Book 2 1-10 Unit 1 Understanding the text
Part A: Comprehending the text Complete the following sentences. 1. According to the first three paragraphs: A major purpose of advertising is to inform us of new products or good bargains / help producers to sell their products. It is possible that advertising is becoming less effective because we are exposed to too much advertising now and so much of it is misleading, so many people now ignore it. 2. According to the advertisement for Bantu Island: The more adventurous members of the family can visit some of the attractions of the island, including a trip to an ancient cavern/ study the fascinating sea creatures of' that area. The less adventurous members can use the hotel swimming pool/paddling pool or play on the mini-golf course or visit tile less adventurous places of interest ( in an airconditioned vehicle) such as a local lake. Ghosts are often seen around Lake Tall. Wood has been used to make the accommodation "units" The holiday is cheap because the resort is new and the owners claim to be more interested in making the guests happy than making money. 3. According to the newspaper report on Bantu Island: Bantu Island is really only a small, bare, exposed rock in the middle of the ocean. Swimming around the island would be very dangerous because of the many sharks. The swimming pool isn't very much in use because there is no water in it. The author doesn't believe the stories about Lake Tall because it is too small and too shallow for the stories to be true. The author says the only reason your money "goes further" is that Bantu Island is
a long way away go the money will be travelling further. The expression is not being used in its usual meaninq of money lasting lounger as things are so cheap. 4. The advice the author gives in the last two paragraphs is to be very careful when reading advertisements and always try to check the information from an independent source before you buy whatever is being advertised. Part B: Comparing the texts The two texts sometimes refer to the same feature of the resort with very different terms. Complete this table by finding the corresponding terms and writing them in the spaces provided. Follow the example. The Brochure 1 2 3 4 5 6 Part C: resort a shallow bay/ island paradise fascinating sea creatures deluxe air-conditioned transport individual, handcrafted units ancient and mysterious lake Interpreting the text The Newspaper Article building site beachless bay/ hare rock hungry sharks open-backed jeep wooden huts dirty pond
1. Explain why the writer believes these two texts provide a "perfect example" of what he is trying to say. The writer is trying to say that advertising is often very misleading and, in some cases, "legalized lying". The advertising brochure for Bantu Island is obviously very misleading—and, although nothing it says is actually a lie, it could be argued that it does not represent the truth. 2. Why were the visitors to Bantu Island made to pay for the "tours" before they got to the resort? Because once they got to the island and saw what it was like, they would not waist to go on any tours. 3. Did the first article give any information that was not true, as opposed to simply misleading?
No, it was very carefully worded so that it would be difficult to prove it told any lies—simply did not tell the whole truth or ,misled the reader in different ways. For example, the resort does have a swimming pool (and even a paddling pool) -- it does not actually say that they don't have any water; it does say that sea creatures abound, it does not say they are sharks, etc. 4. Explain fully what the writer means by the last sentence of the article. We should look carefully at things that seem attractive (and cheap). There is often a problem that is not obvious. This might also apply to other things, such as a motor vehicle, a new apartment, "special offers" on CDs, books, etc.
Developing your skills
Getting the writer's purpose Which of the following do you think could be used to describe the tone of the newspaper article? humourous, aggressive, sarcastic Look at the two texts again and make notes in the table below of other examples of each category. There are many examples of this kind in the texts. Students could be encouraged to have group discussion and decide which are more effective (and some may even be humourous). These are some examples that students are likely to find: Brochure A Once in a Lifeti, me Newspaper Holiday A "Never- To-Be-Repeated" Holiday
(This .means something very special -- so (This .means it only happens once special it cannot Layout ever be repeated. ) because it was so bad you would never do it again. ) A "Holiday" for Nobody
A Holiday .for All the Family Choice of sea creatures sharks half-built
cooled rare It omits any details of the size, etc. of the attractions (e.g. Lake Tall). No mention of having to wash in a small stream ( i. e. no plumbing or washing facilities in the hotel). ...
blasted They don't exist.
you won't have a penny more to pay! -- A "Holiday" .for Nobody -- the inverted commas indicate that the writer .feels
The exclamation mark is supposed to show
the reader what a wonderful deal she / he is the word "Holiday" is not the correct getting with the holiday. word. The "Beauties of Bantu Island" --again the inverted commas suggest that Punctuation "Beauties" does not describe the reality of the Island. "Air-conditioned", "back-to-nature ", "resort", "lake", etc. all these show that the writer does not .feel the words are being used with their usual meaning and connotations. The two articles that follow are from the advertising manager of the restaurant and from a dissatisfied customer. Complete them by filling in the blanks with words or expressions that make the writers' attitudes clear. Come and Eat at the Luxurious and Relaxing "French Kitchen" Enjoy the wonderful selection of tempting dishes from our extensive menu. The magnificent view over the ocean will make it an evening to remember / cherish. Our highly-trained / professional / friendly and experienced / knowledgeable / polite staff will be delighted/pleased / thrilled to look after your every need and the reasonable / inexpensive prices will pleasantly surprise you.
Don't delay / wait. Book now! You won't be disappointed / sorry. Anybody who is thinking of going to the new" restaurant" called the "French Kitchen", don't think again. I was tempted by the advertisement in this newspaper last week. Unfortunately/Regrettably, I can honestly/truthfully/realty say that I was very displeased by my decision. To enjoy the "magnificent view" of the ocean, you would need to lean at least a metre out of the window and peer round the building next door. I've seen a better/ .more impressive/wider/more tempting selection of dishes in my local fast food restaurant and much more polite/friendlier staff in an army training camp. As for the "reasonable/inexpensive" prices! My bank manager will think that I bought the restaurant when he sees my account. It's true that they were a "surprise", but definitely not "pleasant"
Don't go. You will certainly be disappointed.
Extending your vocabulary
Part A: Antonyms In the two descriptions of the holiday resort, it is possible to find words and expressions with almost opposite meanings (antonyms). Complete the table below with appropriate words from the text. Follow the example. brand-new nestled shallow paradise give-away price refreshing ancient perched deep nightmare expensive bitter
A quick way of revising these antonyms is to allow students to look at the list for a minute. Then in pairs one student gives a word (e. g. Student A: "paradise") and the other student gives the antonym (Student B: "nightmare"). Once students have got the idea of this, the teacher can encourage them to use the words conversationally by
making statements and giving replies containing the antonym of the main word. Student A: The island was advertised as a kind of paradise. Student B: But it was a nightmare for the person who went there. Student A. Yes, that must have been a bitter experience. Student B. Well, it certainly wasn't the refreshing experience he was expecting, was it? Part B: Scales of meaning All the words in the box below are related to frequency (how often), degree (how much) or quantity (how many). Arrange all the words in the table in the same way as the example given above for size. Frequency ·constantly / always ·regularly / repeatedly ·often /frequently Degree Quantity
·perfectly / absolutely / ·all / every totally ·a ,vast number
·extremely / enormously / ·most / the .majority of /
· sometimes / occasion particularly/ exceedingly / generally ally ·not always · rarely / seldom exceptionally ·very · many / a lot of /
/ · slightly / a little / to some ·much / a great (teal extent ·in no way ·not in the slightest / not at all ·a couple / a few
intermittently ·once ·hardly ever ·never
This kind of scale is very important for more advanced language learning. Students should think of vocabulary not only as learning more and more new words but also as learning to relate new words to those they already know. They should also be encouraged to think of words as being related to other words, i.e. what matters here is the general group of the words and the differences in shades of meaning of words along the scale. Once students have completed the chart with the scales of meaning they should
be encouraged to use the words. One way to do this is to go back to the quotations about advertising in the Before you read section (with the additional quotations in this Teacher's Book) so that students use the frequency/degree/quantity scale in their own personal comments on the quotations. For example: "Advertising is legalized lying." I think advertisers rarely lie but the majority of them regularly exaggerate. I agree to some extent; they tell lies exceptionally but I think advertisers hardly ever tell the whole truth.
Expanding your creativity
Drawing a map of Bantu
This map shows a very positive picture of the Island of Bantu. It is much larger than the newspaper article suggests. It has forests, mountains, beaches, a large town and even a small airstrip. Lake Tali is large. The island looks the kind of place that would give a "Holiday of a Lifetime". This kind of activity is creative in that it encourages students to re-read the text looking for information about the features of the island, then to visualize how the features relate to each other and so draw the map. It is important that students should explain their maps to each other in order to verdalize what they have imagined and
drawn. If some students find this task difficult, a preliminary step is to re-read the text and actually underline (or list) all the features of the island which are mentioned in the text; students can compare what they have underlined to check that they have found the essential information before using it to draw the map. This establishes the common information that will be used to draw the map but it still leaves the creative element of putting all the relevant information in the spatial layout of the map. It is likely, of course, that some students' visual interpretations of the text will be different from those of others. Students need to understand that this is OK as long as they can justify their maps according to the information in the text. There are various ways of getting or giving further feedback on this activity. A few students could be encouraged to draw their maps on the board so that the class can discuss differences: this is useful to give the clear message that there are a range of valid representations of the island, but it might be a bit time-consuming. Alternatively the teacher might use his or her own drawing on the board or overhead transparency for further discussion. One way of doing this is for the teacher to make a few deliberate mistakes in this drawing so students have to suggest corrections with reference to their own maps. Generally, in the Expanding your creativity sections of units in this series we want students to apply the language of the unit in a different way, often to use their imagination and generate different ideas, and then to review or evaluate what they have produced. In this case, a good way of reviewing the creative activity is to ask students in pairs or groups to close their textbooks (i. e. only look at their own maps) and then to explain the features of their maps according to what they remember from the text (see the Introduction for comments on this kind). For example, a student might refer to Lake Tali by saying, "Here's Lake Tali. It is supposed to be romantic and a place where lovers sacrificed themselves, but the writer says it is a dirty pond." Students can then evaluate others' maps not so much according to how well the maps are drawn but rather in terms of whether they have included all the major features mentioned in the text and how well they can explain these when they talk about their
maps. In this way students will be strongly encouraged to link their understanding of the text with their imagined representation of the map and to try to express both of these to each other.
Advertisements as mini-lessons in language The text for further information is about advertising. It draws attention to the ambiguity of many English language adverts and to the increasingly common aspect of playing with language which can be seen in modern adverts. Students could be encouraged to collect examples of English language adverts from magazines or newspapers and make comments on anything interesting they notice about the use of language and any cultural aspects they find. This would make a good project for those who study business or tourism and English majors. As the text says, adverts can be mini language lessons. In China, as in many other countries, English words are sometimes used in adverts and for product labels, even when the product is Chinese. Again, students could bring examples to the class: instructions from medicines, the ingredients of food packets, and so on. Students could be encouraged to think of the reasons for using English in adverts. Most people would suggest that English is used in advertising and product labels so that visitors, tourists or foreign residents can read them. However, some products are made for export to many countries and perhaps advertising in English enables the company to use the same packaging everywhere. In some cases, using adverts and labels in English may be a status symbol -- a kind of signal of internationalism and the prestige that using English is thought to bring.
Understanding the text
Part A: Comprehending the text Decide whether each of the following statements is true or false according to the text. Put a tick by your choice. True False
The first paragraph suggests that the writer believes young people are themselves responsible for being educational "failures". The introductory paragraph asks a challenging question: √ "Is it possible that the children are not at .fault at all, but society itself?" Also, "failures" is in inverted commas. This suggests the word should be interpreted differently: it suggests the children are not at fault.
The speaker believes that school examinations are appropriately timed in the lives of schoolchildren. Look at speech paragraph 2: Children have to sit exams at an age when they are least receptive to formal learning. √
Usually, only children who have previously failed examinations are given the opportunity to study interesting subjects. In speech paragraph 3: "Intterestiug subjects" are available "only for those who have already been labelled as failures". (The teacher might suggest that this indicates a "topsyturvy" situation, where "failures" get a better deal while those who "succeed" are virtually "pu,tished". ) √
Parents often contribute to the pressure schoolchildren are put under. In speech paragraph 3: Many words in this paragraph indicate pressure: "push", "cajole", "threaten", "force", "search franticalIy". In speech paragraph 4: Parents are .foolish if they "despair at their children's perfectIy normal behaviour. " √
In some cases, the present educational system has the opposite effect to the one it is aiming at. You might ask whether the "educational system" has any clear idea at all about its objectives. But assuming the "educational system" aims to educate children, the text suggests very definitely that it is failing totally, e. g. √ In speech paragraph 4: The system might "wake or break" children in their early teenage. In speech paragraph 5: There are "severe penalties" in the system. In speech paragraph 6: The present system is frightening and threatening.
Childhood is the best time to study from the point of view of the development of the brain. √ In speech paragraph 7: "between the ages of five and 18 ... the brain is biologically at its most receptive ..."
There are many educational reasons for the present system of education. Speech paragraph 7 describes the organization of the school day ( "40- minute pieces of learning" ) as not √ designed to encourage "serious study". And speech paragaph 8 tells us that the system is not efficient: it "takes up to 11 years" to teach children up to a "low level o. f English ".
The speaker agrees with all the arguments of the NUS. Speech paragraph 11 tells us that the writer has "no idea" whether the NUS is correct in believing "that children would actually learn more". But, tile writer is "sure they would be happier" -- perhaps you could encourage a class √
debate, at this stage, on the subject "Happy children should be the primary objective o~ primary and secondary education systems. " Part B: Interpreting the text Answer the following as fully as possible. 1. Why, in paragraph 2 of the debate speech, does the speaker describe failing an examination as being like a "death sentence"? These exams "decide their .futures" and the penalties .for .failure are ".final". Also look at speech paragraph 6 -- the "threat of being a .failure .for life" is perhaps even worse than a death sentence. 2. Why does the speaker mention the labour market in paragraph 4 of the speech? The labour market does not urgently need "newly qualified people ". There is no "hurry"; the situation is not critical. 3. Why does the speaker introduce such exact figures in paragraph 7 of the speech? To compare the large number of lessons ("17,745") with the tiny result ("how little I knew at the end ... ")and also to say that "40-minute pieces of learning" and "little pieces of 9eography or history or biology" do not really add up to any substantial body of knowledge. Perhaps, too, the writer wants to show that mere statistics ("17,745 lessons") do not really prove that the results are good. 4. What does the word "subjected" in paragraph 7 of the speech tell us about the speaker's attitude towards his own education? The word suggests an unpleasant experience. The writer was, when a child, the subject -- and the education system was the "boss". The results o.1~ the child's subjection were not good. Also look at speech paragraph 8 again: the system "can never be called e. efficient"; it simply helps the administrators and the bureaucrats.
Developing your skills
Part A: Using reference markers
Choose the appropriate completion for each of the following from the options given below. Circle the letter of your choice. 1. c) In the text, "schooldays" is related to "remember" -- "schooldays" is the object of "remember"; "them" is also the object -- of the second verb "remember". The pronoun "them" means exactly the same, in this sentence, as the noun "schooldays" 2. b) Here, "it" is connected -- or linked -- to "this question" by the word "as". And "as it exists in Britain" specifies that the discussion is limited to present-day Britain. 3. c) This is more difficult: those refers, here, to the "school children" mentioned in the previous sentence! So the link -- or the connection -- is more distant. All the words in this phrase give clues to the link: "but", for example, is very important here because it indicates a limitation on what is being discussed. (The teacher might wish to point out that there are many small words which are very important in English --and "but" is one of these. A useful class exercise can be given in which each student-- or perhaps pair of students -- creates an original sentence in which "but" is an essential part. You can emphasise that, although the word is "simple", it is often very important indeed in communication. ) 4. a) Here we need to go back to the subject of this long sentence -- namely " parents" ! Find and circle five more examples of reference markers in the text. For each marker, draw an arrow to the part of the text it refers to. Compare your examples with those of a partner. ·"But" (speech paragraph 4, line 26) does two jobs. It refers back to the whole subject of exams and pressures; it also signals that there is going to be a change of direction in the whole discussion.
·"It" (speech paragraph 4, line 32) refers back to the "problem" if children "suddenly stop reading" -- and the paragraph goes on to say that this is not really a problem. ·"So" (speech paragraph 4, line 36) is another small but very important linking word. Often -- as here -- it is used to "wrap up", or conclude, an argument. ·"If" (speech paragraph 5, line 38) introduces a hypothetical situation. It raises the idea of imagining big changes and new conditions. Again, it's a small word 'with many uses. ·In speech paragraph 8, ".for example" is perhaps a more simple instance of linking: here the inefficiency of the "present system" is shown clearly by the example -- i. e. it "takes up to 11 years" to produce even basic results. Part B: Using discourse markers For each of the following, fill in the gaps by choosing the most suitable discourse marker from the table above. Then make a note of the function of the discourse marker in the space provided. 1. I've been really busy this week with five assignments to complete. However/Yet last week was easy as I only had one to do. Function: showing contrast 2. Although there are some minor disadvantages, on the whole / in general / generally s peaking / overall, I prefer studying at university to secondary school. Function: generalizing 3. Nobody is allowed in here except / except for / with the exception of the principal and the most senior members of staff. Function: introducing exceptions 4. Your progress seems to have been variable. Some assignments are OK, but as for / as regards your last written assignment ... it was a complete disaster! Function: focusing attention 5. I've finished all my assignments so / and so / so now I can go to the cinema this evening and relax. Function: showing logical sequence
Complete this table by writing an example of each function category in the space provided. If possible, make all your examples relevant to the theme of the passage. Compare your examples with a partner. Function Listing Points Example There are several problems in the present system. Firstly, there's the problem of exams. Secondly,
there's the pressure from parents. Thirdly, there's the issue of competition among students . Giving Additional Information Relaxation and fun should be part of education. Furthermore, bright new ideas often come to kids when, they're relaxing. Showing Contrast with I was subjected to thousands upon thousands of boring classroom hours. Yet I don't remember much of what I was taught! / I don't remember much of what I was taught though! Showing Logical Sequence So my experience suggests very strongly that something is seriously wrong with the system ... Introducing Exceptions and I think 'my experience is shared by millions of other Examples students, except perhaps those w/to don't have any opinions of' their own! Generalizing Focusing Attention on a Topic As a rule, teacher's probably have good intentions. As .far as homework is concerned, I recommend that the a mount be reduced by eighty per cent.
Extending your vocabulary
Part A: Words to note Look again at the Words to note section. Use appropriate words from the list to complete the following sentences. 1. His carefree attitude sometimes makes people think he doesn't take his studies seriously enough.
2. I really find the fact that so many students have copied this assignment totally intolerable. This is cheating! 3. He seemed very receptive to my suggestion that he should focus more on his basic language skills. 4. As this is a compulsory course, it is not possible for you to drop it. 5. The consequences of cheating in an examination are usually very severe. In any case, anyone who cheats will fail. 6. Clearly, the more motivated a student is to learn a language, the more successful he or she will be. 7. I am appalled at the very high failure rate of the course! Everyone should pass. 8. The student was frantically trying to remember where he put his textbook. He needed it immediately to complete his assignment. Part B: Expressions Column A in the table below contains expressions used in the passage. Match each expression with a word or expression from Column B that has a similar meaning. Column B 1. no matter (paragraph 1) 2. to what extent (paragraph 2) 3. without a doubt (speech paragraph 1) 4. no choice but to (speech paragraph 12) 5. make or break (speech paragraph 4) 6. all too often (speech paragraph 9) 7. end up (speech paragraph 11) Column A regardless of how much certainly must help or ruin frequently result
Expanding your creativity
Making a story chain about "education", using the Words to note of this unit This activity has two main purposes. First, the idea is for students to express themselves through a story about education. This will probably be fictional, however an alternative is for students to write an argument about education. (This could be about exams or some other educational topic.) Second, as students pass the papers
with the writing around the class students have to read what has been written previously and they need to make their contribution fit into this. This means, of course, that they have to pay close attention to discourse features of cohesion and coherence, otherwise the story (or argument) simply isn't going to make sense. Putting these purposes together, students can be creative and expressive but they must fit what they write into the developing context of a sequence of writing by others. Actually, when one thinks about it, most writing is like this on a larger scale: the writer of both fictional and, more obviously, academic expository texts has to write within an developing context of current work and contemporary trends or at least take account of whatever has been written before on the subject or theme. In this sense, only the most creative or unusual writing does not have a precedent. The teacher could at some point explain this rationale for this activity so that students understand that although the activity can be fun (and it can produce some strange or funny texts) it does represent a basic and important function of many types of real-world writing. An example is given below. Writer 1: When I was young I hated exams. Writer 2: But now I find that they are not so bad; perhaps this is because I am usually successful. Writer 3: There was a time in Senior Middle School when my parents had to make me go to school to take an exam. Writer 4: I was afraid that I would fail. Writer 5: And I was sick with worry. Writer 6: But in the exam I did quite well. Writer 7: Now my attitude is more positive because I prepare carefully. Writer 8: I think this story shows that if we prepare carefully for exams we should not fear them. In this example, Writer 2 has built on the first sentence using contrast. Writers 4 and 5 have built on Writer 3's statement with reasons but Writer 6 has given a contrasting result, which was signalled earlier by Writer 2. Writer 7 gives a reason to justify Writer 6's contrasting statement. Writer 8 has read through the story carefully
and has tried to give a concluding comment. The teacher could explain this kind of example (or take a similar example from the students in the actual class), encourage this and give the writers, for the last round, extra time to think of such a concluding comment. The teacher could also ask the writers of the final contribution to edit all the previous contributions for any language errors, inconsistencies, and for aspects of cohesion or coherence. If this is difficult, this last contribution could be written in pairs to make the editing easier through discussion. The above example does not specifically include words from the Words to note section. The following example does so. It is an argument rather than a story and most writers have written a couple of sentences. Writer 1: What is the rationale behind education? Is it to make life easy for the bureaucracy? Or is it to produce feelings of' despair in the learner? Writer 2: Those tender years at school should be enjoyed. Writer 3: And students in tertiary education should not have to study for every hour of every day. Life as a student should be carefree. Writer 4: Youngsters are, generally speaking, receptive to new ideas. Most kids are motivated to learn. Writer 5: Education is compulsory in 'most countries. But both teachers and students often. feel that the education system's demands on them are intolerable. Writer 6: They. feel appalled by the pressures they suffer. They have to work frantically just to complete tasks. Writer 7: Often they .feel severe .frustration. They frequently complain that the system isn't teaching them effectively. Writer 8: Some are tempted to try and cheat the system -- and cajole -- high grades out of their teachers even if their work doesn't deserve such grades. Although most teachers, of course, will not be cooperative with students in any such cheating or cajoling, very many do sympathise with the students' feelings. 6. Although the fire had died down, you could still see the glowing ashes. 7. When he saw her picture, he instantly remembered her name and told the
detectives. 8. The robbers stole the paintings by Picasso; luckily they were insured so the museum would at least get the insurance money. 9. Food is very expensive in England: I spent 100 pounds in one restaurant! 10. Jack is quite old now and he's been working here for many years. I think he will retire next year. 11. I didn't see the man at first in the shadows; only when he moved into the light from the street lamp did I catch sight of him. 12. Although it was midnight, it felt like midday because of the moonlight streaming in through the windows. 13. Can I tempt you with another glass of beer? I think you like this brand. 14. I was terrified when I heard a murderer had escaped from the prison nearby. 15. The smell of my mother's cooking wafted into my bedroom. 16. While I was waiting for my meeting, I wandered into town. 17. I hung up my new dress in the wardrobe. 18. Tired after her long walk, Jane wearily climbed the stairs to her apartment.
Understanding the text
Part A: Sequencing When reading a narrative, it is important to be able to accurately picture the scenes described. Each of the following pictures shows a scene from the story, however each picture has a number of errors in it. Study the text and the pictures and make notes of the errors. Notey They were sitting round a coffee table. Thomas was wearing his police uniform. There was a coal fire burning. Snow was blowing against the window.
Notey Only the man and his wife were in the kitchen. There was a garden and a garden gate outside. The man at the garden gate was wearing police uniform. The man at the garden gate was very tall. Notey The man was sitting next to the fire. Thomas had a blood stain on his chest. The grandmother was also standing behind Thomas. Part B: Comprehending the text Answer the following as fully as possible. 1. Briefly explain what "the curse" was that ruined the grandfather's life. (see paragraphs 1 and 2 of the letter) The curse was that the bag and its "evil contents" gave the grandfather power -- too much power. The power enabled him to get anything he wanted in life -- but he had to pay a high price .for this power. The price was the life of his wife. 2. Why does the grandfather say "I bought the price of this house with the life of my beloved wife"? (see paragraph 3 of the letter) He bought the house with the help of the power he had been given by the bag. But he. forgot the warning -- there was a price to pay for this power. 3. Explain how, in a sense, Arthur's first wish came true. His first wish was .for 100,000 pounds. He would have received this money because of the Life Insurance -- his son Thomas was insured. When Thomas was killed, the Insurance Company paid him this, money. 4. Explain exactly how Arthur's second wish came true. Arthur's second wish was "I waist all my family to be together again." This wish came
true -- but not in the way he had intended. Instead of Thomas having h, is life restored to him, Arthur and his wife died -- and when they died they "wet" Thomas again; they also "met" Arthur's parents. Arthur's wish had been granted "together again" but they we're now all dead. (see paragraph 17) Part C: Interpreting the text all the .family were
Each of the following sentences could have been used in the text. Indicate on the text where each sentence would have been placed if they had been included. 1. He had never really recovered from her death. After the last sentence of paragraph 1: The old man's wife had had a terrible accident and died on the day he bought the house. 2. He died before he could tell me what he meant by these words. After the last sentence of the second paragraph o.f the letter from the grandfather: He also told 'me that I must never try to destroy the bag or disasters 'would .fall on all my family. 3. Suddenly, he knew what the man had come to tell them. After the last sentence of paragraph 9: A cold .fear suddenly swept through Arthur Slade's body as his wife went to open the door. 4. I'm so sorry, Thomas. After the last sentence of the text: So, here we all are, together again.
Developing your skills
Part A: Working out the relevance Read again each of the following extracts from the narrative and explain how the reader realizes their relevance later on in the story. 1. The old man's wife ... died on the day he bought the house. (paragraph 1) Similarly on the night that Arthur asked for 100,000 pounds, his son Thomas died. 2 ....the bag would help me acquire anything I wanted in life -- but ... there would be a price for this help. (paragraph 2 of the letter) Both Arthur and his father paid the price .for the "help" they asked .for. They both knew the bag was "evil" -- but they both used it to get what they thought they wanted.
3. For some reason he always seemed to think it was his fault. (paragraph 3) Arthur has already learned why his .father thought so. But he tries to put the warning from his father out of his mind. And his son later pays the price --the first price. 4. "Maybe you're right....," said Mr Slade to no one in particular ... (paragraph 5) His wife definitely is right. Very soon the son Thomas is killed; and very shortly after his death Arthur and his wife both die -- and this time it's because Arthur's wife ignores her own warning. 5. A cold fear suddenly swept through Arthur Slade's body ... (paragraph 9) This is because he has a premonition: he knows what has happened; and he probably .feels, as his father had felt, that he is responsible. He feels guilty. He has paid too high a price. Part B: Continuing the story to a more definite conclusion Work with a partner to write another 50 words or so which bring the story to a more definite conclusion. "Hello, father, mother .... "Arthur heard himself say as a sad smile crossed his face. "So, here we all are, together again." But ... this isn't what I wished for. I wanted to bring Thomas back to life. I ignored the warning that you gave, me. I ignored your plea that I should never use the bag. I used it twice, in fact. I am doubly guilty: guilty of Thomas' death and guilty of my wife's and my own deaths. Here we are all together again -- yes ... but this is not what I really wanted. Part C: Descriptive words
Discuss with a partner how these words help the reader to feel as if she./ he was in the room with the characters in the story. The "w" sounds seem to reproduce the sounds of wind and a storm. The teacher might like to introduce the word and idea of alliteration here. If so, it should be introduced as something showing that language can be fun: students might be asked to discuss any comparable features that exist in Putonghua, where sound helps to convey (simple) meaning. Can you find another example from the story?
Arthur saw another two soft shapes si1ently slip into the room ... Here the "s" sounds suggest secrecy and whispering. This is a special variation of alliteration which applies only to the "s" sound, and is called "sibilance". Write a brief paragraph describing the scene below. Try to use words which suggest the sound of the wind, rain, waves etc., the movement of the boat, the power of the waves and so on. Try to help the reader feel part of the scene.
Description: Pulling, pushing, thrusting, threatening, the waves toss the tiny, .frail boat, and its terrified occupants, as though it was a lea f from the flimsiest flower. All the power of the universe seems concentrated in the torrential downpour and the howling tempest.
Extending your vocabulary
Part A: Different word forms The box below contains different forms of several words from the Words to note section of this unit. Complete each of the sentences that follow with the most appropriate word from the box. 1. At the sight of the ghost he was filled with terror. 2. I do not have very strong willpower, so I easily give in to temptations. 3. I plan to travel a lot more in my retirement as I will have much more free time. 4. The compensation he was offered for the accident didn't even cover his medical expenses.
5. The weary q old man plodded slowly down the street. 6. He never really settled down in one place; he was always a bit of a drifter. 7. It is always a good idea to take out insurance on anything valuable in case of accident, fire or theft. 8. The consequences of using the snakeskin bag were disastrous. Part B: Different meanings of the same word Several of the words in the Words to note section of this unit can have more than one meaning as well as more than one word form. Use the words in the box below to complete the sentences that follow (Note: each word is used with a different meaning to the ones given in the Words to note section). 1. The gentle sound of the stream as it flowed over the rocks was very relaxing. 2. The quiet young man was a very shy, retiring sort of person. 3. I had a terrific birthday party; I loved every minute of it! 4. The angry man portended on the door and shouted out to be let in. 5. The sad contents of the poor old woman's bag were spread out on the table. 6. The man dressed in black was shadowing our every move as we tried to escape from him through the crowded shopping centre. The teacher might point out the very important feature that meanings very often -- usually, in fact depend on the context. This is especially true of nouns, pronouns and verbs. To illustrate this important point most vividly, students could be asked to give the definition of "it", for example. Obviously this word means NOTHING -- out of context; and it has millions of different meanings in context. For example, "it" might refer to a computer... or even to IT (Information Technology) !
Expanding your creativity
Writing a film proposal for The Snakeskin Bag The class can be divided into small groups to discuss the kind of film which is to be made. One group, for example, could be asked to justify presenting the story as a comedy instead of a frightening, weird, horrible story. Perhaps the most valuable work (in groups) could be precisely that of planning, and justifying, ideas about the
type of film to be made – an informal discussion / argument / debate among team members would perhaps be even more valuable than trying to make a formal presentation. The teacher might like to encourage active participation by all group members regardless of each individual's strengths or weaknesses in English in
such a discussion and informal debate. Using a key visual might help the students to see the main outline of the story in order to discuss how it might best be made into a film (see the examples under Further information on the text). Aspects of film which might be discussed are: The structure or the sequence of the story events, including ·the story values (life & death; power & greed; impulsiveness & caution; good & evil; ignoring & accepting advice) ·the scenes, matched with the story events and episodes ·the pace and rhythm (slow start then fast paced; action throughout; action and reactions) · the sequence or series of scenes (chronological order; flashbacks or flashforwards; moving towards the outcome) ·the ending (open or closed; clear or ambiguous) The setting, including ·the period or time of the story ·the duration or length ·the location or place ·the characters (main characters; other subsidiary characters; any crowd scenes) ·the level of conflict (the surprise ending, but maybe also conflicts between the characters) The genre, or perhaps a combination of genres, including ·a horror or suspense story with a surprise ending ·a love story with a romance ·a story of family relationships and their changes or development
·a redemption plot or a story of the moral change from bad to good in one or more of the characters ·a punitive plot or a story of someone getting punished for wrongdoing or being bad/greedy ·a comedy in which the potential horror is not taken seriously ·a crime in which what appears to be a mystery horror story turns out to be a series of clever murders and crimes but a clever detective solves it all ·a historical drama in which the story is set within a particular historical period to give it added interest ·science fiction, the story takes place in a future place (and maybe this provides a different solution or ending) An extension of this activity is that each group can make a poster to show the kind of film they have in mind. The poster may use some keywords about structure, setting or genre, or it may depend on a pictorial representation of the ideas of the group about the film. In any case, different groups could present their posters to the rest of the class and briefly outline their main ideas about the film. Posters could also be displayed on the classroom wall or on a bulletin board. 9. Gradually add the milk to the flour until you have a smooth mixture. If you do it quickly you will get lots of lumps. 10. First impressions are very important -- make sure you smile at your interviewer. 11. This graph indicates how much rainfall there is in South America in July. 12. I was insulted when Jim called me lazy. I work really hard, you know! 13. The five children were packed into the backseat of the car. 14. You can see how the mother bird is protecting her newborn chicks by sitting over them. 15. When Joe wouldn't answer my question the third time, I had to resort to shouting at him. 16. The day after the storm, there was rubbish scattered all over the street. 17. The bodyguards were screening the singer from the fans. He needed the
protection. 18. Where did the chef learn her cooking techniques?
Understanding the text
Part A: Comprehending the text Teachers who wish to use some of the ideas suggested in the Before you read section at the beginning of this unit can obviously do so for Part A, here. But it must be stressed again that "acting out" situations is NOT essential -- see the final paragraph of the Before you read section for teachers. In fact. more demanding -- and perhaps more useful -- work can be done with no "acting out" at all. For example, the students can be encouraged -- and helped, of course, as much as necessary - to write, and then to read aloud, a description of where "the last person to enter the room (Y)" chooses to sit. For example: "He/ She doesn't sit next to ... "; "He/She sits on the opposite side of the room from ... "; "He/ She has to sit between Xl and X2 because there's no other seat. "; and so on. A great deal of "communication practice" can derive from this type of work. For example, the students, after writing a description of where person Y sits. can be asked to read that description aloud to the class; the other members of the class then have to mark the place on the diagram. If they "get it right", good! (Unless it was just a lucky guess! ) And if they "get it wrong" then they can discuss, with your guidance, why they got it wrong: was their understanding at fault (receptive skills!) or was the information not clearly/accurately given (productive skills!)? Such work can, obviously, be both very useful and, often, amusing. Most importantly, it can encourage students to use English as a means of communication. It is possible that students may give different correct answers to this question as there are different ways to interpret the "roles" of personal space. As long as the basic principles are followed, the answer is correct. Students might be asked to explain how they came to their answers. The answers given below are, perhaps, the most likely responses students might give.
X （Y） （Y） （Y） X X X （Y） O O O X X O X
For each of the following, decide which option best completes the statement according to the text. Circle your answer. 1. b) 2. d) 3. b) 4. c) 5. d) Part B: Summarizing the information in a text Quite often, the easiest way to summarize information in a text is to convert the information into a table. Complete the following table by filling in the missing information. Situation
entering with seated a crowded train/ lift etc. 1. Pretend tile other people aren't there. 2. Ignore them. 3. Avert your eyes .from them. 4. Keep your face as expressionless as possible. 5. Create physical barriers e. g. clasp hands. in conversation with somebody 1. One might move forward; tile other might back away. 2. Finally one might try to "escape" by moving a way. 1. Standing very close makes some people very uncomfortable. 2. Standing where you have enough personal space makes people a waiting room
Sit as far away from the other person as possible.
Reasons for Actions
Sitting too close causes feelings of nervousness; sitting too far away may be insulting Pretend you are concentrating on something important -- e. g. the panel indicating the floor number. Send out signals that you do not want your personal space to be invaded.
one person already
working in a shared area
1. Build " barriers" 2. Screen one's eyes from neighbours. 3. Avoid/Prevent any "contact ".
1. To help concentration. 2. To keep other people "outside" of their space. 3. To pretend they are alone.
Spread out your belongings.
Try to give the impression that the seats next to you are taken.
Interpreting the text
Discuss the following and make notes of your answers. 1. What is "personal space"? It's the area where people, feel safe, secure, comfortable, unthreatened. This area surrounds us, like a protective blanket. 2. In situations where we have no personal space, for example in a crowded lift, why do we attempt to send out as few social signals as possible? In order to "protect" ourselves and to discourage any strangers .from "invading'' our personal space by attempting to .take contact with us. 3. Why do we need personal space? Because we need to .feel that this area is our own; it belongs to us; it's part of our own self.. 4. Under what circumstances can the need for personal space cause confusion and difficulties, even though the people concerned recognize this need? When people from different cultural or geographical backgrounds are together. (Because the size of the "space" needed within different cultures differs; some cultures can easily accept closer "contact" -- and therefore less personal space-- than others.) 5. Under what circumstances might we need to use force to defend our personal space? If attempts to preserve our personal space are ignored by others, and if we therefore .feel a heightened sense of discomfort, threat or even danger, we might use force -- e. g. a loud voice, or actual physical force, to make it very clear that we are
"defending our territory".
Developing your skills
Part A: Finding the meaning of words/expressions from their context Complete this table by filling in the missing information. Follow the example.
Word/Expression from Passage Valuable (para 1) personal space (para 2) own as far away as possible from Opposite end of the room (para 2) the first person Packed (para 4) Pretend the other people don’t exist (para 4) a pile of books or their bags or Barriers (para 6) a single book stood up on end Techniques (para 6) Personal markers (para 7) territory (para 7) elbows (para 6) hands screening their eyes strategies Books, papers… the edge of the desk … on the table … with their synonym example + more information example logical deduction examples Crowded We deliberately ignore them the expression synonym synonymous expression more information relating to Help Found in Passage expensive an area they regard as their Type of Help synonym definition
Part B: Deducing meaning Without using a dictionary, try to work out the meanings of the underlined words in the following paragraph. Write the meanings of the words in the spaces provided and underline the section of the paragraph that gave you the information you needed. When the man was finally rescued, he had been on the barren island for almost 3 months. Because nothing would grow on the island, his only source of food was the ocean. He tried to catch fish, but his attempts were in vain. He never caught a single fish. Disappointed by the lack of success, he still persisted. Eventually, he did manage to catch some crustaceans living in the small rock pools. However, even these crabs,
shrimps and, on one occasion, a lobster, were very hard to come by. He almost starved. He looked like a skeleton. His bones were sticking through his skin. The rescuers were horrified by his emaciated body. When news of his rescue reached his family, the sadness and anxiety they had been feeling for the last 3 months immediately changed to elation. barren in vain empty, unproductive, sterile, nothing can grow unsuccessful, without results, wasted and producing no benefit
crustaceans crabs, shrimps and lobsters emaciated elation very, very thin, having al, most no flesh on the body extreme happiness, the opposite of "sadness and anxiety"
Extending your vocabulary
Part A: Synonyms and antonyms The middle column of the table below contains words from the Words to note section of this unit. For each word, write approximate synonyms into the first column and approximate antonyms into the last column. You may use words from the box or think of words of your own. Follow the example. Synonyms offend slowly spread guarded grip shows undemonstrative Part B: Cloze sentences Now use the most appropriate word from the table in Part A of this section to complete each of the following sentences. 1. He found it very difficult to hide what he was feeling because he had a very expressive face. Words to note insult gradually scattered protected clasp indicates expressionless Antonyms compliment suddenly clustered harmed release hides expressive
2. The survey indicates/shows that most people agree with the introduction of a longer lunch break. 3. The examination results had a very narrow range, as all the scores were clustered around the 65% mark. 4. One way to motivate young children to study is to regularly compliment them on their achievements. 5. By studying hard over a number of years his language ability gradually/slowly improved. 6. In any motor vehicle, it is necessary to release the brake before driving off.
Expanding your creativity
Writing guidelines for The Use of Personal Space The wording of the guidelines will vary from group to group considerably. It is also possible that some groups may emphasise certain aspects of personal space more than others. Several possible guidelines are given below as examples. ·Try to gauge, or assess, whether someone is comfortable in your presence. If not—if he/she seems edgy, embarrassed, ill at ease, uncomfortable, then try to figure out why. ·Try to "put yourself in the shoes" of the other person. In other words, try to feel what he/she is feeling about the situation you are both in. · Many people from the "Western World" feel the need for more "personal space" than some other people. Often people from colder climates are "colder" in their relationships with strangers than those from sunnier and warmer places. (Perhaps this is because the latter spend less time actually inside their "protective" houses or apartments and more time enjoying the company of other people in, for example, the shops or markets. ) Some people say that the English are one of the most "reserved" (i. e. private, cold, unfriendly) people in the world. Do you think this is true? ·We say that "the eyes are the mirror of the soul". So look at the eyes of the person sitting next to you -- they will indicate if he/she feels you are invading their personal space.
Understanding the text
Part A: Comprehending the text Read the four letters, and then complete the table below.
Letter 1 Background of Writer Seriously injured in traffic accident. Letter 2 Also disabled; Also Chairman "Disabled Letter 3 disabled; of Taxi Letter 4 Not specified.
but lives in a much caring environment. To encourage Mr Thomas because — times more
Overcame despair with the help of family and friends. Purpose(s) of Writing To highlight
To emphasise the range opportunities of
difficulties faced in everyday paraplegics. life by
his organization. 2. To stress record the of
and attitudes are changing.
disabled drivers in his organisation. 3. To stress that disabled people can fulfil duties. Particular Experience(s) of Writer Frustration caused by thoughtlessness. Facilities be her hometoun help Close and frequent contact with other disabled people. almost all
—even in sports.
her to live. more freely and fully.
1. Don't despair. 2. If your does
1. Regard your disability new light". 2. Try to be as independent as in "a
optimistic cheerful--but disabled need help.
disabled people to make contact.
hometown people not
its facilities and
come to live in mine!
Part B: Interpreting the text A good deal of useful discussion can be generated here. One useful approach is that just a small amount of time be devoted to individual- or pair-work, when students find examples of optimism and objectivity; discussion and argument could in fact then cover several separate sessions, with the class members returning to this subject later, perhaps as a short break in subsequent lessons. You should stress that -- as so often -there are no "100% correct answers" here. The purpose is to argue and to give reasons for the arguments presented. For example, Letter 4 seems to be very optimistic -- but it's not clear whether the writer himself/herself is disabled! And Letter 1 is very optimistic/ positive in tone (he wants to "live life to the full") but is also, clearly, frequently frustrated by the lack of provision, in his hometown, for disabled people. Similarly in the case of "objectivity", a strong case can be made for saying that all letters are very objective; e.g. Letter 3 gives a lot of facts and also cites statistics, and Letter 2 gives many details of facilities that she is able to enjoy (as well as making the undeniably "objective" observation that "Times and attitudes are changing ... "). Just a few examples are given in the tables. You should not submit to any "pressure" to "finish" this work "quickly". Exploration of different possible interpretations of the letters is the purpose of the work, so getting a range of alterative ideas is appropriate here. Examples of optimism Letter 1 Examples: ... I now look forward to ... ... wanting to live Letter 2 Examples: ... your Letter 3 Examples: own ... give hope (and a Letter 4 Examples: ... there are ever social
environment is sure possible future) ... to change soon. There are ... no
life to the .full ...
we reasons the disabled
why opportunities ... people ... he says he ,may even had an
cap, not fulfil ...
advantage ... Examples of objectivity Letter 1 Examples: ... paraplegics still have to plan each trip ... ... kerbs of at Letter 2 Examples: ... Letter 3 Examples: Letter 4 Examples: suitably ... sports .facilities designed for disabled persons. World Summer
elevators ... ... not a single step
converted vehicles. ... not one single
the in the whole centre. member the ever accident kind! had of
edges roads ...
an Olympic Games .for any disabled athletes
since 1960 ...
Developing your skills
Part A: Reading between the lines In Letter One, Brian Thomas does not talk about his own personality and attitudes towards life. However, if you carefully read between the lines, you will get useful insights into his character. Look at Part A of Understanding the text, again. Based on what you have put down in the table, discuss Brian's personality and attitudes towards life. Note down your points in the box below.
He needs help and support; this helped him overcome a sense of despair. But now he is very optimistic and cheerful. However, he is also very angry, and frustrated-because he perceives that "modern society", at least in his hometown generally, does not support or help him, and has no real awareness of the specific difficulties disabled people face ire their everyday living. Part B: Identifying main messages Read Letter Four again and then, in pairs, identify the main message(s) of the
letter. Write your answer in the box below. Main Message(s): Disabled people ha ye "thousands of fellow disabled persons" who will support and encourage you. (Note: "fellow" here indicates that specific experience is shared.) Accept this support and encouragement -- and you can accomplish whatever personal goal you may have. What other information is given by Susan Pearson, the writer of Letter Four. before she presents the main message? Complete the table below by filling in the details. Examples Found in the Letter Introducing Background Giving Examples Olympic Games for disabled people since 1960. John Dowell competes against -- and beats -- ablebodied athletes Providing Evidence in high-jumping. Many hold world records. Don't think of disability as a disadvantage; don't rely on help Refuting Counter-arguments simply because of disability; aim at as ,much independence as possible; don't allow your disability to dictate ... the Previous contributors have mentioned increasing opportunities; she gives examples in the Field of sports. Hundreds of people are winners of Olympic Gold Medals;
Extending your vocabulary
Part A: Words conveying positive or negative messages Read all the four letters again, and complete the table below by filling in other examples. according to whether they are positive or negative in the text. Positive Messages Letter One Negative Messages complicated, problem,
patience, love, challenges, difficulties, possible, comforts, full
bravery, dismay, difficulties
delighted, benefits, caring, sympathetic Letter Three interest, contribution, hope, accident support happy Letter Four delighted, increasing, active, contributors, confined, disadvantage opportuntities, winners, pride, interested,
independent, independence, light, professional, superstars, top, advantage, success, support,
encouragement, achieve Part B: Vocabulary in context Write a short letter to the editor of a newspaper to express your opinions about overcoming physical disabilities. Highlight in different colours any positive or negative words you use. Write your letter in the box below. Dear Sir/Madam Although it is sad to see people who have physical disabilities, it is also inspiring to see examples of those who have conquered -- or at least overcome, to a large extent -- their problems. There are thousands, or perhaps millions of such "success stories". One very famous example is Dr Stephen Hawkins, the Cambridge physicist and author of A Brief History of Time: for years he has had almost no control over his body, yet he is able to function with the aid of technology and his mind is absolutely not disabled -- in fact be is often compared with geniuses such as Einstein. On the sports side, Lance Armstrong fought cancer and came back to win, win, win and win again in cycling's Tour de France. There is an old saying that "While there's life
there's hope": Stephen, Hawkins and Lance Armstrong show that this is true.
Expanding your creativity
Prioritizing new facilities for the disabled The teacher can encourage students to be as imaginative as possible here. And do not limit their ideas to obvious examples (such as blindness, deafness, missing or paralysed limbs, etc.) and students can also consider those people who have, for example, breathing difficulties, the requirement for regular intake of medicines to stabilise or control their physical functions, those requiring chemotherapy or regular physiotherapy, and so on. Another good area to explore is, as mentioned in the instructions to students, publicity: students can debate the extent to which the frequent ignorance of the "general public" (as to the everyday needs of disabled people) makes life much more difficult for the disabled than perhaps it need be. After the pair and group discussions, the class as a whole might be asked to offer their suggestions and a list of all the suggestions written on the board. The class as a whole might then discuss and decide which four are the best. This prioritizing should be on the basis of which suggestions seem to be the most important. In this case, students might like to consider which would seem to be the most important from the point of view of the disabled: some students may feel they do not have a basis for judging this, in which case the teacher could ask them how they might find out (use reference books, conduct a survey of needs for the disabled, interview some disabled people, visit other countries to see facilities elsewhere, etc.).
Understanding the text
Part A: Comprehending the text Using the information from the text, complete Robert Burns's profile by filling in the missing details. ROBERT BURNS
Profile Nationality Childhood Marital Status Number of Children Famous Works Scottish one of seven children; lived and worked on farm married twelve Auld Lang Syne; Jean; My Love Is Like a Red, Red Rose; John Anderson, My Jo Interests reading, drinking, singing, telling stories women
In pairs, discuss the major theme of each of the poems introduced in this unit, and then complete the table below. Poems Auld Lang Syne Themes Pleasant memories of friendship and of times past. Teachers could introduce the term "nostalgia". Jean Love especially for "the girl I love the best", Jean. Everything beautiful reminds him of Jean. My Love Is Like Again, love, -- and the eternal and compelling and allembracing a Red, Red Rose John My Jo force of love.
Anderson, Life-long friendship and loyalty; sharing things and trusting somebody; the enduring quality of friendship the friend John is
now old and frail, but still the friendship is strong and unchanged. Part B: Interpreting the text 1. Identify the other metaphors used, and explain what they refer to in the table provided. Follow the example. Poems Auld Lang Syne Metaphors drink a cup of kindness Actual Meanings share kindness good friends Jean I see her in the motoring Everything flowers ... I hear her in the tuneful beautiful between
reminds him of Jean.
birds ... My Love Is Like a Red, And I will love you ... He means he will love Red Rose When all the seas go dry ... her .for ever (since the And I will love you ... seas will never go dry). While the sands of life still He will love her while run. time continues to pass by (i. e., again, for ever). John Anderson, My Jo ... blessings on your frosty head, .... We climbed the He wants his white-haired old friend to be always hill blessed. We have been friends for a lifetime: we have
accompanied each other on The "journey" and the "hill" of life. Note: If there is time, and if the students are interested, the teacher might like, additionally, to point out examples of similes in poetry. (Both similes and metaphors are frequently used by writers as ways to compare something in terms of another. ) This "diversion" is not essential, however, of course; and both simile and metaphor do roughly the same job -- they compare one idea/concept/ theme with something else in order to clarify the writer's meaning and to stimulate the reader's imagination. 2. What were Robert Burns's attitudes towards love and friendship? Using examples from the poems introduced in this unit, analyse his attitudes in the box below. What is love? Love is beautiful. It's "like What is friendship? the Friendship means sharing- both "lovely"
melody". "That's sweetly played in tune." and "wearing" experiences. It .means It's like beautiful flower-- "a red, red pleasant memories, and trust. ("There's rose". It's constant and eternal . my band, my trusted .friend ...") It means
constancy - wheat they can no longer climb "the hill together" they will "totter down ... hand in hand ... " It is "one of the .finest things life can bring". 3. Do you like Robert Burns's poems? Why or why not? Briefly, make notes of your feelings in the box below. Note: This is a real opportunity to reinforce the concept that in this kind of activity there are NO "right answers" -- and to encourage the students to express their own feelings. Also, they need not limit these expressions o. f feelings to the poems in this unit, and encourage them to talk about poets -- OR artists, singers, sculptors, architects, dancers, etc. -- in their own culture!
Developing your skills
Part A: Familiarizing yourself with the features of poetry In the previous section, you were asked to identify the metaphors used in the four poems and analyse Robert Burns's attitudes towards friendship and love. Study the poems in greater detail and then answer the following questions in the spaces provided. 1. What was Robert Burns's philosophy of life? Why do you think he had such a philosophy? He believed that love is a fundamental blessing in life. There are many varied aspects to love: Burns loved his country (Scotland), women, "humanity and honest, simple goodness", friendship, trust, sharing, etc. Further, lee believed in morality, and fairness -- he wrote about poverty and weakness and sadness. He had such a philosophy because his own childhood -- his family was poor and he had to work hard even as a child, but he was given love and encouragement perhaps influenced his feelings about life, and about the 'value and importance of the "common people" (i. e. ordinary people). 2. What are the adjectives used in the poems? Poems Adjectives
Auld Lang Syne Jean My Love Is Like a Red, Red Rose John Anderson, My Jo
old, lovely, weary, wide, trusted beautiful, wild, constant, sweet, fair red, lovely, dry lovely, bright, hald, frosty, happy
You'll notice that most of the adjectives you found are short words. How many are of only one syllable? How many are of two syllables? Would you say that as vocabulary items these are easy or difficult words? Do you think they would have been easy or difficult for the "common people" of Burns's time? At least eight of the adjectives are of only one syllable, and at least six are of only two syllables. These words are, probably, quite easy to understand and to translate. The teacher might like to point out that not all "short" words are “easy” nor are all "long" words necessarily "difficult". For example, "besides" has a range of rather complex uses; but "specialist" terminology is "easy" for people working in that specialised area: medical doctors, chemists, lawyers and so on regularly use long and complex terminology which is "easy" and familiar to them, although other educated native-speakers have probably never even heard those terms. 3. Are there any examples of repetition? Several: e.g. -- obviously -- the chorus in "Auld Lang Syne"; the phrase "times gone by", "I see ... "and "I hear ... "in "Jean"; the "theme line", "My love is like... ", and "I will love you ... "in "My Love Is Like a Red, Red Rose". 4. Are there any examples of contrast descriptions? Yes—especially in "John Anderson, My Jo", where the past and the present are contrasted: e.g. "Your hair was like the rain's ... ", "Your hair is like the snow ... ". The contrasts in this poem are very clearly portrayed by the tenses used (Simple Present and Simple Past). 5. Are the sentences varied in terms of length? Give examples. Yes. Some of the poems have sentences of identical length (to maintain the rhythm of the verse), .for example "Auld Lang Syne". However, the sentence lengths
in "My Love Is Like a Red, Red Rose" vary throughout the poem. Generally speaking, the shorter the sentence is, the more emphasis the writer wants to place on it. Part B: Visualizing descriptions Encourage students to let their imagination "roam free"; there is no "limit" on what they can "visualize" -- or imagine. It is likely that more than one student will have chosen the same "scene" from the poems. The teacher might ask them to describe the picture they have in their minds and compare different visualisations of the same scene.
Expanding your vocabulary
Part A: Descriptions of happiness If the same words and expressions are repeatedly used in the same text, the text may become rather dull and monotonous. Therefore, a good writer often uses different words and/or expressions to describe the same feeling. In the poems of this unit, different words and expressions are used to describe happiness, for example, in Auld Lang Syne, happiness means "running about the hillsides and pulling the lovely flowers". 1. Identify the other words and/or expressions used to describe happiness in the poems. Write your answers in the table below. The teacher can make it clear that in these four poems several expressions help to "paint a happy picture". These expressions are not, of course, synonymous for "happy'', but they suggest happiness. Perhaps the words "evoke" and "evocative" could be introduced here. Poems Auld Lang Syne Expressions · we two have paddled in the stream, from morning until dinner ·days of long ago Jean ·there's wild woods growing, and rivers flowing ·day and night my constant dream, is ever with
my Jean ·whenever I hear a bird sing sweet, it reminds me of my Jean My Love Is Like a Red, Red Rose ·a red, red rose, that's newly sprung in June ·the melody, that's sweetly played in tune John Anderson, My Jo ·many a happy day, John, we've had with one another ·hand in hand we'll go; and sleep together at the foot 2. Think of as many synonyms of the adjective "happy" as possible. Write the words in the box below. delighted pleased excited glad cheerful merry joyful sunny
The teacher might like to give a few more examples, where phrases have a similar meaning-e. g. "over the moon"; "thrilled to bits"; "happy as a sandboy" (see question 3); and then invite students to create their own expressions based on "as happy as ... ". The point can be made that language evolves -- and writers help this evolution. 3. Think of some images you could use to describe the feeling of happiness. One example is given. Write your expressions in the box below. jump for joy walking on air over tile moon Part B: Using contrast descriptions Contrast descriptions are commonly found in English poetry; such contrasts can leave a stronger impression on readers. 1. Look at the words you have just come up with to describe "happiness". Try to think of some antonyms for these words and write them in the box below. depressed sorrowful sad sorry unhappy heavily-hearted gloomy low-spirited miserable on cloud nine as happy as a ...
2. Look at the expressions you used to describe "happiness". Now try to think of images to describe the opposite feeling -- "sadness".
down in the dumps
down in the mouth
Expanding your creativity
Metaphors in a love letter Students will, no doubt, find this activity very challenging. However, it will be a worthwhile task for them to attempt. Concentrate on the imaginative aspect of the task and do not hamper the creativity too much with close attention to grammatical detail. (Poetry very frequently ignores grammatical rules!) Of course, a great deal of fun might be enjoyed by asking students to read aloud their love poems! One example of a "poem" for a Valentine card might be: You make my heart soar, pretty thing; I'm on cloud nine -- I want to sing! In seventh heaven, high as a kite. When you are close I feel I might Fly o'er the moon, shine like the sun, And walk on air till time is done. The teacher can then make two further points., firstly, it's not usual to give more than one or two expressions to express emotions. But we say that writers can use "poetic licence" --this means that they can break some of the normal conventions. Secondly, the word "o'er" in the example means "over"; the apostrophe serves two purposes: it indicates that a letter (the letter "v" in this case) is missing, and it reduces the number of syllables in this word from two to one. (Two syllables would not "fit" so "smoothly" into the line and we say that it would not then "scan" so well -- this is a rather unusual meaning of the word "scan" of course.) Students might like to count the number of syllables in each line to see the "pattern".
Understanding the text
Part A: Comprehending the text In each of the following, circle the sentence that best reflects the overall meaning of each paragraph.
paragraph 1. a) paragraph 4: b) paragraph 7: a) Part B: Interpreting the text
paragraph 2: c) paragraph 5: a) paragraph 8: b)
paragraph 3: b) paragraph 6. c) paragraph 9: a)
There is vast scope for the students working together (and, of course, also aided/inspired/ supported/guided/encouraged by the teacher), to explore this text and to learn from it. To give just a few examples, the point made in sentence 1 is further developed in the same paragraph (importance of context; words evolve and change their meaning; literal meanings can become out-dated), while the following paragraph goes beyond vocabulary (complex enough in itself!) to introduce the incredible richness, complexity (and potential for confusion!) of idioms and colloquialisms. "Languages", as a very experienced teacher observed nearly a century ago, "are not nomenclatures ..." Students can be encouraged to regard this task as having "ongoing usefulness". It isn't "just one more task" -- to be finished and then forgotten. It's not only useful, but also quite demanding: it emphasises to students that there is great opportunity for argument and discussion -- and for listening to other people's interpretations. There aren't many simple, absolute, final answers on this topic!
Developing your skills
Part A: Positive/negative connotations Look at the following pictures and the words that describe them. Some of the words describe the picture positively or without implying criticism; some describe the picture but show the writer's feeling about the subject by implying criticism. In the table below, write the words that imply criticism and those that don't. Words Implying Criticism Picture 1 Picture 2 Picture 3 Picture 4 Picture 5 noisy, aggressive tiny, cramped, microscopic cheap, untidy, scruffy violent, vicious orrogant, smug, conceited Words Not Implying Criticism lively, active, energetic small, compact simple, plain, casual courageous, brave, heroic proud, honoured, delighted
Part B: Subjective/objective writing Read the following text describing a flat and answer the questions that follow. 1. What facts do you know about the flat? Flat In effect, none. (Except, perhaps, that an apartment exists! Adjectives
such as "lovely ", "compact ", "splendid" have no .factual "meaning".) Living Room Again, none. What does "superb" actually -- and factually mean? Kitchen There is one .fact here: the kitchen is smaller (",more compact") ... But
it's not a 'very helpful .fact. We are not told how much smaller it is! It's not even 100% certain what other room it is smaller than! (The implication, of course, is that the comparison is with the living room but in Western houses the kitchen is always smaller than the living room in any case.) Bedroom I There is one .fact about the room, and two about what the room conrains (i. e. a bed and light). The .fact about the room is that it has a window. Bedroom 2 Again, no facts.
Bathroom There is no bathroom. (The lauding is not part of the .flat; the bathroom is a communal one. ) 2. What is the writer's purpose in writing this text? To "sell" the "attractiveness of the flat"-- even though the flat is not really very attractive at all! 3. What subjective words does he use to help him in his purpose? lovely; needs to be seen; perfect opportunity; splendid; great appeal; superb; of great character; convenient; easily; modern kitchen; conveniently; nicely 4. Briefly give your own opinions about the flat and explain what led you to these opinions. It's old, or in bad condition -- or per/laps both: "... effort may be required to improve ... It's small: "... cleaning won't ever be a problem" because there isn't much to clean. It's dangerous: "tile electrical wiring may need to be changed".
The bedrooms are tiny: you can "turn off the light o1' open the window" while on the bed, and there is only " one side" of "space" to look after a baby. There is no private bath room. Do we really want to "encourage friendliness" with strangers while we are in the bathroom?
Extending your vocabulary
Explaining the meanings of idioms Try to match the idioms in Column A of the table below with the explanations in Column B. Column A 1. to eat your words Column B to admit that you were wrong about something 2. to make a meal of it to take a long time to do something simple 3. to bite somebody’s head off to react angrily or rudely to somebody for no reason 4. to have your head on the block 5. to have your head in the clouds 6. to pay through the nose to risk being blamed if things go wrong to be a bit of a dreamer to pay much more than something is worth 7. to be head over heels… 8. like chalk and cheese to be very much in love to be completely different from each other 9. to be two-faced to be dishonest about one’s feelings and opinions 10. to be on cloud nine to be very happy about something
Now try to find out what each of the following idiomatic expressions means and write the explanation in the space provided.
Explanation: to waist to leave a place and start travelling
to make a (usually foolish) to become afraid to do mistake something and so change your mind about doing it
Perhaps the students could have some fun suggesting new idioms (which they create themselves). Or teachers could give extra examples, such as: · "She's got two left feet", which means she's very uncoordinated and awkward in her movements. ·"He's on his last legs", which means that he's very tired or exhausted.
Expanding your creativity
A dialogue about being in love In pairs, plan a dialogue between a young person who has fallen in love ("I'm head over heels ...") and the parents who think their son or daughter is being unrealistic ("You have your head in the clouds"). Use as many expressions from earlier sections of this unit as you can. When your dialogue is ready, read it to another pair, and listen to theirs. (YP: young person; M = Mother; F: Father) YP: I've got itchy feet. I want to take off.
M & F: What? What's up? YP: Well, don't bite my head off, but ... M: But what? It isn't because of your girlfriend Brenda, is it? F: Brenda's alright. A bit plain, but she's quite nice: her heart's in the right place.
M: I don't like her. She's two-faced. I never did understand why you were so head over heels ... YP: No. No! Don't make a meal of it. It's not Brenda. I just feel stumped. F: Well ... "itchy feet" ... To do what? To go where? M: Yes, you'd better be careful. If I were you ... YP: But you aren't me. I want a better job. I've been working for XYZ Corp. for two weeks already and I haven't got a promotion or a pay rise or, or ... I'm fed up. I'm going to quit, call it a day -- that's what I mean by "itchy feet". I want to quit right now, while I'm in the mood -- before I get cold feet. F: You were on cloud nine when you got the job. Why not give it a couple more weeks and see how it goes. And I'd advise you to keep quiet about your feelings and your dissatisfaction at least for the moment. M: Your head's in the clouds -- that's your trouble. Quit now --and you'll pay through the nose for it. Just keep quiet -- you don't want to have to eat your words. YP: Yeah, well ... I'll cool it for a day or two. But I don't like keeping quiet. I don't want to be two-faced. Even Brenda isn't two-faced! F: It could be better to be two-faced than to put your head on the block!
Understanding the text
Part A: Comprehending the text Decide whether each of the following statements is true or false according to the text. Put a "√" by your choice. Statements The American divers said that Xiong Ni was the real winner 1 because he beat Greg Lauganis at the 1988 Seoul Olympics. 2 3 visitors. 4 Newspapers or pens are considered significant things √ Carl Lewis beat Mike Powell at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. The 2000 Sydney Olympics attracted around 340,000 √ √ √ True False
because they will bring in a lot of income. Short-term jobs were provided for elite athletes after the 5 Games were over. The Marathon of the 2000 Sydney Olympics was held at the 6 Australia Stadium. Juan Antonio Samaranch was promoted to be the President 7 of the International Olympic Committee because he was well-known throughout the world. According to the published data on the costs and income 8 from the Sydney Games, there were serious problems with the financing of the Games. The 9 provincial government took over the direct √ √ √ √ √
responsibility for running the Games because SOCOG was US $ 75 million in debt. Holding the Games is more likely to be profitable if the
10 economy of the nation that hosts the Games is good. Part B: Interpreting the text Answer the following as fully as possible.
1. Why, in paragraph 1, does the writer say that many Chinese people will think of the dignified performance of Xiong Ni at the 1988 Seoul Olympics when they hear the phrase, "The Olympic Games"? Firstly, of course, because he was a very good (and well-known, Chinese) competitor. Secondly, because he very nearly beat Greg Lauganis. Thirdly, because many people believed lie had, really, won. Fourthly, because of his sportsmanship: he didn't complain -- bi, stead, he praised his rival. 2. Is the question, "Was that really for sporting reasons?", in paragraph 2, a genuine question? Why or why not? The word "really" indicates that there is some doubt as to whether it is a "genuine" question. In fact the question is "rhetorical" -- i. e. the writer isn't really
asking a ruestion for information but is using a question form in order to give his own opinion. (This opinion is that many Chinese people were more happy about the prestige than interested in the sports. ) 3. What does the sentence, "Even the incidental purchases of apparently not very significant things such as newspapers or pens will add a great deal to the overall income of the shops that sell them." (paragraph 2) imply? It implies that, although pens and newspapers are small items it is likely that many extra millions will be sold during the Games because of the huge number of visitors. 4. Why docs the writer consider Juan Antonio Samaranch being the President of the International Olympic Committee to be an outstanding example of the fact that careers can be made of the Olympics? Because of the length of time he has been in the organization, he "made a career" of the Olympics, and he "rose through the ranks" to become President. 5. According to the writer, are the Olympic Games just a sporting event? Why or why not? No. They are .far .more. They bring prestige to the city hosting them. They probably produce profit. They certainly create lots of jobs, new buildings get built, and the host city is proud to be able to "bask in its .fame".
Developing your skills
Part A: Skimming The words given below are chosen from paragraph 3 of the text. Just look at these key words and answer the questions. Write your answers in the spaces provided. 1. Give three examples of the short-term jobs provided. Ground management; event management; administration; engineering; tourism; sales and marketing; selling food and drinks; customer service. 2. Give three examples of the specialized jobs provided. Systems programmers; business analysts; architects; engineers; finance experts. 3. Who were helped to find jobs when the Games were over?
Athletes who had competed in the Games. Look at the words you underlined and answer the questions below. 1. Give three examples of physical diseases caused by obesity. Diabetes; cancer; heart disease; lung disease; psychological ailments such as depression, and low self-esteem. 2. What is the warning given by doctors? Obesity is "one of the greatest health risks". All the body can suffer as a result. 3. Is the common saying, "Fat people are happier", correct? Why or why not? An entire class session, could be spent debating this subject! For example, how can we decide if fat people are "happier"? Do we have to count all .fat people? Then, too, how do we define "fat"? More difficult yet: how do we define "happy"? It might be suggested that if fat people are happier, "they shouldn't be", or "they don't realise they have a problem". But perhaps such discussion and debate can never be satisfactorily concluded; perhaps it's simpler to quote another old adage: "Laugh and grow fat; grow fat and be laughed at."! Part B: Scanning Scan the text about obesity again and answer the following questions. 1. How many words begin with "c"? 10
2. How many times can you find the following words? obese obesity people health physical 3 2 4 2 2 time(s) time(s) time(s) time(s) time(s)
Suppose you are asked to answer the following questions. Discuss in pairs what word(s) you would need to look for. Underline them if the word(s) are available in the questions; or write them down if they are not. 1. What are the names of the celebrities mentioned in the text? Xiong Ni, Greg Lauganis, Carl Lewis, Mike Powell, Juan Antonio Samaranch. 2. Which Olympic Games are mentioned in the text?
1976 Montreal Olympics, 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, 1988 Seoul Olympics, 1992 Barcelona Olympics, 1996 Atlanta Olympics, 2000 Sydney Olympics, 2008 Beijing Olympics. 3. How much money is needed to host the Olympic Games? The costs are huge. Merely the conversion of one building, for the Sydney Games, cost US $ 240 'million. The total cost of these Games was probably approximately US $ 2.5 billion! 4. What are the jobs mentioned in the text? Both short-term and more "specialized" jobs are mentioned. Short-term examples include jobs in selling and marketing, administration, tourism, customer service and ground management. More specialized examples include jobs in systems programming, business and finance analysis, arch architecture and engineering. 5. What are the economic benefits of hosting the Olympic Games? Basically, profit and development. If tire Games are well organised, rite host city/ country will make a lot of money from the influx of thousands upon thousands of visitors -- and their spending; in the longer term, the new, facilities (which have to be built for the Games), such as new buildings and infrastructure, mean that the city is better equipped to bid for large international eyelets in the future. Scan the text about the Olympic Games again to find out the information required. Time how long it took you to find out the information. As well as underlining and circling, students might like to use other, and varied, methods of highlighting different categories of information. Whatever methods are used, you should stress that these "tasks" do not constitute a test, or a competition: while the objective is to develop skimming and scanning skills, accuracy is a more important factor than speed.
Extending your vocabulary
Part A: Words to note Look again at the Words to note section. Use appropriate words from the list to complete the following sentences. Change the form of the words whenever necessary.
1. The new president of the company suffered a loss of prestige because of the rumours about his private life. 2. The government has budgeted for increased spending on housing, but it is not certain whether the money will actually be available. 3. If you eat too much fatty food, almost inevitably you will have the problem of obesity. 4. It is important to check if your arguments are biased or not if you want to make your proposal persuasive. 5. The graduation ceremony was dignified by the presence of the former president of the university. 6. Mr Morris has just bought a watch that comes with a three-year guarantee, so he is not worried if there is a problem with it. 7. Carl Lewis beat the other runners at the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games by a wide margin. 8. Apparently obesity is a major cause of heart disease, although few people have read the original research on this. 9. According to finance analysts, the economic climate will be better in two years' time. 10. The members of the International Olympic Committee meet every four years to discuss which country will host the next Olympic Games. Part B: Suffixes Look at the other nouns and underline the suffix of each of the nouns. diver long-jumper visitor analyst engineer banker politician professor
Can you think of some other suffixes that are found at the end of nouns relating to people but not included in the list? Put down your answers in the box below. -ess - is t -ant -man -ee
Complete the table below by writing three nouns ending in the specified suffix in each of the corresponding boxes. Suffixes Nouns
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
-er -or -ist -ess -ee -ant -man -ian
teacher, reporter, engineer surveyor, director, inspector scientist, artist, typist hostess, waitress, actress interviewee, employee, payee attendant, dependant, applicant policeman, fireman, salesman mathematician, physician, technician
Expanding your creativity
Designing a poster for the Beijing Olympics Examples of possible phrases/expressions to represent the Olympic Spirit might include: ·May the best team win! (This is a common expression, meaning that the best team deserves to win. It's also often expressed as "May the best man/woman win!") ·May sportsmanship win! (This is an "invented" expression; it suggests that a good, fair, "sportsmanlike" attitude is the aim.) ·The best losers are good winners！(This is also "invented"; it suggests very strongly that there's nothing "wrong" with not coming first: if you have a good attitude when you "lose", and if you genuinely feel happy for the winner(s), then you are a winner -- in the game of life. ) ·Win with honour; lose with dignity. ·Gold is for joy, Silver .for grace, Bronze .for the one Who still has a place, All who take part And strive in the race, They try from the start And have a brave .face,
They finish with heart The Olympic race. As well as designing the poster, it is important the students justify their choices in the design and the language they have used. It may take the form of a semi-formal presentation in which they introduce their posters.
Unit 9 Understanding the text
Part A: Making notes Make notes in the table below of the qualities that Ron and Laura believe are necessary of a good teacher and a good student. When you have finished, compare the table with the one you completed in the Before you read section of this unit. Try to account for any differences that exist between the two tables. A Good Teacher enthusiasm; interest in A Good Student students; keen to learn; having good study skills; not too serious
knowledgeable in subjects being taught; not necessarily clever; wellorganised; confident; strict
but about their studies -- outside interests are
humorous; being well "balanced" in many also very important; keen to ask questions ways, including giving especial effort and if something is not clear; being well attention to the least clever as well as the "balanced" between serious study and fun cleverest Part B: Comprehending the text For each of the following, decide which option best completes the statement according to the information given in the text. Circle your answer. 1. Part C: c) 2. d) 3. a) 4. b) 5. d) 6. d) 7. a) 8. d) 9. d) 10. c)
Interpreting the text
Answer the following as fully as possible. 1. Why are Laura and her classmates unhappy with the class conducted by the "funny guy" although they all enjoy being there? Because they never get down to studying properly.
2. Why did Laura ask Ron what he thought after saying that students didn't mind accepting very strict rules and no laughing and joking? Perhaps she thought he -- as a teacher -- might be surprised that a student actually appreciated strictness (because that teacher helped the students to, make real progress) ; so site then wanted to know his thoughts. 3. Why does Laura emphasize that a good student should have some other interests? Because without other interests a student would never do anything else, and this is clearly not healthy: mixing with others is very important too. 4. How are the "know-ails" different from the students who ask questions because they don't understand something? Because "know-alls" might be used by the teacher to hide -- or disguise -- the fact that some members of the class are falling behind and not learning well. 5. Do you think that what Laura says is objective? Why or why not? Not really. Her comments are based largely on her perceptions -- and perceptions may be more subjective than objective. However, she clearly is intelligent -- she recognises herself that, since she is referring to people she knows personally, "perhaps I can't see them (as) clearly".
Developing your skills
Part A: Using personal knowledge to make sense of a text When reading a text, you come across a lot of information. Some of the information may be less familiar or even new to you. If you want to understand the information that is less familiar or new to you, you need to activate what you know about the topic and then use this personal knowledge to make sense of the text. 1. In pairs, discuss why maintaining a balance is important if someone wants to be a good teacher or a good student. Make notes in the box below. While the passage gives a lot of ideas (and is, indeed, titled "A Question of Balance''), students should be encouraged also to produce (and justify) their own ideas. 2. Write a short paragraph to suggest what a teacher or a student should do if
they want to improve their teaching or learning. Refer to your personal knowledge about the importance of maintaining a balance and what Laura said in the conversation. Students'responses will, of course, vary. However, some consideration of the following is likely: Both the teachers and the students need to develop and maintain a balance between work and play, effort and relaxation, being well organized and taking it easy, seriousness and fun. Part B: Distinguishing facts from opinions This exercise is quite demanding -- and very useful. Very careful reading is required – the very opposite of skimming or scanning; this requirement applies also to the very precise instructions, the focus is only on Laura's points -- and only on her points regarding teachers. The objective is to encourage careful analysis of the text. Laura’s Opinions ·enthusiasm Reasons ·"I think that ..." Established Facts · cannot Reasons
describe · " ... they're all ... different ..."
· well organized ·"Actually* and confident ·"actor" skills
most kids "teachers in general"
don't like undisciplined classes." ·"I think you have to be a bit of an actor."
"Actually" is a misleading word here. It is often used inappropriately even by native speakers. The word -- and also the phrase "in actual fact" -- is commonly used to introduce something as if it were a fact when it is no more than a personal viewpoint. This is -- in fact, actually! -- the case here: Laura clearly cannot claim anything, as a fact, about "most kids".
Extending your vocabulary
Part A: Adjectives The adjectives in the table below are used to describe qualities of teachers and students during the conversation between Laura and Ron. Look at the adjectives and
complete the table by filling in the corresponding nouns and/or verbs. Leave the box blank if there is not such a noun or verb. Follow the example. Noun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 enthusiasm humour organisation qualification boredom sense crash firm balance interest difference clearance misery eagerness Adjective enthusiastic humourous organized qualified bored sensible crash firm balancing interested different clear miserable eager organize qualify bore sense crash firm balance interest differ clear Verb enthuse
Part B: Cloze sentences Look again at the Words to note section and the adjectives in the table above. Use appropriate words from the list and table to complete the following sentences. Change the form of the words whenever necessary. 1. Because of her miserable childhood, she has a very strong personality. She developed her strength in adversity. 2. Since Arnold is always happy, he has the nickname "Smiler". 3. Mr Williams is highly respected by his students because of his good knowledge of his subject. 4. Mrs Robinson's resume states that she is interested in a wide range of extra-curricular activities. 5. Being humourous is obviously one of the reasons for his popularity.
Everybody likes to have a good laugh. 6. Jennifer's new classmates are not interesting at all. Actually, they are just puddings! 7. The kids do not know much about travelling in space, but they are enthusiastic about the topic. 8. Parents should be firm with their children or they will grow up to be indisciplined. 9. Because of the weak economic climate, a lot of qualified lawyers are unemployed. 10. Susanna's cousin is a handsome man with a strong, square jaw.
Expanding your creativity
Interpreting data described in the Intercultural notes about good teachers and students Metaphors Asking students to give their own metaphors for "good teachers" can be a very creative activity if students think of their ideas and then put them into the form of a metaphor. Some students may think of well-known metaphors which are common in society and they may write these down; this can also be creative, if the teacher asks them to interpret the metaphor. For example, a well-known metaphor which has often appeared in Chinese contexts over several decades is "A teacher is an engineer of the soul." Students may have creative interpretations about what this means in the modern world and how teachers help the design and development of the society of the future. The teacher could start the metaphor activity by giving an example from a different culture and asking the class how they would understand it before they attempt to write their own metaphors. Here are two examples which may help to give students the idea. "A good teacher is a sunny day." This example from Turkey might be explained along the following lines: a teacher can bring heat and light to students to illuminate their minds and ignite the fire of their learning; a teacher can also bring brightness and
happiness, like a sunny day. Plants need the sunlight to grow -- they also need good soil and water, i.e. a good learning environment -- but growth comes from within the plant. The sunshine of a good teacher can be necessary or vital but it is not the only condition; sunlight alone cannot make plants grow. "A good teacher is like a candle." This example from Lebanon might be expanded as follows: teachers bring light to the darkness so that students can find their way in their learning and know the world better. However, the candle burns itself away (the wax melts) so that it can give light; in the same way, teachers sacrifice themselves with their effort and hard work so that students can have the light of learning. In many East Asian and Middle Eastern contexts, students commonly give the metaphor that a good teacher is a "friend" (a good friend to share ideas with, a caring friend who helps when help is needed) or a "parent" (a kind mother, a strict father, showing care and concern). These are, of course, metaphors, so they do not necessarily mean that the teacher is literally a friend or parent; the metaphor does, however, give a strong emphasis, we think, on care and concern from the teacher, in a social relationship like that of a friend or parent. However, there is noticeably a relative lack of "friend" or "parent" metaphors among British students. The British students seem to emphasize that the teacher is a "leader", a "guide", a "manager", a "facitator". There are of course other British metaphors (A good teacher is a "gardener", a "juggler", a "circus performer" and others) but rarely "friend" or "parent". Students could speculate whether this means that East Asian and Middle Eastern students generally see the teacher more in terms of social relationships, whereas British students see the teacher in more instrumental terms. If students have access to international students or to teachers from other countries, it would be useful to talk to them and check out these metaphors. The students can ask the international students or teachers for their metaphors, and then check the meanings of "teacher as a friend" or "teacher as a parent". "Good" teachers and "good" students in China and Britain When students interpret the research information, it is important to remind them
of two points. First, these results are in rank order, so we can expect that when the aspects of "good teachers" or "good students" are placed in this order (according to the statistics used in the original research), it reflects some idea of their importance or the emphasis given according to the British or Chinese students; this doesn't mean that this is a complete list (it isn't) so other items might have been mentioned but they would be lower down on the list. Second, the meanings given by students to particular phrases may not be identical, for example, "critical thinking" or "independent thinking" may not mean exactly the same in China and Britain; however, the comparison is interesting, even if it is not precise. Looking at the order for "good teachers", it is clear that among these most frequently mentioned items in the Chinese list, the teacher being "warmhearted and understanding" is important and so is being "a good moral example", but these do not appear on the British list. Students might speculate whether these are particularly important characteristics -- some writers have argued that these characteristics have been important in Chinese education for many centuries. Is this just a matter of emphasis: these characteristics would appear on a British list but maybe much lower down? Certainly, it is not the case that British students think that teachers shouldn't be good moral examples! Students could consider whether recent changes in the rapid developments in China have also changed these characteristics of how teachers are seen, or not. Similarly, on the British side, a good teacher "uses a variety of student activities" and "is lively", but these do not appear on the Chinese list. Is this simply a matter of emphasis (they would appear on a Chinese list, but much lower down)? Perhaps teachers in China are developing lots of ideas about students' activities nowadays? Looking at the order for "good students", it is apparent that students developing "good character" and "preparing for the class in advance" are important in the Chinese list but are not mentioned in the British one. On the other hand, in the British list there is emphasis given to "paying attention to the teacher" and "cooperating with the teacher". These are not stressed on the Chinese list but this may be because they are understood as part of "respect" for the teacher in China (but not in Britain?).
Obviously, British students do not try to develop "bad" characters, but maybe developing a "good" character is not so high on their list of the characteristics of good students because perhaps they think of being a student in more academic, rather than moral, terms. In discussing these research results, two further points should be emphasized. First, both China and Britain are large countries, so we would not expect such research to reflect everybody's opinion in these countries. In both contexts, many individuals will, naturally enough, have their own experiences and personal opinions. Second, the point of the activity here is that students should creatively interpret the results, using their own experience and ideas, so that they have practice in handling ideas in creative discussion. The purpose of the activity is not to discuss particular teachers or students but rather to think more generally about good teachers and students, perhaps with a view to future development and improvement. A final question, therefore, might be for the students to look at the lists from the research and then to ask themselves, "How can I be a better students?"
Unit 10 Understanding the text
Part A: Comprehending the text Choose the most suitable completion for each of the following sentences. Circle your choice. 1. d) 2. c) 3. b) 4. c) 5. d)
Part B: Finding specific information in the text Complete the following chart by filling in the missing information from the text. SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT A SIXTH SENSE Description of Subjects Samoan men Blind France people Country of Origin (if known) Samoa in (cannot Parts of Body Which “See” hands assume nose or fingertips countless tests Scientific Tests Carried Out
they are French)
blind girl in Italy
(cannot assume she Ear is Italian)
bright light shone on
tip of nose and ear—backed away as lower part of left if in pain ear
girl in Virginia
Virginia(cannot assume country of origin)
colours and read large print Russian woman(Rosa Kuleshova) Russia tips of fingers blindfolded/arms through a screen—tell difference between 3 colours elbow blindfolded/ screened/ all vision obstructed — read with elbow general public students Russia Russia newspaper
blind people in an Russia institute Part C: Interpreting the text
Answer the following as fully as possible. 1. "Rosa really started something in Russia." (paragraph 3) What did she start? An intense interest in the possible reality of “eyeless sight”. 2. Explain how "reason" could affect a possible sixth sense. A "sixth sense" doesn't seem to "make sense". Our reason tells us, .for example, that
we only see with our eyes -- and certainly not with our elbows! But, putting reason to one side, people have long spoken of a sixth sense; people believe it exists, though it is not. fully developed. As the mind, and the ability to reason, develop in a child, the "normal" senses are more fully controlled by the mind. And the mind tends to reject what it cannot explain. 3. How does the answer to question 2 above explain why a sixth sense seems to be stronger in children than in adults? Because the whole personality of children is more open and growing. The mind has not, yet, "gained control". Children in Western countries "believe in" Santa, Claus; as they grow older they discard this belief -- and of course it is reasonable to do so. But does this, mean that the concept of Santa Claus is totally false? 4. In what way is a sixth sense like the whiskers of a cat? A cat's whiskers help it to detect danger, and hence to survive. Its whiskers are extremely sensitive to its surroundings—just like an extra, or a "sixth" sense.
Developing your skills
Persuasive element in writing Try to find other examples of each of the above techniques in the text. Make notes of the techniques in the table below. Technique presenting evidence and numerous examples presenting Examples ·In Italy, t/he scientist Cesare Lombroso discovered a blind girl who could "see" with the tip of her nose ... ·In 1956, a blind schoolboy in Scotland was taught to tell the difference between different coloured lights ... ·In Italy, the scientist Cesare Lombroso discovered ...
“scientifically” ·In 1960, a medical board examined a girl in Virginia ... based research · In 1962, her physician took her to Moscow, where she was examined by the Soviet Academy of Science ... ·When she was tested by a psychologist ... ·In carefully controlled tests ...
·However, if the idea is approached from a scientific angle, then the possibilities are both real and immensely exciting. using (large) numbers ·He discovered through countless tests that ... · These few examples, taken from the thousands of possible exampies ... ·... about one in every six people could learn to tell the difference between two colours after only an hour's training. ·Thence was soon a class of about 80 students training in what was being called eyeless sight. using emotive ·…the phenomenon of “eyeless sight” is obviously not new. vocabulary ·…an amazing young woman… ·…she learned to do other unbelievable things with her hands. ·And, in the most convincing test of all… ·This fact that blind children are “seeing” with their ears and tongues and tips of their toes… · is clear that different types and strengths of light affect the cells in It different ways… ·It is clear that we do, in fact, all have an additional sense… appealing to ·…our “reason” or “intelligence” rejects what could be a wonderful
common sense ability simply because it doesn’t understand it… and reason · Hopefully, on day, … our “reason” will be able to accept this ability as normal, even if it cannot explain or understand it. ·All we need is a greater faith in our own abilities… extending easily acceptable phenomena ·We often read of cases where a disability in one sense can lead to another of the senses becoming extremely well-developed to compensate. ·It seems that the human body has a similar system to that of the bat or the whale… ·It is “feeling” the area around us like the whiskers of a cat…
Extending your vocabulary
Part A: Word forms: verbs and nouns Look at the table below. The words shown can all be found in the text. Write the missing form of each word in the appropriate space. Follow the example. Verb Form of the Word compensate discover describe accuse differentiate reflect respond identify repeat appreciate receive reject explain Noun Form of the Word compensation discovery description accusations difference reflection response identification repetition appreciation reception rejection explanation
Use any of the words from the table above to complete the following sentences. 1. A good student must be able to differentiate between facts and opinions. 2. An appreciation of the difference between facts and opinions is essential in a good student. 3. A blind person can often compensate for this weakness by having a very strong sense of hearing. 4. Any description of an incident which demonstrates the existence of a sixth sense usually attracts accusations of lying or cheating. 5. The repetition, of the test under slightly different conditions gave the same results. Part B: Word forms: adjectives
Now use the adjective form of some of the words in the table above to complete the word puzzle below. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Clues: 1. The brochure included a very descriptive text about one of the local beauty spots. 2. It was a very boring and repetitive process which took many days to complete. 3. All official vehicles must carry an identifying symbol on the door. 4. The image could clearly be seen on the reflective surface of the glass. 5. Many disabled people have at least one compensatory ability. 6. The class representatives were a group of very responsible and mature students. 7. The students were very appreciative of the work the presenter had obviously put into preparing for the class. 8. Explanatory notes can be found at the bottom of every page. 9. The lecturer was very popular because he was so receptive to suggestions and ideas from his students. Write a sentence using the "hidden word" you have discovered if your answers are correct. Although they live in the same building, Sue and Jim go to different schools. E R A X E P P C P L E R A P C O R E I P D E E T N I T R M T I E P D I F F E R E N T E V Y L N E C A I S E I E S S I T V N C A P A O E G T T O T R I O N I Y V R S V E Y I E B L E C R I P T I V E
Expanding your creativity
Descriptions without sight This exercise rounds off the unit most effectively. It should become very clear to students just how much of description depends, normally, on just sight. How would we describe the keys of a piano, for example? Or the difference between a red rose and a pink one? After practising in pairs, the activity could become a class-based competition. Students might be asked to read aloud their written descriptions and the rest of the students need to guess what they are. They might also suggest ways in which the description might be improved. Some possible examples might include: These feel hard when you touch them. They are light in weight -- you can easily carry five hundred of them. They are about 15 centimetres long, and have about the same size circumference as a pencil. You would certainly need to use your eyes to use them, although you could hold them correctly without seeing them. They are used as eating utensils -- but only in pairs! (chopsticks) This object is smooth and almost round. It feels quite hard to the touch, but is very easily broken. When it is broken it can, in some circumstances, give off an extremely bad smell. However, in other circumstances, it can be very pleasant to eat when it has been cooked. (an egg)