必修二 Unit 2 课文内容 1. I lived in what you call “Ancient Greece” and I used to write about the Olympic Games a long time ago. 句中 and 连接两个并列分句，在第一个分句中 what 引导宾语从句，并在从句中作 call 的宾语，what 相当于 the place that。 △ what 引导的宾语从句 what 引导的宾语从句在句中作宾语，what 在从句中可作主语、宾语、表语或定语。 They don’t know what happened. You can’t imagine what he was ten years ago. I don’t know what books he likes reading. △ 归纳拓展 what 还可以引导主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。 What you will do next is none of my business. She is no longer what she used to be. The question what makes the matter worse has been puzzling me. △ 在名词性从句中使用引导词 what 还是 that, 是经常考察的重点。解题的关键在于分 清句子结构。that 在引导名词性从句中没有词义，也不充当任何成分，当从句意义完整 且不缺任何成分时用 that 连接；what 在名词性从句中表示“??的东西” ，在从句中需 充当主语、宾语、表语、定语等成分。 That they need more oil is very clear. What they need is more oil. 练习： ⑴ Reading her biography, I was lost in admiration for ______ Doris Lessing had achieved in literature. A. what B. that C. why D. how ⑵ I think ______ impresses me about his painting is the colours he uses. A. what B. that C. which D. who ⑶ Pick yourself up. Courage is doing ______ you’re afraid to do. A. that B. what C. how D. whether 2. There are two main sets of Games – the Winter and the Summer Olympics, and both are held every four years on a regular basis. 本句是 and 连接的并列句。在第一个分句中，the Winter and the Summer Olympics 是 two main sets of Games 的同位语。 在第二个分句中， every four years 属于 “every + 基数词 + 可数名词复数”结构，意为“每 4 年，每隔 3 年” 。 △ “every + 基数词 + 可数名词复数”结构 “every + 基数词 + 可数名词复数” ， 意为“每?? （基数词所表示的数目） ， 每隔?? （基数词所表示的数目减 1） ” 。此结构用于表示空间或时间的间隔。如： He goes to the countryside to visit his parents every two months. He goes shopping every three weeks, as we all know. △ “每??，每隔??”的其他表达法： ⑴ “every + 序数词 + 可数名词单数” ， 意为 “每?? （序数词对应的基数词） ， 每隔?? （序数词对应的基数词减 1） ” 。 ⑵ “every + few + 可数名词复数” ，意为“每隔几??” 。 ⑶ “every other + 可数名词单数 （=every second +可数名词单数/every two + 可数名词
复数） ” ，意为“每两??，每隔??” 。 We will meet every other day. = We will meet every second day. = We will meet every two days. He sees his girlfriend every few weeks. 练习： ⑴ Will you please write the words ________ ? I mean you write them on the first line and then on the third line and so on. A. every third line B. every second lines C. every other lines D. every two lines ⑵ “Trees were planted along the road ______.” Please choose the one that is not proper for the blank above. A. every two meters B. every second meter C. every other meter D. every the second meter 3. It’s in the Summer Olympics that you have the running races, together with swimming, sailing and all the team sports. 本句使用了强调句型 “It is/was + 被强调部分 + that + 其他成分” ， 句中被强调的部分是 介词短语 in the Summer Olympics，在原句中作地点状语。 △ It is/was + 被强调部分 + that/who + 其他成分 强调句型的基本结构为 It is/was + 被强调部分 + that/who + 其他成分。构成强调句的 it 本身没有意义，被强调部分可以是主语、宾语和大部分状语。 I met Li Ming at the railway station yesterday. 强调主语：It was I that/who met Li Ming at the railway station yesterday.’ 强调宾语：It was Li Ming that/who I met at the railway station yesterday. 强调地点状语：It was at the railway station that I met Li Ming yesterday. 强调时间状语：It was yesterday that I met Li Ming at the railway station. △ ⑴ 被强调部分指人时，用 who 或 that 引导皆可，被强调的代词的主格或宾格应与原 句的保持一致。 ⑵ 被强调的部分如果是原句的主语，who 或 that 后面的谓语在人称和数上和原句的保 持一致。 It is I who am to blame for the mistake. ⑶ 当被强调的部分是时间状语或地点状语时，不用 when 或 where 引导，只用 that。 ⑷ 对与否定词连用的 until 短语或从句进行强调时， 应连同 not 一起放在被强调部分中。 △ 强调句型的特殊句式： 一般疑问句式 Is/Was it + 被强调部分 + that/who + 其他成分？ Is it Jim that/who bought the book? 特殊疑问词+ 被强调部分 + that + 其他成分？ What is it that he wants to see?
not until 的句 式
It is/was not until ... + that + 其他成分 It was not until yesterday that I knew it.
练习： ⑴ It was when we were returning home ________ I realized what a good feeling it was to have helped someone in trouble. A. which B. that C. where D. how ⑵ Was it because Jack came late for school ________ Mr. Smith got angry? A. why B. who C. where D. that ⑶ – Who’s that at the door? – ________ is the milkman. A. He B. It C. This D. That ⑷ 在空白处填入适当的词 ① ________ was Jane that I saw in the library this morning. ② It ________ Mike and Mary who helped the old man several days ago. ③ It was in Qingdao ________ I saw the sea for the first time. 4. No other countries could join in, nor could slaves or women! △ “nor/neither + 助动词/be 动词/情态动词 + 主语”结构 nor could slaves or women 属于“nor/neither + 助动词/be 动词/情态动词 + 主语”结构， 该结构意为“??也不??” ，表示前面所述的否定情况也适合该主语。 Li Hua can’t answer the question. Neither/Nor can I. If you don’t go to the wedding, nor/neither will I. △ “前面的情况也适用于后者”其他句型： ⑴ “so + 助动词/be 动词/情态动词 + 主语（不是同一个） ”意为“??也一样” ，表示 前面所述的情况同样适用于该主语。注意区别： “主语 + 助动词 + so”表示该主语按照 前面所提到的情况做了某事。 He has been to Beijing. So have I. He said he would go to play football and he did so. ⑵ “so + 主语（同一个）+ 助动词/be 动词/情态动词”意为“的确如此” ，表示对上述 情况的一个肯定。 – I think Ms. Green is a good teacher. – So she is. ⑶ It’s the same with... / So it is with ...意为“??也一样” 。若前句既有肯定形式又有否 定形式或涉及不同类型的谓语动词时需用到这两个句型。 Jimmy loves Chinese and he is good at it. It’s the same with Lucy = So it is with Lucy. 练习： ⑴ – I don’t know about you. But I’m sick and tired of this weather. – ________. I can’t stand all this rain. A. I don’t care. B. It’s hard to say. C. So am I. D. I hope so. ⑵ 完成句子 ① I have bought a computer. ____________________________________________ (她也买 了一台) ② Mary never does any reading in the evening. ______________________________. (John 也是) ③ Tod hadn't passed the exam and was afraid of being scolded. ______________________________________. (Jim 也是)
5. This is important because the more you speak English, the better your English will become. 本句为主从复合句，because the more... will become 为 because 引导的原因状语从句，其 中 the more you speak..., the better... become 为“the + 比较级 +（主语+谓语） ，the + 比 较级 +（主语+谓语） ”结构。 △“the + 比较级 +（主语+谓语） ，the + 比较级 +（主语+谓语） ”结构 该结构意为“ （??）越??， （??）越??” ，表示后者随着前者的变化而变化。 The better I knew him, the more I liked him. The more difficult the questions are, the less likely I’ll be able to answer them. △ 比较级的其他结构： ⑴ 越来越?? （表示本身程度的改变） 比较级+ and +比较级 more and more +比较级 ⑵ 二者中比较??的那一个 the + 比较级 + of the two + n. (复数) △ 对于“the + 比较级 +（主语+谓语） ，the + 比较级 +（主语+谓语） ”结构，如果句 意明确， 该结构常以省略形式出现。 如： The more, the better. 多多益善。 More haste, less speed. 欲速则不达。 练习： ⑴ At first I thought I understood what my teacher said, but the more he explained, __________. A. the more I became confused B. I became confused more C. the more confused I became D. the more confused did I become ⑵ 完成句子 她对考试变得越来越有耐心了。当然，她越细心，考试成绩就越好。 She is getting _____________________________________ with the exams and of course, _________________________________, ___________________________. 一般将来时的被动语态 在英语中， 动词有两种语态： 主动语态和被动语态。 主动语态表示主语时动作的执行者， 被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。一般将来时的被动语态表示在将来的某个时间某事 被做。 1 一般将来时的被动语态的构成 肯定式：shall/will be done 否定式：shall not (shan’t)/will not (won’t) be done 一般疑问式：Shall/Will + 主语 +be done? 特殊疑问式：特殊疑问词 + shall/will + 主语 + be done? The film will be shown next Thursday. The exhibition won’t be put off till next week. 真题： ⑴ It is reported that a space station ______ on the moon in years to come. A. will be building B. will be built C. has been building D. has been built
⑵ More expressways ______ in Sichuan soon to promote the local economy. A. are being built B. will be built C. have been built D. had been built ⑶ We are confident that the environment ______ by our further efforts to reduce pollution. A. had been improved B. will be improved C. is improved D. was improved ⑷ Don’t worry. The hard work that you do now ______ later in life. A. will be repaid B. was being repaid C. has been repaid D. was repaid 2 其他常见的一般将来时的被动语态形式 ⑴ be going to be done 表示即将发生的动作或按照计划将要发生的动作 A new supermarket is going to be built next year. ⑵ to be done ① 表示某事按照计划或安排将要发生 The highway is to be opened in May. ② 表示“应该”的意思，相当于 should，可用来征求对方的意见 We shall talk with our friends about what is to be done. The machines are not to be repaired tonight. ③ 表示“必须”之意，相当于 must 或者 have to The work is to be finished this afternoon. 3 使用一般将来时的被动语态应注意的问题 ⑴ 在时间状语或条件状语从句中，常用一般现在时的被动语态代替一般将来时的被 动语态。 When the dam is completed, the flood in this area will be controlled. If I am given enough time, I will go to Hainan for my holiday. ⑵ 谓语部分时动词短语，变为被动语态时应注意不能遗漏介词或副词。 These trees have to be cut down. His body needs to be taken good care of. ⑶ “主语+谓语+双宾语”结构的主动语态变为被动语态时，习惯上把表示人的间接 宾语变成被动语态的主语。 His mother will give him a present for his birthday. = He will be given a present by his mother for his birthday. ⑷感官动词 see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe 等和使役动词 have, make, let 等用于主 动语态时，后面需接不带 to 的不定式作宾语补足语，但在被动语态中不定式要带 to. A stranger was seen to walk into the building. The workers were made to work twelve hours a day. ⑸ 不能遗漏助动词 be We shall punished if we break the rule. × We shall be punished if we break the rule. √ ⑹ 在否定式中注意 not 的位置应位于第一个助动词 shall 或 will 之后，而不是 be 之 后。 The child will be not allowed to play outside. × The child will not be allowed to play outside. √
真题： ⑴ That’s why I help brighten people’s days. If you ______, who’s to say that another person will? A. didn’t B. don’t C. weren’t D. haven’t ⑵ Unless some extra money ________, the theatre will close. A. was found B. finds C. is found D. found 练习： 1. 将下列句子变为被动语态 ⑴ We will build a new house next year. _________________________________________________________________ ⑵ We are going to put off the meeting. _________________________________________________________________ ⑶ We are to repair the machine tomorrow. _________________________________________________________________ ⑷ My mother will give me a T-shirt. _________________________________________________________________ ⑸ They will not allow dogs to enter the restaurant. _________________________________________________________________ ⑹ He is about to overcome these difficulties. _________________________________________________________________ 2. Oh, I think we’re a bit late. If the concert has already started, we ______ to go in. A. aren’t allowed B. won’t allow C. won’t be allowed D. don’t allowed 3. If everything goes according to the plan, the first stage ______ by September. A. would complete B. will complete C. would be completed D. will be completed 4. I ________ if I finish the work within one day. A. shall be praised B. praise C. will praise D. am praised 5. The water will be further polluted unless some measures ______. A. will be taken B. are taken C. were taken D. had been taken 6. Thousands of teachers ______ into their new flats and the rest of them are waiting for theirs. The government says many more apartment buildings ______. A. have moved; are to set up B. have been moved; will be set up C. have been moved; will set up D. have moved; are to be set up 7. – What do you think of store shopping in the future? – Personally, I think it will exist along with home shopping and ________. A. will never replace B. would never replace C. will never be replaced D. would never be replaced