状语时用来修饰 动 词， 形容 词， 副 词或 句子 的一种句子成分。它可以表示时间、地点、
3. 原因状语从句 4. 条件状语从句
引导词可分为两部分． as every time while next time when the first/…time whenever the moment before the minute/… after instantly until (till) immediately since directly (一…就…) as soon as
1. as, while , when的区别
as引导的时间状语从句, 可以表达“正当……‖， “一 边……一边……‖，“随着……‖等意思。
1. 表示某事一发生，另一事立即发生。 As the sun rose, the fog disappeared. 2. 表示在某事发生的过程中，另一事发生。 Just as he was speaking there was a loud explosion. 3. 表示两个动作同时发生。 Helen sang a song as she washed.
4. 表示“随着…..‖.常指一个行为是另一个行为的结果， 或一种状态随另一种状态变化。句中的动词多表示状态 的发展变化。As she grew older, she became more beautiful.
e.g. I like listening to music while I am doing my homework.
e.g.— I’m going to the post office. -- While you are there, can you get some stamps for me?
e.g. I hurt my should while I was doing gym.
While I was walking down the street, I came when across an old friend. ( while=_______) While I really don’t like art, I find his work although impressive. ( while =_________ ) While there is life there is hope. as long as (while = __________ ) He likes pop music, while I am fond of folk music.
＊当……时 e.g. When I first saw her, I fell in love with her. ---When did you get home? ---It was eight o’clock when I got home.
＊正在……忽然 1) They were walking down the street when they saw an accident. 2) I was about to go swimming when our guide stopped me.
e.g. He walks when he might take a taxi.
虽然 The Queen will visit the town in May, when she will open the new hospital. 届时 How can you hope for mercy yourself when you show none? 如果 How could I live in Los Angeles when all my favorite people live here? 鉴于, 既然
◆ before引导的时间状语从句，常译为“在……之前”， 表示主句的动作发生在从句的动作之前。 We clean the classroom before we leave school every day. It will not be long before you regret for what you’ve done.
表示主句的动作发生在从句的动作之后。 After you use plastic bags, you mustn’t throw them about.
◆ since引导的时间状语从句，常译为“自从……‖， 主句常用现在完成时，从句常用一般过去时。 例句翻译：我们自从分手以后一直没见过面。 We haven’t seen each other since we parted. 常用句型：It has been (is) + 时间段 + since从句 “自从……有多长时间了 ” 例句翻译：自从她大学毕业已经有六年时间了。 It has been (is) six years since she graduated from the university.
until / till 引导的时间状语从句，常译为“直到……时”，
例句：我会待在这里，直到你回来。 I’ll stay here until you come back.
not… until…―直到……才……‖，这时until 可用before替换。
He didn’t go to bed until he finished his homework.
as soon as引导的时间状语从句
as soon as 引导的时间状语从句，译为“一…就…‖， 例句：他一回来我就告诉他这件事。 I will tell him about it as soon as he comes back.
soon as 用法的词或短语还有：immediately,
directly, instantly, the moment, the minute, the instant等.
Directly I had done it, I knew I had made a mistake.
I’ll give him your message the minute he arrives.
the moment, the minute, the instant, the time, the hour, the
day, by the time, each time, every time, next time, any time等 也可以引导时间状语从句。 I thought her nice and honest the first time I saw her. By the time you arrived, the lecture had already ended. By the time he comes, we will already have left.
? 1. When every time I was in trouble, he would come to help me. ? 2. At next time you come, do remember bring your son here. ? 3. For the first time I met the girl. I felt in love with her. ? 4. You are welcome to come back at any time you want to. ? 5. At the last time she saw James, he was lying in bed. ? 语法规则： every time,each time,next time,the first time,any
no sooner… than…, hardly/ scarcely/ barely…when…引导
时间状语从句,从句用一般过去时，主句用过去完成时。 当no sooner, hardly/ scarcely/ barely位于句首时，主句要 用部分倒装。 I had no sooner begun to talk than he rang off. No sooner had I begun to talk than he rang off. 我还未来得及讲话，他就挂断了电话。
1. I was so familiar with him that I recognized his voice ______ I picked up the phone. A. while B. after C. in case D. the minute 2. How long do you think it will take _______ our product becomes popular with the consumers A. when B. until C. before D. since 3. ______ the day went on, the weather got worse. A. With B. since C. As D. While 4. He was halfway through his meal ____ a familiar voice came to his ears. A. why B. where C. when D. while
地点状语从句用连接副词 where或wherever (在任何地方) 引导。 e.g. a. Just stay where you are. b. Where there is a will, there is a way. c. You can sit wherever you like. d. Wherever you go, I’ll be right here waiting for you. 1. When he reads a book, his habit is to make a mark ___ the meaning is unclear to him. A. there B. wherever C. the place D. in which
原因状语从句表示主句中的某一动作或状态所 发生的原因。引导这种从句 常用的连接词是： because, as, since, now that, for,和considering that, seeing that 这七个连词都用于表示表示原 因, 但在语气上一个比一个弱。
e.g. He didn’t come to school because he was ill. 表示“直接”原因。 c.f. He might be ill, for he didn’t come to school.
because, since, as, for的区别:
since – 通常放句首．译为“既然”
as– 不谈自明的原因，语气最弱。 for– 放句中，引导后半句表原因, 或补充推断 的理由。
because 1. I danced in front of the people _________ I liked it. as 2. You’d better wear strong shoes _____ we’ll do a lot of walking. As 3. ____ he was not well, I decided to go without him. Since 4. ______ everybody know about it, I don’t want to talk any more. for 5. He must be ill, ____ he is absent Today. since 6. Some people believe that ______ oil is running out, the fate of the motor industry is uncertain.
条件状语从句表示主句中的某一动作或状态 是在什么情况或条件下发生的。条件状语从句 中通常用一般现在时表示将来。 条件状语从句由从属连词引导：if, unless (除 非), as / so long as (只要), on condition (只要), once ( 一旦), in case (假使) , providing / provided (that) 等。 e.g. a.We’ll come over to see you on Saturday if we have time. b. We should serve the people as / so long as we live.
1. We will be able to get there on time, ____ our car doesn’t break down on the road. A. as soon as B. as far as C. as long as D. as well as 2. In time of serious accidents, _____ we know some basic things about first aid, we can save lives. A. whether B. until C. if D. unless 3. ____ you have tried it, you can’t imagine how pleasant it is. A. Unless B. Because C. Although D. When
____ you touch an English person, you should say If ―sorry‖. Once they are dirty, certain seas are not able to _____ clean themselves. As long as we don’t lose heart, we’ll find a way to __________ overcome the difficulty. on condition that You can be allowed to play the game ___________ you finish your homework first. Don’t touch anything ______ your teacher tells you unless to.
在复合句中表示让步概念的状语从句被称为让步状语 从句。常用引导词：though, although, even if, even though, no matter + 疑问词(what/ who/ where/ when/ which/ how) 疑问词-ever (whatever, whoever, wherever, whenever, however, whichever) 特殊引导词： as (用在让步状语从句中必须要倒装)， while ( 一般用在句首 )， whether… or… , whether (…) or not
though, although ◆ 判断以下句子是否正确： Although he is rich, but he is not happy. Although he is rich, yet he is not happy. Although we have grown up, our parents still treat us as children.
◆要点归纳： though, although当“虽然”讲, 都不能和 but 连用. 但是他们都可以同yet (still) 连用.
ever if, even though even if 和 even though 表示“ 即使
We’ll make a trip even though the weather is bad.
状语 、 as 引导的让步状语从句，必须将从句中的 表语 、 以及谓语中的 实意动词 提前至从句句首，作表语的单数 可数名词前如有冠词，冠词需 省略 。 Though he works hard, he makes little progress. Hard as/though he works, he makes little progress. Though he was a child, he knew what was the right thing to do. Child as/though he was, he knew what was the right thing to do. Though you may object, I’ll go.
Object as you may, I’ll go.
whether… or… , whether (…) or not
whether… or… , whether … or not 表示“不论是否……‖， “不管是……还是……‖。其引导的从句旨在说明正反两 方面的可能性都不会影响主句的意向或结果。
You’ll have to attend the party whether you are free or busy.
Whether you believe it or not, it is true. while 也可以引导让步状语从句，意为“尽管”，语气比 though/ although弱。其引导的从句一般位于 句首 。
While I like its color, I don’t like its shape.
no matter + 疑问词 疑问词-ever
No matter what happened, he would not mind. Whatever happened, he would not mind.
替换：no matter what = whatever no matter who = whoever no matter when = whenever no matter where = wherever no matter which = whichever no matter how = however 判断正误： No matter what you say is of no use now. Whatever you say is of no use now. 归纳： no matter+疑问词不能引导主语从句和宾语从句， 而 “疑问词+ever‖则可以
1. ____ I accept that he is not perfect, I do actually like the person. A. While B. since C. Before D. Unless 2. The workers are determined to go through with their railway project, ____ the expenses have risen. A. as long as B. even though C. now that D. as though 3. I really want the match, however much ______. A. does it cost B. costs it C. will it cost D. it costs
4. ______ we have finished the course, we shall start doing more revision work. A. For now B. Now that C. By now D. until 5. ______, the idea of having to work under a woman defeated him. A. Wanting the job very much B. Although wanting the job badly C. Though he wanted the job very much D. He wanted the job badly
in order that … 用于正式文体中，所引从 句可于主句前或后。
a. 较常用，一般用于主句后,有时 可分开，so 有时可省; 从句中要有 情态动词, 否则, 就成为下一种句型：
for fear that; in case; lest (以免)等。
e.g. a. We’ll sit nearer the front so that we can
hear better. b. I shall write it down lest I should forget. 注意：当从句与主句的主语一致时，可用 so as to do … 或 in order to do … e.g. He ran fast so that he might arrive there before ten o’clock. → He ran fast so as to arrive there before ten o’clock.
结果状语从句常位于主句之后，由 so, so … that, such … that; so that 等引导。
a. So quickly did he run that I couldn’t catch up with him. b. The bus broke down so that we had to walk home. c. She is such a good teacher that everyone admires her. ★d. He got to the station finally, only to find the train had left.
描述主句动作进行方式的状语被称为方式 状语。通常用下列词语引导: as, just as, as if, as though, the way (that), in the way (that)等。
a. We must do as the Party tells us. b. Leave the things as they are. c. Most plants need sunlight just as they need water. d. It sounds as if it is raining. e. They did it in a way that I had never seen before. 他们以我从没见过的方式行事。 f. As water is to fish, so air is to man. 我们离不开空气，犹如鱼儿离不开水
比较状语从句常由下列词语引导： as …as, not so / as … as, more…than, less … than, the more + adj. / adv., the more + adj. / adv. a. He is not so / as healthy as his brother. b. They jumped up and down as hard as they could. c. John is less clever than Peter. d. The busier he is, the happier he feels. e. The job is not so difficult as I thought it would be. f. Send for a doctor as soon as (it is ) possible.
Roses need special care ______ they can live through winter. A. because B. so that C. even if D. as 2. If things are left ______ they are, the problems will never be settled, I’m afraid. A. how B. as C. what D. where 3. Careful surveys have pointed out that as many as 50 percent of the patients do not take drugs _____ directed. A. like B. so C. which D. as 4. I dare not go there ______ my parents will see me. A. in case of B. for fear of C. in order that D. for fear that
★ 注意区分不同从句：引导的是什么从句，不仅要 根据连词，还要根据句子结构和句意来判别。以 where和as为例，能引导多种从句。
1. You are to find it where you left it.（地点 状语从句） 2. Tell me the address where he lives. （定语从句，句中有先行词） 3. I don’t know where he came from.（宾语 从句） 4. Where he has gone is not known yet. （主语从句） 5. This place is where they once hid. （表语从句）
―as‖ 用于不同的状语从句中 1. She sang as she worked. 2. Smart as he is ,he doesn’t study hard. 3. You must try to do as I did. 4. She doesn’t do her work as carefully as I. 5. As she was late for class, she had to say sorry.
even if, if , once, while, though, unless, when, as if etc.
1. The flower his friends gave him will die unless (it is) watered every day.. 2. Even if (I am) invited, I won’t go there. 3. Once (you are) caught sleeping in class, you’ll be punished by your head-teacher . 4. Though (he was) surprised to see us, he gave us a warm welcome. 5. She won’t speak to anyone unless (she is) asked to. 6. When (it is) compared with the old one, our new house is really like a palace. 7. These young man volunteered to go wherever (they are) needed.