If they win the final tonight, the team are going to tour around the city ______ by their enthusiastic supporters. A. being cheered outstanding figures.A. found B. be cheered B. founding C. to be cheered C. founded B. holding C. studied C. keeping B. Offering C. Gathering C. Offered D. To be gathering D. being carried D. Having translated D. were cheered D. to be founded C.be held D.to hold D. to study D. to keep D. To offer (2011 福建卷)23. Tsinghua University, ____ in 1911,is home to a great number of (2011福建卷) 27.The difference in thickness and weight from the earlier version makes the iPad 2 more comfortable ____. A.held A. fly. study B. studying B. kept A. Offer B. To gather (2011四川卷)2. Lydia doesn’t feel like_____ abroad. Her parents are old. (2011四川卷)11. Simon made a big bamboo box _______ the little sick bird till it could A. keep (2011四川卷)16. _________ an important role in a new movie, Andy has a chance to become famous. A. Gather plane. A.to carry (2011辽宁卷)30. ______ around the fire, the tourists danced with the local people. (2011天津卷)7.Passengers are permitted _____ only one piece of hand luggage onto the B. carrying B. Translated C. to check C. to be carried C. To translate D. checked (2011天津卷)12.______ into English, the sentence was found to have an entirely different word order.A. Translating A.check (2011陕西卷)14.Claire had luggage _______ an hour before her plane left. B. checking (2011陕西卷) 20.More highways have been built in China, ___________it much easier for people to travel form one place to another. (2011江苏卷)31. Recently a survey _____ prices of the same goods in two different

10

A. making

B. made

C. to make

D. having made

( 2011 重庆卷) 29.More TV programs, according to government to officials, will be produced _______people’s concern over food safety. A.to raise B.raising C.to have raised D. having raised (2011重庆卷)33. Michael put up a picture of Yao Ming beside the bed to keep himself ________ of his own dreams.A. reminding B. to remind C. reminded D. renmind (2011湖南卷)21 . The ability _____an idea is as important as the idea itself. A. expressing B. expressed C. to express C. selected C. feeling D. to be expressed D. having selected D. felt supplies to (2011湖南卷)23.The players______from the whole country are expected to bring us honor in this summer game .A. selecting B. to select new day? A. feel B. to feel (2011湖南卷)29 .Do you wake up every morning __________ energetic and ready to start a

25. (10 福建)Lots of rescue workers were working around the clock, Yushu, Qinghai Province after the earthquake. A. sending B. to send C. having sent D. to have sent25.

34. In April, thousands of holidaymakers remained cloud. A. sticking B. stuck C. to be stuck

abroad due to the volcanic ash D. to have stuck with

33.(10 上海) Lucy has a great sense of humor and always keeps her colleagues her stories. 35. A. amused B. amusing C. to amuse D. to be amused

the city center, we saw a stone statue of about 10 meters in height. B. Approached C. To approach D. To be approached

A. Approaching

40. Thai is the only way we can imagine bathrooms. A. reducing B. to reduce

the overuse of water in students' C. reduced D. reduce

30. (10 安徽) He had a wonderful childhood, _____with his mother to all corners of the world A. travel B. to travel C. traveled for help? D. called D. traveling

21. (10 湖南) Listen! Do you hear someone A. calling 26. Dina, B. call C. to call

for months to find a job as a waitress, finally took a position at a local B. struggled C. having struggled D. to struggle 11

advertising agency.A. struggling

30. So far nobody has claimed the money A. discovered B. to be discovered

in the library. C. discovering D. having discovered

24 (10 江西)The lady walked around the shops, _______ an eye out for bargains. A keep B kept C keeping D to keep

32 There were many talented actors out there just waiting ______. A to discover B to be discovered C discovered D being discovered

23. (10 山东) I have a lot of readings _____ before the end of this term. A. completing B. to complete C. completed D. being completed serious flooding in several C. causing D. to cause said they were forced to C. questioned D. questioning

12. (10 天津) It rained heavily in the south, provinces. A. caused B. having caused

4. (10 四川) A great number of students practise the piano. A. to question B. to be questioned

17.The lawyer listened with full attention, A.not trying B.trying not

to miss any point. D.not to try

C.to try not

27. (10 全国Ⅰ )Mrs.White showed her students some old maps ______ from the library. A. to borrow B. to be borrowed C. borrowed D. borrowing

34. With Father’s Day around the corner ,I have taken some money out of the bank ______ presents for my dad. A. buy B. to buy C. buying D. to have bought

28. (10 江苏) The retired man donated most of his savings to the school damaged by the earthquake in Yushu ,________the students to return to their classrooms. A. enabling 16. ( trees . B. having enabled C. to enable D. to have enabled

陕西)_____ from the top of the tower, the south foot of the mountain is a sea of A. Seen B. Seeing C. Having seen D. To see

19. His first book A. published

next month is based on a true story. B. to be published C. to publish D. being published 12

11. (10 全国Ⅱ )Though_________to see us, the professor gave us a warm welcome. A. urprising B. as surprised C. urprised D being surprised

72. (10 湖北) ________(油漆成)red, the building stands out among the rest and looks very attractive. (paint) 25. (10 辽宁)We were astonished _______ the temple still in its original condition. A.finding B.to find C.find D.to be found

35. (10 辽宁)Alexander tried to get his work _______in the medical circles. A. to recognize 21. (10北京) A. Looking B. Look B. recognizing C. recognize D. recognized

at my classmates' faces, I read the same excitement in their eyes. C. To look D. Looked in yesterday's China Daily. D. having advertised

25. I'm calling to enquire about the position A. advertised B. to be advertised

C. advertising

30.(10 重庆)The news shocked the public, _______to great concern about students’ safety at school. A. having led B. led C. leading D. to lead

34. Many buildings in the city need repairing, but the one ______first is the library. A. repaired B. being repaired C. repairing D. to be repaired

20.(10 浙江) The traffic rule says young children under the age of four and ___ less than 40 pounds must be in a child safety seat. A. being weighed B. to weigh C. weighedD. weighing 1.(2009 全国 I)Now that we’ve discussed our problem,are pople happy with the decisions ? A.taking B.to look at B.take C.taken D.to take D.look at smoothly. on his own farm. 2. (2009 全国 I)The children all turned classroom.A.looked at A.being run A.grown B.run the famous actress as she entered the C.to looking at D.running D.to grow D.To be bitten

3. (2009 全国Ⅱ )They use computers to keep the traffic C.to run C.to be grown

4.(2009 北京)For breakfast he only drinks juice from fresh fruit B.being grown 5. (2009 北京)

twice,the postman refused to deliver our letters unless we chained our

dog.A.Being bitte B.Bitten C.Having bitten

13

6.(2009 湖南 )Nowadays people sometimes separate their waste to make it easier for it .A.reusing A.to take A.comparing B.reused C.taking C.to compare B.dealt C.being held C.reuses D.to be reused 7.(2009 陕西)I still remember B.to be taken B.compares to the Famen Temple and what I saw there. D.being taken with his old one. with all by D.compared C.to deal D.holding D.Having reminded the D.dealing

8.(2009 重庆 )Michael’s new house is like a huge palace, 9.(2009 重庆)With the world changing fast,we have something new ourselves every day.A.deal A.to be held 11.(2009 福建) B.held 10.(2009 山东)We are invited to a party

in our club next Friday.

not to miss the flight at 15:20,the manager got out for the airport in a

hurry.A.RemindingB.Reminded C.To remind

12. (2009 福建)In April,2009,President Hu inspectd the warships in Qingdao, 60th anniversary of the founding of the PLA Navy. A.marking B.marked C.having marked D.being marked 13.(2009 安 徽 )The play 14.(2009 天津) farms on their land. A.Being encouraged B.Encouraging C.EncouragedD.Having encouraged 15. (2009 天津) the project in time,the staff were working at weekends. back. A.CompletingB.Having completed C.To have completed D.To complete 16.(2009 辽宁)When we visited my old family home,memory came A.flooding 17. (2009 辽宁) B.to flood C.flood D.flooded ,you need to give all you have and try your best.

next month aims mainly to reflect the local

culture.A.produced B.being produed C.to be produced D.having been produced by the advances in technology,many farmers have set up wind

A.Being a winner B.To be a winner C.Be a winnerD.Having been a winner 18.(2009 江苏)Schools across China are expected to hire 50,000 college graduates this year as short-term teachers,almost three times the number hired last year, unemployment pressures. A.help B.to have helped C.to help D.having helped that music activities engage different 19. (2009 浙江)There is a great deal of evidence parts of the brains. A.indicate interesting. A.Generally speaking B.On the contrary C.In particular 21.(2009 四川)He told us whether D.To be honest a picnic was still under discussion.A.to B.indicating C.to indicate D.to be indicating 20.(2009 浙江) ,the pay isn’t attractive enough,though the job itself is quite reduce

14

have

B.having

C.have B.seating C.Having told

D.had ,the plane has come to a D.seat C.to seat

22. (2009 四川)Ladies and gentlemen,please remain complete stop.A.seated 23.(2009 四川) A.Told B.Telling 24.(2009 江西) many times, he finally understood.

D.Having been told

the right kind of training,these teenager soccer players may one day grow parents to take more

into international stars.A.Giving B.Having given C.To give D.Given 25. (2009 江西)The government plans to bring in new laws responsibility for the education of their children. A.forced good B.forcing C.to be forced D.having forced 26.(2008 全国 I)I like getting up very early in summer.The morning air is so .A.to be breathed B.to breathe C.breathing D.being breathed at meals. as 27. (2008 江苏)—They are quiet,aren’t they? —Yes.They are accustomed A.to talk B.to not talk C.to talking D.to not talking C.spoken D.to speak D.To complete

28.(2008 江苏)To learn English well,we should find opportunities to hear English much as we can.A.speak B.speaking 29. ( 2008 湖南) day.A.Completing soon.A.seating B.Completed B.seated

the project as planned,we’ll have to work two more hours a C.Completed ;the winner of the prize will be announced D.to be seated in the D.worked D.drunk

30. ( 2008 辽 宁 ) Please remain C.to seat

31.(2008 山 东 )Lucy’s new job paid twice as much as she had made restaurant.A.working B.work C.to work C.to be drinking 32.(2008 上海)Something as simple as pressure.A.to drink B.drinking 33. (2008 上海)Ideally A.locating

some cold water may clear your mind and relieve

for Broadway the theatres and Fifth Avenue,the New York D.located D.Not to have realize

Park hotel is a favorite with many guests. B.being located C.having been located 34.(2008 浙 江 ) 35.(2008 陕西) that he was in great danger,Eric walked deeper into the C.Not realizing around the Water Cube,we were then taken to see the Bird’s Nest for C.Having been shown D.To show

forest.A.Not realized B.Not to realize the 2008 Olympic Games. A.Having shown B.To be shown 36.(2008 福建) the cheque in the car. A.Waiting B.To wait

in the queue for half an hour,the old man suddenly realized he had left C.Having waited D.To have waited

37. (2008 福建)Can those

at the back of the classroom hear me.

15

A.seat

B.sit

C.seated

D.sat

1.(江西卷 22)_________ the right kind of training, these teenage soccer players may one day grow into the international stars. A. Giving B. Having given C. To give D. Given

2.(江西卷 34)The government plans to bring in new laws _____ parents to take more responsibility for the education of their children. A. forced B. forcing C. to be forced D. having forced

3.(辽宁卷 22)When we visited my old family home, memory came ______ back A. flooding 4.(辽宁卷 27) A Being a winner B. to flood C. flood D. flooded

, you need to give all you have and try your best. B To be a winner C Be a winner D Having been a winner from work, I will spend some time C. tired D. to be tired in a small apartment near

5. (湖南卷 21) Every evening after dinner, if not walking my dog. A. being tired B. tiring

6.(湖南卷 25)At the age of 29, Dave was a worker, Boston and ______ what to do about his future. A. living; wondering B. lived; wondering

C. lived; wondered D. living; wondered

7.(湖南卷 29)Nowadays people sometimes separate their waste to make it easier for it . A. reusing B. reused C. reuses D. to be reused

8.(山东卷 22)We are invited to a party _________in our club next Friday. A. to be held B. held C. being held D. holding

9.(山东卷 25)The number of foreign students attending Chinese universities ________ rising steadily since1990. A. is B. are C. has been D. have been

10.(重庆卷 29)With the world changing fast, we have something new _______with all by ourselves every day.A. deal B. dealt C. to deal D. dealing

11.(北京卷 27)The way the guests ___ in the hotel influenced their evaluation of the service.A. treated B. were treated C. would treat D. would be treated

16

12.(北京卷 28)All of them try to use the power of the workstation ___ information in a more effective way.A. presenting B. presented C. being presented D. to present

13. (北京卷 34) ____ twice, the postman refused to deliver our letters unless we changed our dog.A. Being bitten B. Bitten C. Having bitten D. To be bitten

14.(天津卷 4)______ the project in time, the staff were working at weekends. A. Competing B. Having completed C. To have completed D. To complete

15.(天津卷 9)_____ by the advances in technology, many farmers have set up wind farms on their land.A. Being encouraged B. Encouraging C. Encouraged D. Having encouraged 16.(浙江卷 3)______ and short of breath, Andy and Ruby were the first to reach the top of Mount Tai. A. To be tried B. Tired C. Tiring D. Being tired that music activities engage D. to be indicating

17.(浙江卷 7)There is a great deal of evidence different parts of the brain. A. indicate

B. indicating C. to indicate

18.(全国卷 II 6)It is often _____ that human beings are naturally equipped to speak. A. said B. to say C. saying D. being said

25. (重庆卷)Michael’s new house is like a huge palace, ______with his old one. A. comparing B. compares C. to compare D. compared

19.(四川卷)He told us whether _________ a picnic was still under discussion A. to have B. having C. have D. had

20. (四川卷 4) Ladies and gentlemen, please remain __________ until the plane has come to a complete stop.A. seated B. seating C. to seat D. seat

21. (四川卷 10)________ many times, he finally understood it. A. Told B. Telling C. Having told D. Having been told

22. (江苏卷 26) Schools across China are expected to hire 50,000 college graduates this year as short-term teachers, almost three times the number hired last year, unemployment pressures.A. help B. to have helped C. to help D. having helped 17 reduce

23.(江苏卷 32)Distinguished guests and friends, welcome to our school,

the

ceremony of the 50th Anniversary this morning are our alumni (校友) from home and abroad. A. Attend B. To attend C. Attending D. Having attended

24.(全国卷 I 30) The children all turned classroom A. looked at B. to look at

the famous actress as the entered the C. to looking at D. look at

25.(全国卷 I 35)Now that we’ve discussed our problem, are people happy with the decisions 26.(福建卷 32) hurry. A. taking B. take C. taken D .to take

not to miss the flight at 15:20, the manager set out for the airport in a B. Reminded C. To remind D. Having reminded the 60th

A. Reminding

27. (福建卷 34) In April, 2009, President Hu inspected the warships in Qingdao, anniversary of the founding of the PLA Navy. A. marking B. marked C. having marked

D. being marked

28.(全国卷 II 16)They use computers to keep the traffic ______ smoothly. A. being run B. run C. to run D. running

29.(陕西卷 12)I still remember A to take B to be taken

to the Famen Temple and what I saw there . C taking D being taken

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