分词（①现在分词 doing②过去分词 done） 非谓语动词 不定式(to do)
动名词 (doing) 根据时态和语态（主动与被动） ，它们有不同的变化形式，如： 现在分词 doing : 有 being done（被动式） ; having done （完成式）; having been done （完成被动式） 不定式 to do : 有 to be done（被动式）; to have done （完成式）; to be doing（进 行式） 动名词 doing : 有 having done（完成式); being done（被动式）; 非谓语动词的特点： 三种非谓语动词都具有动词的特征，虽然它们没有人称和数 的变化，但是它们都能带自己的状语或有时跟宾语。它们都有各自的特征： 分词具有形容词和副词的特征； 动名词具有名词的特征； 不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征。 具体来讲：分词在句子中可以做定语、表语、状语或补足语等； 动名词在句子中可以做主语、宾语、表语等； 不定式在句子中可以做主语、宾语、表语、补足语或状语。
1．To learn a foreign language is difficult .（动词不定式作主语） 2． His wish is to be a driver . （动词不定式作表语） 3．Tom wanted to have a cup of beer . （动词不定式作宾语） 4．The teacher told us to do morning exercises .（动词不定式作宾补） 5．I have nothing to say . （动词不定式作定语） 6．They went to see their aunt . （动词不定式作目的状语） 7．It’s easy to see their aunt.（动词不定式作真正主语，it 代替不定式作形式主语） 8．I don’t know what to do.（带有连接代词的动词不定式作宾语） 9．I heard them make a noise .（不带 to 的动词不定式作宾补） 掌握动词不定式应注意的几个问题： 1． “to” 是不定式符号还是介词，下列短语中的 to 都是介词。 agree to、object to 、close to、come to，lead to , refer to , equal to , familiar to , point to , thank to , devote to , next to , belong to , be used to , look forward to 2． 带 to 还是不带 to I have no choice but to give in I cannot do anything but give in I saw him enter the classroom . 但是： He was seen to enter the classroom .（hear、see、watch 等感官动词表被动 时不能省略 to.） 例：He was seen to play in the street just now. 3． 动词不定式逻辑主语是由 for 作为标记的。但是有时用 of .
句式：It is +adj+ of sb to do sth. It is +adj+ for sb to do sth. It’s necessary for you to study hard . （表事物的性质） It’s foolish of him to do it . （表某人的品质） 与 of 连用的形容词有： good, kind , nice , wise , foolish , right , careful , careless , polite 等表示人品格的词语 4．后接不定式作宾语的动词有： want ,hope ,wish , like , begin , try , need , forget , agree , know , promise , teach , refuse , help , arrange ,dare , decide ,determine , fail,manage,offer,prepare ,continue ,ask,mean,choose ,expect etc. 需要宾语补足语的动词不能用动词不定式直接做介词的宾语， 而要用 it 做形式宾 语。例如：通常不说 We think to obey the laws is important . 而说 We think it important to obey the laws . 5．不定式的省略。下列短语中，如果意义明确，常常省略到 to 。 want to , wish to ,hope to , like to , hate to , plan to , try to , love to , have to , ought to , need to , used to , be able to 1)介词 except/but 后省略 to 的情况：
用作介词 except, but 宾语的不定式有时带 to，有时不带 to。其大致原则是：若其前出现了动 词 do，其后的不定式通常不带 to；若其前没有出现动词 do，则其后的不定式通常带 to。如： I had no choice but to wait. 除了等，我没有别的选择。 He wanted nothing but to stay there. 他只想留在那儿。 2)主语带 to 表语带 to 的情况： 当主语部分有动词 do 的某种形式时，用作表语的不定式可以省略 to。如： All you do now is (to) complete the form. 你现在要做的只是把这张表填好。 The only thing to do now is (to) go on. 前进是现在唯一的出路。 What I’ll do is (to) tell her the truth. 我要做的就是告诉她真相。
3）并列不定式省略 to 的情况：
当两个或多个作用相同的不定式并列时，通常只需在第一个不定式前用 to，其余不定式前的 to 可以省略。如： He told me to stay there and wait for him. 他叫我在那儿等他。 It is easier to persuade people than (to) force them. 说服人容易，强迫人难。 但是，如果两者有对比关系，则后面不定式前的 to 不可省略。如： To try and fail is better than not to try at all. 尝试而失败总比不尝试好。
6．不定式作定语，应注意两种关系： 1）动宾关系： He has a lot of meeting to attend . Please lend me something to write with .
He is looking for a room to live He is looking for a room to live in . He has no money and no place to live ( in ) . I think the best way to travel ( by ) is on foot . There is no time to think ( about ) . 2）主谓关系： She is always the last ( person) to speak at the meeting . ----I’ll go to the post office ,for I have a letter to post . (逻辑主语是 I ) -------Thanks.But I have no letters to be posted now( 逻辑主语不是 I ) 7．不定式作状语，可以有以下几种意义： 1） 原因 He is lucky to get here on time . 这种结构中常用的形容词有： happy , glad , delighted , pleased , sorry , eager , anxious . lucky , fortunate , proud , angry surprised , frightened , disappointed , ready , clever , foolish , worthy 2) 目的 He came to help me with my maths . 3) 结果 I hurried to get there only to find him out . The book is too hard for the boy to read . He is old enough to go to school . 8 . 不定式作补足语 I saw him play in the street just now . 能跟不带 to 的不定式作补足语的动词有： see , feel , hear , listen to , look at , watch , let , have make, observe, notice 注: 当这些词为被动式时，不定式要带 to , 如： He was seen to play in the street just now.
Learning English is very difficult . His job is driving a bus . I enjoy dancing . I have got used to living in the country . Take some sleeping tablets , and you will soon fall asleep . 注意以下几种结构： 1．There’s no telling what will happen . =It’s impossible to tell what will happen . = No one can tell what will happen . 2．It’s no use talking with him . It’s no good speaking to them like that . 3．There’s some difficulty ( in ) doing ? 在此句型中,difficulty 可以由以下单词替换: trouble , problem , fun , pleasure , a good time , a hard time 注:1．下列动词后跟不定式与跟动名词作宾语意义有区别，
forget to do ?/forget doing? remember to do? /remember doing? mean to do ? / mean doing ? regret to do ?/regret doing ? can’t help to do?/can’t help doing ? try to do ? /try doing learn to do ? 学着去做某事/learn doing ?学会做某事 stop to do ?/stop doing ? go on to do ? /go on doing ? used to do ? 过去做某事/be used to doing ?习惯做某事 2．动名词作定语与现在分词作定语意义有区别 动名词作定语表达 n+ for doing 的含义 现在分词作定语表达 n+which(who) be doing 的含义 如：a sleeping car = a car for sleeping a running horse = a horse which is running 前者是动名词 ， 后者是现在分词 又如： drinking water , walking stick running water , sleeping boy 3． 动名词的逻辑主语： 动名词的逻辑主语为代词或名词的所有格形式。 例如：His coming made us very happy . 4．动名词的语态和时态 5． 动名词主动形式表被动的情况： need doing , want doing , require doing 例如：This room needs painting . 这个房间需要粉刷。 6．只能跟动名词作宾语的动词： admit , avoid , advise , consider , delay , deny , enjoy , escape , excuse , fancy , finish , complete , forbid , imagine , mind , miss , permit . practice , require , suggest , risk , keep, take to , look forward to , get down to , feel like , can’ help , can’ stand , be used t t to ,insist on , succeed in , set about, give up , include ,
1 .The story is interesting . I’m interested in it . 2 . This is a moving film . 3. He worked late into the night , preparing a speech for the president . 4. Given more time , I’ll do it well . 5. When I passed the street ,I saw the thief stealing money from the bank . 应注意的几个问题： 1．现在分词与过去分词的区别 Do you know the woman talking to Tom ? = Do you know the woman who is talking to Tom ? The soldier wounded in the war has become a doctor. = The soldier who was wounded in the war has become a doctor. China is a developing country and America is a developed country. 2．分词作表语
The news sounds encouraging . They got very excited . 1）现在分词与过去分词作表语的区别： The news is interesting . （interesting 表事物 news 的性质） He is interested in the news .（interested 表人 he 的习惯特征） doing 作表语，主语与表语是主谓关系 ； done 作表语，主语与表语是动宾关系。 2）表语与被动式的区别： The blackboard was broken by Xiao Ming .（强调动作） The blackboard is broken . You’d better have it repaired.（强调状态） 3）常作表语的过去分词： amused , injured , covered , known , dressed , lost , broken , gone , delighted, excited , pleased , satisfied , married , worried , surprised , interested , burnt , shut , crowded , wounded , drank , done The situation in our country is encouraging . (表语) 现在分词、动名词 现在进行时的区别 3．The situation in our country is encouraging the people . ( 现在进行时) My job is looking after the little baby . (动名词) 能回答 how-question 的是现在分词，能回答 what-question 的动名词，即不能回答 how-question 也不能回答 what-question 的是现在进行时。 例如： How is the situation in our country ? It is encouraging . What is your job ? My job is looking after the little baby . 4．注意的四种结构： have something to do 有某事要做 have something done 使某事被做 have somebody do something 使某人做某事 have something doing 让某事一直做着 5． 需要跟反身代词作宾语的动词： seat , prepare , hide , dress 如：I seated myself on the chair . I was seated on the chair . 6．分词做状语与不定式的区别： 分词做状语表示时间,原因,让步, 条件,方式,伴随等；而不定式表示目的和结果。 Having finished the homework , I went home . （ 时间） Being a Party member , I should work hard . （原因） Given more time ,I can do my work better . （ 条件 ） He ran out of the classroom ,shouting at the boy. （ 伴随） To get more knowledge , we must work harder and harder. (目的 ) He is old enough to join the army . （ 结果） 7．分词、动名词和不定式作定语的区别 a running horse 现在分词 = a horse that is running a fallen leaf 过去分词 = a leaf that has already fallen a walking stick 动名词 = a stick for walking something to do 不定式 = something that I should do
8．不定式被动式、分词的被动式和过去分词的区别： I have a problem to be discussed at the meeting . ( 将来) The building being built on the river is the a Museum .（正在进行） The building completed 2 years ago is now in bad conditions . （ 过去） 9．分词做状语需要注意的一个问题： 分词与句子主语的逻辑关系 Seeing from the hill , the city looks beautiful .( 错误 ) Seen from the hill , the city looks beautiful . （ 正确） Seeing 与 the city 不是主谓关系；seen 与 city 是动宾关系 I .单项选择 1.Most of the people _____ to the party were famous scientists. A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. inviting 2. ______ many times, but he still couldn’t understand it . A. Having being told B. Though had been told C. He was told D. Having told 3. She reached the top of the hill and stopped _____ on a big rock by the side of the path . A.to have rested B. testing C. to rest D. rest 4. The next morning she found the man ______ in bed , dead . A. lying B. lie C. lay D. laying 5. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier , _______ it more difficult . A. to make B. not to make C. not making D. to not make 6 . The Olympic Games , _____ in 776 B.C., did not include women plays until 1912 . A.first playing B.to be first played C. first played D. to be first playing 7 . ---You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting . ---- Well , now I regret ____________that . A. to do B. to be doing C. to have done D. having done 8 . The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction with talks , _______ that he had enjoyed his stay here . A. having added B. to add C. adding D. added 9 . _______ a reply , he decided to write again . A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received 10.The speaker raised his voice, but he still couldn’t make himself ________ . A. hear B. to hear C. hearing D. heard Robert is said ___ abroad , but I don’t know what country be studied in . to have studied B. to study C. to be studying D. to have been studying II 完成句子 11.When you are finished with the electric iron, don’t forget_____(关掉它). (turn)（09 湖 北卷) 12._____(获得奖学金) gave Martin the chance to go to a college in one of the northern states.(win)（09 湖北卷） 13.____________(油漆成)red，the building stands out among the rest and looks very
attractive．(paint)（10 湖北卷） 14.____________(不会用)a computer makes it more difficult for him to do his academic research．(use)（10 湖北卷） 15.It was cold and dump the man pulled up his collat and put his hands to his_____(冻僵 了的脸).(freeze)(11 湖北卷) 16.A number of paintings in this castle are believed in 2009.(destroy)(11 湖北卷） 17._______(把钥匙握在手上)，he looked for them everywhere.(hold)(11 湖北卷) 18. With ________, some animals are facing the danger of dying out. (cut) 由于越来越多的森林被砍伐，一些动物正面临着灭绝的危险。(12 湖北卷) 19. Popularly ________ American films ever made, The Godfather is a milestone of cinema. (regard) 《教父》被普遍认为是美国有史以来最好的影片之一，是电影界的一个里程碑。 （12 湖 北卷） 20. The soldier was absent from his camp for three days without ________. (ask) 这个士兵没有请假就离开营地三天。 （12 湖北卷） 21.Not ______ my parents, I failed to go to a drama school, where my interest lay. (persuade) 由于没有说服我父母，我没能上戏剧学校，而那才是我的兴趣所在。（13 湖北卷) 22. As time is pressing, I think __________ is the best way to get from here to the conference centre. (take) 由于时间紧迫，我认为从这里去会议中心最好的办法是乘出租车。（13 湖北卷） 答案： I. 1.A 2.C 3.C 4.A 5.B 6.C 7.D 8.C 9.C 10.D II . 11.to turn it off 12.Winning a scholarship 13.Painted/Having been painted 14.Not being able to use/Being unable to use/not knowing how to use 15.frozen face 16.to have been destroyed 17.Holding the/his keys in the/his hand With the keys held in the/his hand The keys held in the/his hand 18.more and more forests /trees (being) cut down 19.regarded as one of the best 20.asking for leave(first) 21.having persuaded 22.taking a taxi/to take a taxi
(被毁掉)in a fire