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非谓语动词v-ing

非谓语动词v-ing


非谓语动词:
2. v-ing形式

Grammar
to do doing done

1. 动词不定式(infinitive) 3. v-ed形式,即过去分词

—used as Attribute and Object Complement

定语

宾语补足语

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时 态 和 语 态
及物动词 主 动 一般式 完成式 被 动 不及物 动词 主 动

doing

being done

doing

having been having having done done done

一、The -ing Form — used as Attribute

(-ing形式作定语)

sleeping students

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boiling water

flying kites

the rising sun

a dancing girl

(1) a walking man
= a man who is walking (2) a walking stick = a stick for walking What’s the difference between (1) and (2)?

小 结1
-ing形式作定语既可表示动作正在进行且

与逻辑主语之间是主动关系(如例(1)),
此时相当于一个定语从句;又可表示所修饰 名词的性质或用途(如例(2))。

(1) a swimming man

(2) a swimming pool

a running man The man running in
attribute

相当于:

the picture is Liu Xiang.

The man who is running in the picture is Liu Xiang.
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Rewrite the following sentences with
attributive clauses. 1. The teacher teaching us English is Ms Zhou. =The teacher who is teaching us English is Ms Zhou.

2. The people sitting behind us are all teachers.

=The people who are sitting behind us are all teachers. 3. The expert coming from America is a lady called Ms Cai. =The expert who comes from America is a lady called Ms Cai.

小 结2
单个的-ing形式作定语,放在所 修饰的名词前面;-ing短语作定 语则放在所修饰的名词之后。

Translate the following phrases.
a reading room a washing machine 阅览室 洗衣机 an exciting evening

激动人心的夜晚 an interesting crosstalk
有趣的相声

卧铺车

a sleeping car a smoking room

吸烟室 听力练习
开幕词 售票处 自来水

listening practice
an opening speech a booking office running water

3. 注意v-ing形式与其他非谓语动词作 定语时区别:(优化方案P135)
(1)doing作定语------ 主动,动作正在进行 (2)being done作定语------被动,动作正在进行 (3)done作定语-----(4)to do作定语-----被动,动作已完成 将来要发生的动作

(5)having done--不能作定语,用定语从句代替

二、The -ing Form — used as Object Complement(-ing形式作宾语补足语) I heard the girl singing in the classroom. I noticed a long queue outside the bank waiting for it to open. The baby watched his dad shaving his face with great interest.

We have the fire burning all day.

小 结1
动词-ing形式作宾语补足语放
在宾语后面,表示一个正在 进行的主动性的动作,强调

一个过程或一种状态。
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能跟-ing形式作宾语补足语的常见
动词有这些: make, let, have, keep, leave, look at, see, watch, hear, listen to, notice, find, feel 等。

怎么记?

“五让、三看、两听、 一注意、一发现、 一感觉”。简单又 好记!

2. 注意v-ing形式与其他非谓语动词作 宾语补足语时的区别:(优化方案P136)
(1)doing作宾补------ 主动,动作正在进行 (2)to do作宾补-----(3)done作宾补-----主动,动作的全过程 被动

-ing形式具有名词的特征, 在句中可作主语、宾语、表

语。如:

三、Subject In many countries, shaking one’s head means “no” and nodding means “yes”. It is no use trying to persuade him.

应该注意的问题: 1. v-ing形式与不定式作主语的区别
to do作主语表示: 某个特定的、具体的,将来的动作 v-ing作主语表示: 抽象的、习惯性,经常性的动作 It is bad manners _______ (stare) at a foreign to stare guest. Learning _________ (learn) a foreign language is very useful to me.

2. 注意用it 作形式主语的情况: 句型:_____________________________ It is/was no good/ use doing sth.

3. 注意主谓一致: 单数 1) v-ing形式作主语,谓语v.一般用_______. 2) 由and连接的多个v-ing形式作主语,谓v.用 ______. 复数 3) 如果并列的v-ing形式前后语义一致,即说的 单数 是一个概念时,谓v.用______.

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4. v-ing形式的逻辑主语可用名词或代词

的所有格来表示。如:
eg: Mary’s becoming a college student

greatly encouraged me.
eg: Does our saying that mean anything to him?

四、Object
eg: Have you finished using the telephone? eg: He tried to avoided being punished. 应该注意的问题: 1. allow, advise, forbid, permit { + sb./sth. to do 被动:sb./sth. +be + allowed/ advised / forbidden/ permitted + ______ to do doing

doing = 2. need, require, want “需要被” + {to be done eg: The TV set needs to be mended. =
The TV set needs mending.

doing = 3. begin, continue, hate, like, love + {to do would like/ love +_____ to do

4. 加to do 和 doing 意义不同的词: doing (1) forget/ regret/ remember+ { to do

(2) go on to do / doing

(3) mean to do / doing
(4) stop to do / doing (5) try to do / doing (6) be used to do / doing used to do (7) can’t help to do / doing

五、Predicative eg: His duty is cleaning the playground. 表语和主语常常可以互换位置 应该注意的问题: 1. v-ing形式与不定式作表语的区别: (1) 一般情况下区别不大,常可互换,但要 注意前后一致性。 eg: Seeing is believing. = To see is to believe. 眼见为实。
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eg: 节约即是收入。 To save is to have. Saving is having. = ___________________
(2) v-ing形式接近n. 作表语时表示 习惯性的抽象的动作 _______________________; to do 接近v. 作表语时表示 某个具体的,将来的动作 __________________________.

8. He is very busy ____ his papers. He is far too busy ____ callers. A. to write; to receive B. writing; to receive C. writing; receiving D. to write; for receiving 9. Please stop ____, boys, I have something important to ____ you. A. saying; talk B. telling; say C. talking; speak D. talking; tell

Grammar
The v-ing Form – used as Adverbial(状语)
1. v-ing 形式的时态和语态: 一般式:doing 被动:being done 完成式: having done 被动:having been done

否定式: 一般式的否定:not + v-ing
完成式的否定:not + having done
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(1) 一般式表示的动作与谓语v.表示的动作一 般同时进行。 eg: 他赶快回家,一边走一边不时地向后看。
looking He hurried home, _______ behind from time to time as he went.

eg: 有人请她表演一个节目,她拒绝了
Being asked _____________ (ask) to put on a performance, she refused.

(2) 完成式表示的动作则在谓语v.表示的动作 之前已经完成。 eg: 在听到这点之后,那位宇航员表示满意。
Having heard (hear) this, the astronaut ___________ expressed her satisfaction.

eg: 给你这样一个好机会,你怎能轻易放过?
Having been given _________________ (give) such a good chance, how could you let it slip away?

2. v-ing形式作状语,可以表示时间、原因、 结果、条件、让步,伴随状况等。 前提:其逻辑主语必须与句子的主语一致, 且是主动关系。 (1) 表原因,相当于原因状语从句 eg: Being ill, she didn’t go to school. = As she was ill, she didn’t go to school.

eg: 因为没有收到回信,我又给他写了封信。 Not having received _________________(receive) an answer, I wrote to him again. =As I had not received an answer, …

(2) 表时间,相当于时间状语从句,有时前可 加when, while 连词

eg: When hearing the good news, the students were happy.=
When they heard the good news…
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eg: Having finished his work, Henry went home.= After he finished his work, …

(3) 表伴随,相当于并列句,表示伴随的次要 动作或补充说明。
eg: She opened the door and stood there, frowning at me.= She opened the door, stood there and frowned at me.

(4) 表条件,相当于条件状语从句,其前可加 if, unless等连词。
eg: If playing all day, you will waste your valuable time.= If you play all day,…

(5) 表让步,相当于让步状语从句,其前可加 although, even though/ if等连词。
eg: Having failed several times, he didn’t lose heart.= Though he had failed several times…

(6) 表结果。 eg:汽车陷入交通堵塞,导致耽搁了 The car was caught in a traffic jam, causing the delay.

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3. 当分词的逻辑主语与主句主语不同时,分 词要有自己的主语(构成独立主格结构)。
eg:夜幕降临,我们动身回家了。 Night coming on, we started for home. eg:她站在那里,头靠在树上。 She stood there, her head leaning on the tree.

有时也可用一个v-ing短语来解释整个句子, 常把这些短语看作固定结构。 eg: Judging from his appearance, he must be a very healthy boy. eg: Generally speaking, the book is not very difficult.

4.对比:v-ing形式作状语,与主语之间是 主动 ____关系;v-ed作状语,与主语之间是被动 ____关系;不定式to do作状语, 目的、原因、结果 表示__________________.
eg: 他们走了进来,妻子们跟随在后。 followed They came in, ________ (follow) by their wives. eg: 他们跟着他们的妻子走了进来。 following They came in, ________ (follow) their wives.

eg: 我们睡在一起以保持暖和。 to keep We slept together ______ (keep) warm.
eg: 从山上看这座城市非常壮观。 Seen _____ from the hill, the city looks magnificent.

Ex. 1 Rewrite these sentences using the –ing form.
1. The baby heard a sound and stopped crying. Hearing a sound, the baby stopped crying.

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2. He lives far from school and is often late. Living far from his school, he is often late. 3. He cut off the electricity quickly and prevented an accident. Having cut off the electricity quickly, he prevented an accident.
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