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罗宾斯《组织行为学》12版 OB12_09 群体行为的基础_图文

罗宾斯《组织行为学》12版 OB12_09 群体行为的基础_图文

Chapter

NINE

Foundations of Group Behavior

Defining and Classifying Groups
Group(s)
Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives

Formal Group
A designated work group defined by the organization’s structure

Informal Group
A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contact

Defining and Classifying Groups (cont’d)
Command Group
A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager

Task Group
Those working together to complete a job or task

Interest Group
Those working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned

Friendship Group
Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics

Why People Join Groups
? Security

? Status
? Self-esteem ? Affiliation ? Power ? Goal Achievement

The Five-Stage Model of Group Development
Forming Stage
The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty

Storming Stage
The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict

Norming Stage
The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness

…Group Development (cont’d)
Performing Stage
The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional

Adjourning Stage
The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance

Stages of Group Development

E X H I B I T 9–2

An Alternative Model: Temporary Groups with Deadlines
Punctuated-Equilibrium Model
Temporary groups under time constrained deadlines go through transitions between inertia and activity—at the halfway point, they experience an increase in productivity.

Sequence of Actions
1. Setting group direction
2. First phase of inertia 3. Half-way point transition

4. Major changes
5. Second phase of inertia 6. Accelerated activity

The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model

E X H I B I T 9–3

Group Properties
? ? ? ? Roles Norms Status Cohesiveness

Group Properties—Roles
Role(s)
A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit

Role Identity
Certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role

Role Perception
An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation

Group Properties—Roles (cont’d)
Role Expectations
How others believe a person should act in a given situation

Psychological Contract
An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from the employee and vice versa

Role Conflict
A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations

Group Properties—Norms
Norms
Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members

Classes of Norms
? Performance norms ? Appearance norms

? Social arrangement norms
? Allocation of resources norms

Group Norms and the Hawthorne Studies
? A series of studies undertaken by Elton Mayo at Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne Works in Chicago between 1924 and 1932 ? Research Conclusions
– Worker behavior and sentiments were closely related. – Group influences (norms) were significant in affecting individual behavior. – Group standards (norms) were highly effective in establishing individual worker output. – Money was less a factor in determining worker output than were group standards, sentiments, and security.

Group Properties—Norms (cont’d)
Conformity
Adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group
ASCH STUDY

Reference Groups
Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform
EXHIBIT 9–4

Group Properties—Norms (cont’d)
Deviant Workplace Behavior
Antisocial actions by organizational members that intentionally violate established norms and result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both Group norms can influence the presence of deviant behavior.

Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior
Category
Production

Examples
Leaving early Intentionally working slowly Wasting resources
Sabotage Lying about hours worked Stealing from the organization Showing favoritism Gossiping and spreading rumors Blaming coworkers Sexual harassment Verbal abuse Stealing from coworkers
E X H I B I T 9–5

Property

Political

Personal Aggression

Source: Adapted from S.L. Robinson, and R.J. Bennett. ―A Typology of Deviant Workplace Behaviors: A Multidimensional Scaling Study,‖ Academy of Management Journal, April 1995, p. 565.

Group Properties—Status
Status: A socially defined position or rank given to groups or
group members by others
Power over Others Ability to Contribute Group Member Status Norms and Interaction

Personal Characteristics

Other things influencing or influenced by status
Status Inequity National Culture

Group Properties—Size
Social Loafing
The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually
Performance

Other Conclusions
? Odd number groups do better than even.

? Groups of 5 to 7 perform better overall than larger or smaller groups.
Group Size

Group Properties—Cohesiveness
Cohesiveness
Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group

Increasing Group Cohesiveness
1. 2. 3. 4. Make the group smaller. Encourage agreement with group goals. Increase time members spend together. Increase group status and admission difficultly. 5. Stimulate competition with other groups. 6. Give rewards to the group, not individuals. 7. Physically isolate the group.

Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness, Performance Norms, and Productivity

E X H I B I T 9-7

S. Adams, Build a Better Life by Stealing Office Supplies (Kansas City MO: Andrews & McMeal, 1991), p. 31. Dilbert reprinted with permission of United Features Syndicate, Inc.

E X H I B I T 9–8

Group Decision Making
? Decision Making
– Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about complex tasks. – Smaller groups are better suited to coordinating and facilitating the implementation of complex tasks.

– Simple, routine standardized tasks reduce the requirement that group processes be effective in order for the group to perform well.

Group Decision Making (cont’d)
? Strengths
– More complete information – Increased diversity of views – Higher quality of decisions (more accuracy) – Increased acceptance of solutions

? Weaknesses
– More time consuming (slower) – Increased pressure to conform – Domination by one or a few members – Ambiguous responsibility

Group Decision Making (cont’d)
Groupthink
Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative course of action

Groupshift
A change in decision risk between the group’s decision and the individual decision that member within the group would make; can be either toward conservatism or greater risk

Symptoms of the Groupthink Phenomenon
? Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made. ? Members apply direct pressures on those who express doubts about shared views or who question the alternative favored by the majority.

? Members who have doubts or differing points of view keep silent about misgivings.
? There appears to be an illusion of unanimity.

Group Decision-making Techniques
Interacting Groups
Typical groups, in which the members interact with each other face-to-face

Nominal Group Technique
A group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion

Group Decision-making Techniques
Brainstorming
An idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives while withholding any criticism of those alternatives

Electronic Meeting
A meeting in which members interact on computers, allowing for anonymity of comments and aggregation of votes

Evaluating Group Effectiveness
TYPE OF GROUP Effectiveness Criteria Number and quality of ideas Social pressure Money costs Interacting Low High Low Brainstorming Moderate Low Low Nominal High Moderate Low Electronic High Low High

Speed
Task orientation Potential for interpersonal conflict Commitment to solution Development of group cohesiveness

Moderate
Low High High High

Moderate
High Low Not applicable High

Moderate
High Moderate Moderate Moderate

Moderate
High Low Moderate Low

E X H I B I T 9–9

Chapter Check-up: Groups
True or False: The Punctuated Equilibrium Model suggests that groups have an equilibrium, but that equilibrium will be punctuated at the halfway point. But, after the punctuation, the group will return to the equilibrium it had prior to the punctuation.

False. The first part is true, but the second sentence is false. After the punctuation, the group will have a new equilibrium of increased productivity.

Chapter Check-Up: Groups

List two drawbacks of brainstorming and two
pluses of the Nominal Group Decision-making Technique. Compare your answers with your neighbor and discuss which one you would use for a group project in this class and why.

Chapter Check-up: Groups
Lorraine is a non-traditional student (she’s 51 years old) and is working in a group for a class

project. They keep turning to her for the answers to questions. Which of the following might the group have that is driving Lorraine’s experience?
Groupthink
Groupshift Role Conflict

Role Expectations

The group may have role expectations of Lorraine—e.g., because she’s older, she should be the wise one and know the answers like a parent should.


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