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History and Anthology of English Literature(1)

History and Anthology of English Literature(1)


Schedule for H&A of English Literature
Chapter
Introductory Remarks English Literature before Shakespeare

Content
What is Literature? Approaches to Literature? epic/Beowulf /Romance/Chaucer/ballads

Hour
0.5 1.5

The Renaissance 17th century

William Shakespeare(drama/sonnet) John Milton

3 2

18th

century: Classicism

Pope/Steele&Addison/Johnson/Gibbon

2

18th: Rise of Novel 18th: Pre-Romanticism 19th: (h1) Romanticism

Defoe/Swift/Fielding Blake/Burns Wordsworth Coleridge/Byron/Shelly/Keats

4 1 2 4

19th: (h1) Romanticism

19th: Victorian Age 19th: Victorian Age

Dickens Thackeray Austen/Bronte sisters

2 1 3

19th: Women novelists

19th: Poetry 20th : Age of Fiction 20th : Age of Fiction Exam

The Brownings Thomas Hardy James Joyce/Virginia Wolf

1 2 3 4

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Pre-test
? ? ? ? ? ? Can you name some of the most prominent Romantic Poets? Just tell us whatever you know about William Shakespeare. What do you know about Jane Austen? What literary movement did Charles Dickens represent? How much do you know about Virginia Woolf and James Joyce? Are you interested in literature? Why or why not? Do you care to know something about English literature?

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Introduction
? ? ? ? What is literature? Levels of literary reading Approaches to literature Course objectives&requirements

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Part I The Anglo-Saxon Period
? Historical line
Celts (Native, Briton) Roman Empire (55B.C.-410A.D.) Anglo-Saxon(449-1066, England)

? Literature
Pagan: brought with Anglo-Saxons ( in form of oral sagas) Christian: teaching of monks, hued with religious intents

Related terms Saga: a story of heroic deeds usually carried out by some widely recognized national hero 传奇故事

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Facts
Anglo-Saxons were made up of Angles, Saxons and Jutes, who were the first Englishmen. The first known religious poet of England is Caedmon, who wrote a poetic “Paraphrase” of the Bible. Among the oldest Anglo-Saxon prose writers were Venerable Bede and Alfred the Great. The oldest surviving epic in the English language is The Song of Beowulf.

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The Song of Beowulf
? Synopsis ( P.4-7) ? Reading (From P.7)
Related terms Epic: a long narrative poem with a vivid portrayal of a great national hero, (who is) strong and courageous and selfless and ever helpful to his people and his kinsfolk 史诗 Discussion Is there any epic in Chinese literature, as far as you know?

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Elements of Beowulf
? Time of composition: 10th century by some unknown scribe; discovered in 18th century ? Place: Heorot (in Denmark) ? Characters: Hrothgart:the king of Danes Grendel: a monster half-human Beowulf: the hero ? Events: Beowulf fighting Grendel to protect the king of Danes; Beowulf fighting the firedrake to win treasure for his people.

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Literary Techniques

---Alliteration(头韵)
? If certain words in a line begin with the same consonant sound, we may say “Alliteration” is used there. Or simply, repetition of the consonant sound in a line is called alliteration.

?
1) 2) 3)

Examples:
He described the claim in alliteration fashion as a composite of fantasy, fallacy and fiction. Conscience! Conscience! Man’s most faithful friend! The moan of doves in immemorial elms And murmuring of innumerable bees (Alfred Tennyson, “Come Down, O Maid”) The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew, The furrow followed free; We were the first that ever burst Into that silent sea. (Coleridge: The Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner )
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4)

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Questions
? Who is known as the father of English song? What division of literature does he belong to, the Pagan or Christian? Cite one of his works. ? Tell me something about Alfred the Great. Match-making
A 1.Alfred the Great 2.Venerable Bede 3. Cynewulf 4. An unknown scribe 5. Caedmon B a. The Christ b. Paraphrase c. The Anglo-Saon Chronicles d. the Ecclesiastical History of the English People e. The Song of Beowulf

please sum up the main features of Anglo-Saxon literature.
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PART II The Anglo-Norman Period (1066-1350)
Historical Sketch
Norman Conquest: Normans, headed by William, defeated the Anglo-Saxons (1066). With this conquest came the enrichment of English language: words from French and Latin entered English. French words were mostly used by the noble, while Latin by scholars. calf-veal; swine-pork; sheep-mutton build-construct; ask-inquire; begin-commence; wet-humid

Literature
1066-1500: Witnessed the start of “Feudal England”; Dark Ages (Middle Ages)

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The Romance
---Most popular form of literature in Middle Ages England
---subject matter: life and adventure of a noble hero ---protagonist: a knight of noble birth and versed in use of weapons ---rules of action: chivalry (devotion to church and the king) cycles (groups) of romances: ---matters of France: Emperor Charlemagne and his peers ---matters of Rome: Alexander the Great ---matters of Britain: King of Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table Romances were intended mostly for the audience of the Court or of the castle. They were composed for the nobles, of the nobles, and by the poets patronized by the nobles.

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Notes & Discussion
Charlemagne King of the Franks (768-814) and founder of the first empire in western Europe after the fall of Rome. His court at Aix-la-Chapelle became the center of a cultural rebirth in Europe, known as the Carolingian Renaissance.

Discussion: What are the differences between Epic and Romance?

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Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
? Synopsis (p.p.20-23) ? Reading ((p.p.35-42)

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Part III Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400)
---Father of English Poetry About Chaucer ---said to have studied at Oxford and Cambridge ---“government officials”: ambassador to France and Italy; member
of Parliament ---buried in Westminster Abbey

---a reflection of the social changes towards
the abolition of feudalism ---prelude to Renaissance ---dawns on realism Chaucer’s Contributions ---wonderful delineation of character and truthful description of human relations ---development of metrical form
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Elements of the Canterbury Tales
Events: a motley of pilgrims gather at Tabard Inn in Southwark. They are on their way to the shrine at Canterbury. In response to the innkeeper’s proposal that each pilgrim should tell two tales on the way to Canterbury and two more on the way back. Characters: 32 altogether (representative of all walks of life), among which the knight, the prioress, the wife of Bath are more vividly depicted.
Synopsis (pp.47-48) Reading (pp.50-56)
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More about The Canterbury Tales
One of the most famous works in all literature. The first realistic portrayal of life in English literature Forerunner of Renaissance Heroic Couplet (Rhymed couplet of iambic pentametre)
Her ' nose well ' formed, her ' eyes as ' gray as ' slate. Her 'mouth was ' very ' small and ' soft and ' red. She ' had so ' wide a ' brow I ' think her ' head Was ' nearly a ' span ' broad, for ' certain ' ly She ' was not 'under'grown, as ' all could ' see. ( p.55)
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Popular Ballads
What is “popular ballad”? As a literary genre, popular ballad is generally a narrative poem of no great length, without any known author or any marks of individual authorship. It was originally meant for singing and dancing and was finally written down after having existed in an oral tradition and undergone many modifications. A ballad preserved today employs much dialogue and is often written in ballad meter. Varieties of ballad? Historical, legendary, fantastical, lyrical and humorous, etc.
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Ballad Meter
? Quatrain ( four-line stanza) ? The first and third lines contain four stresses and the second and fourth lines three stresses ? Rimes occur in the even-numbered lines ? Usually iambic, though there might be exceptions

The ' youngster was ' clothed in ' scarlet ' red, In ' scarlet ' fine and ' gay; And he ' did ' frisk it ' over the ' plain, And ' chanted a ' rounde ' lay. (p.59)

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Readings
? Robin Hood and Allin-a-Dale ? Get up and Bar the Door

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Questions
What are the essential features of romance in the Medieval English literature? Make comments on the romance “ Sir Gawain and the Green Knight”. What is the social significance of “The Canterbury Tales”? Is there any structural frame for “The Canterbury Tales”? Have you ever come across this type of frame in your reading experience?
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Part IV The Renaissance
Historical Sketch
The Hundred Years’ War with France (1336-1453) The War of the Roses between the House of Lancaster and the House of York (1455-83) Tudor Dynasty: founded by Henry VII (1485-1509), an absolute monarchy which reached its summit during the reign of Elizabeth (1558-1603) The Reformation and Counter-reformation: power struggle between Catholicism and Protestantism Sheep Devoured Men The Rising of Bourgeoisie: Enclosure Movement ---Thomas More Commercial Expansion: Colonies/war with Spain (1587)

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Features of the Renaissance
The term Renaissance (sprang first in Italy) originally indicated a revival of classical (Greek and Roman) arts and sciences after the dark ages of medieval obscurantism, which reflected the demand of the emerging bourgeoisie to seek emancipation from the control of Roman Catholic church and other theologies. Two features are striking: Strong zest for classical literature (to show the general dissatisfaction with the Catholic and feudal ideas) Keen interest in life and human activities/firm belief in human ability to attain his worldly happiness rather than wait for the future life/Humanism being the keynote of the Renaissance

1.

2.

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Literature in English Renaissance
? Earlier Humanist: Thomas More (Utopia) ? Prose: Francis Bacon (scientist and philosopher) ? Lyrical Poems: Thomas Wyatt (the first to introduce the sonnet into English literature), Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser (The Fairy Queen) ? Novel: John Lyly (Eupheus), Thomas Nashe ? Drama: Christopher Marlowe (used blank verse in drama), Shakespeare

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William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
Life Story
Born on 23rd of April, 1564, died on 23rd of April, 1616 Became a schoolmaster at 14 to support the family Married a farmer’s daughter at the age of 18 Arrived in London and started his career as a dramatist, poet, actor and proprietor at the age of 22

Do Thou Knowst?
Prior to Shakespeare, there were basically 4 types of plays: the Miracle play (based on Bible stories), the Morality play (presenting the conflict of good and evil), the Interlude (short performances between two solemn scenes), the Classical drama (in line with the structure and style of Greek and Latin drama)
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Works of Shakespeare
Comedies
A Midsummer Night’t Dream (1595) The Merchant of Venice (1596) Much Ado About Nothing (1598) As You Like It (1599)
Romeo and Juliet (1594) Hamlet (1601) Othello (1604) Macbeth (1605)

Tragedies

Shakespeare also wrote many historical plays and 154 sonnets.
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Hamlet, Prince of Denmark
Events of Hamlet
Hamlet’s father, the king of Denmark, was murdered by his own brother, Claudius, who immediately became the new king and married Hamlet’s mother. Hamlet, after many hesitations to revenge his father’s unnatural death, finally killed Claudius and died from a poisoned sword himself.

Main Characters in Hamlet
Hamlet/Claudius/Queen Gertrude/Polonius/Ophelia/Laertes

The Well-known Soliloquy (to be, or not to be) The Last Scene
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Hamlet, Act 3, Scene 1
To be, or not to be: that is the question: Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end them? To die: to sleep; No more; and by a sleep to say we end The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks That flesh is heir to, 'tis a consummation Devoutly to be wish'd. To die, to sleep; To sleep: perchance to dream: ay, there's the rub; For in that sleep of death what dreams may come When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, Must give us pause: there's the respect That makes calamity of so long life; For who would bear the whips and scorns of time, The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely, The pangs of dispriz'd love, the law's delay, The insolence of office and the spurns That patient merit of the unworthy takes, When he himself might his quietus make With a bare bodkin? Who would these fardels bear, To grunt and sweat under a weary life, But that the dread of something after death, The undiscover'd country from whose bourn No traveller returns, puzzles the will And makes us rather bear those ills we have Than fly to others that we know not of? Thus conscience does make cowards of us all; And thus the native hue of resolution Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought, And enterprises of great pith and moment With this regard their currents turn away, And lose the name of action.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 活下去还是不活:这是问题。 要做到高贵,究竟该忍气吞声 来容受狂暴的命运矢石交攻呢, 还是该挺身反抗无边的苦恼, 扫它个干净?死,就是睡眠 60 就这样;而如果睡眠就等于了结了 心痛以及千百种身体要担受的 皮痛肉痛,那该是天大的好事, 正求之不得啊!死,就是睡眠; 睡眠,也许要做梦,这就麻烦了! 65 我们一旦摆脱了尘世的牵缠, 在死的睡眠里还会做些什么梦, 一想到就不能不踌躇。这一点顾虑 正好使灾难变成了长期的折磨。① 谁甘心忍受人世的鞭挞和嘲弄, 70 忍受压迫者虐待、傲慢者凌辱, 忍受失恋的痛苦、法庭的拖延、 衙门的横暴,做埋头苦干的大才、 受作威作福的小人一脚踢出去, 如果他只消自己来使一下尖刀 75 就可以得到解脱啊?谁甘心挑担子, 拖着疲累的生命,呻吟,流汗, 要不是怕一死就去了没有人回来的 那个从未发现的国土,怕那边 还不知会怎样,因此意志动摇了, 80 因此便宁愿忍受目前的灾殃, 而不愿投奔另一些未知的昔难? 这样子,顾虑使我们都成了懦夫, 也就这样子,决断决行的本色 蒙上了惨白的一层思虑的病容; 85 本可以轰轰烈烈的大作大为, 由于这一点想不通,就出了别扭, 失去了行动的名分。啊,别作声! 美丽的莪菲丽亚!——女神,你做祷告 别忘掉也替我忏悔罪恶。

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The Merchant of Venice
Events in the play:
Antonio, a wealthy business man, borrowes some money from Shylock, a Jew usurer with an aim to help his friend, Bassanio, wooing a beautiful girl, Portia. Later, however, Antonio is not able to return the money in time and Shylock insists having a pound of flesh from him as stipulated in their contract. Portia, disguised as a man and a lawyer, appears in the court and defeats Shylock cleverly.

Characters in the play: Portia/Bassanio/Shylock/Antonio Readings (pp. 103-126)

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Sonnet
A fourteen-line lyric poem, usually written in rhymed iambic pentameter. A sonnet generally expresses a single theme or idea. Sonnets vary in structure and rhyme scheme, but are generally of two types: the Petrarchan or Italian sonnet and the Elizabethan or Shakespearean sonnet. The Italian sonnet is a form that originated in Italy in the thirteenth century. The Italian sonnet has two parts, an octave (eight lines) and a sestet (six line). Its rhyme scheme is usually abbaabba cdecde. Petrarch inspired the vogue of sonnet writing in Elizabethan England. It became conventional for English poets to address sonnets to a beautiful but cruel mistress whose eyes were stars, whose lips were cherries, and whose cheeks were roses. The Shakespearean sonnet consists of three quatrains and a concluding couplet, with the rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef gg. A less important sonnet form is the Spenserian sonnet. Its rhyme scheme is ababbcbccdcdee.
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Sonnet 18
Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer’s lease hath all too short a date: Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines And often is his gold complexion dimmed; And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed; But thy eternal summer shall not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st; Nor shall death brag thou wander’st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st: So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
2013-8-4 H&A of English Literature 能否把你比作夏日璀璨? 你却比炎夏更可爱温存; 狂风摧残五月花蕊娇妍, 夏日匆匆离去毫不停顿。 苍天明眸有时过于灼热, 金色脸容往往蒙上阴翳;

一切优美形象不免褪色,
偶然摧折或自然地老去。 而你如仲夏繁茂不凋谢, 秀雅风姿将永远翩翩;

死神无法逼你气息奄奄,
你将永生于不朽诗篇。 只要人能呼吸眼不盲, 这诗和你将千秋流芳。

30

Sonnet 29
When, in disgrace with Fortune and men’s eyes, I all alone beweep my outcast state, 可叹时运不济众人唾弃, And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries, 为飘零人间而独自哭泣; 怨苍天不闻兮徒然呼吁, And look upon myself, and curse my fate, 顾影自怜兮咒命运残酷; Wishing me like to one more rich in hope, 愿自己如他人前程似锦, Featured like him, like him with friends possessed, 或仪表堂堂或高朋满座, 有此人的机缘那人的本领, Desiring this man’s are and that man’s scope, 对自己的长处却不满足; With what I most enjoy contented least; 一味自怨自艾自暴自弃, 但偶尔想到你便如云雀, Yet in these thoughts myself almost despising, 于拂晓时从阴霾的大地 Haply I think on thee---and then my state, 飞向云间天堂高歌不息; 回忆你的情愫如获宝藏, Like to the lark at break of day arising 宁愿困厄不屑南面称王。 From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven’s gate, For thy sweet love rememb’red such wealth brings That then I scorn to change my state with kings.
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Sonnet 106

When in the chronicle of wasted time 过往世代的记载里常常见到 I see descriptions of the fairest wights. 前人把最俊俏人物描摹尽致, And beauty making beautiful old rhyme 美貌如何使古老的诗句也美妙, In praise of ladies dead and lovely knights, 配得上歌颂美女和风流骑士, 看人家夸赞美貌是怎样的无比, Then, in the blazon of sweet beauty’s best, 什么手,什么脚,什么嘴,什么眼,什么眉, 我总是看出来他们古雅的手笔 Of hand, of foot, of lip, of eye, of brow, 差不多恰好表现了你的秀美。 I see their antique pen would have expressed 所以他们的赞辞都无非是预言 我们这时代,都把你预先描画; Even such a beauty as you master now. 他们却只用猜度的眼睛来观看, So all their praises are but prophecies 还不够有本领歌唱你的真价: Of this our time, all you prefiguring; 我们呢,亲眼看到了今天的风光, 眼睛会惊讶,舌头却不会颂扬。 And, for they looked but with divining eyes, They had not skill enough your worth to sing: For we, which now behold these present days, Have eyes to wonder, but lack tongues to praise.

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Francis Bacon(1561-1626)
? Two styles of prose: Ciceronian (represented by John Lyly) / Senecan (represented by Francis Bacon) ? The authorized Version of the English Bible ( The King James Bible, 1611) ? Francis Bacon was a philosopher who was the first to introduce “essay” into England. ? Some quotations from Bacon’s Essay. ? Reading “Of Studies”.(p.138)

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Abraham Tested
Some time later God tested Abraham. He said to him, “Abraham!” “Here I am,” he replied. The God said, “ Take your son, your only son, Isaac, whom you love, and go to the region of Moriah. Sacrifice him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains I will tell you about.” Early the next morning Abraham got up and saddled his donkey. He took with him two of his servants and his son Isaac. When he had cut enough wood for the burnt offering, he set out for the place God had told him about. On the third day Abraham looked up and saw the place in the distance. He said to his servants, “Stay here with the donkey while I and the boy go over there. We will worship and then we will come back to you.” Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and placed it on his son Isaac, and he himself carried the fire and the knife. As the two of them went on together, Isaac spoke up and said to his father Abraham, “Father?” “Yes, my son?” Abraham replied. “The fire and wood are here,” Isaac said, “but where is the lamb for the burnt offering?” Abraham answered, “God himself will provide the lamb for the burnt offering, my son.” And the two of them went on together.
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Quotations from Essay
? Men fear death as children fear to go in the dark.
人怕死犹如儿童怕入暗室。

? He that hath wife and children hath given hostages to fortune, for they are inapediments to great enterprises, either of virtue or mischief.
有妻儿者实已向命运押了人质,从此难成大事,无论善恶。

? What is truth? Said jesting Pilate, and would not stay for an answer.
真理何物?披拉多笑而问曰,不待人答而去。

? Fame is like a river, that beareth up things light and swollen, and drowns things weighty and solid.
声名犹如大河,空虚无物者浮,实学有才者沉。

To choose time is to save time.
善择时即省时。

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? Summarize English literature in Renaissance. ? What do you know about Shakespeare and his literary career?
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