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英汉对比研究_图文

英汉对比研究_图文


英汉对比研究

? 1.繁复与简短 ? 2.静态与动态 ? 3.形合和意合 ? 3.物称与人称 ? 4.被动与主动

(Complex vs. Simplex) ( Static vs. Dynamic ) ( Hypotactic vs. Paratactic ) ( Impersonal vs. Personal ) ( Passive vs. Active )

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繁复与简短 (Complex vs. Simplex)
? 从属结构(subordination)是现代英语最重要的特点之一。
? 汉语常用散句、松句、紧缩句、省略句、流水句或并列形式 的复句(composite sentences),以中短句居多,最佳长 度为7至12字。 ? 英译汉时常常要破句重组,化繁为简。

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? In the doorway lay at least 12 umbrellas of all sizes and colors.
? 门口放着至少有十二把五颜六色,大小不一的雨伞。 ? 门口放着一堆雨伞,少说也有十二把,五颜六色,大小不一。

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? There are many wonderful stories to tell about the places I visited and the people I met.
? 关于我所访问的一些地方和遇见的不少人有许多奇妙的故事 可以讲。 ? 我访问了一些地方,遇到了不少人。要谈起来,奇妙的事儿 可多着呢。

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? Can you answer a question which I want to ask and which is puzzling me?
? 你能回答一个使我弄不懂而又想问你的问题吗? ? 我有一个问题弄不懂,想请教你,你能回答吗?

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? If the man who was seen to take an umbrella from the City Church last Sunday evening does not wish to get into trouble, he will return the umbrella to No.10 Broad Street. He is well known. ? 上星期日傍晚,有人曾见某君在市教堂取走雨伞一把。取伞者如不 愿卷入纠纷,还是将伞送至布牢德街十号为妙。此君为谁,尽人皆 知。

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? In Africa I met a boy, who was crying bitterly as if his heart would break, and said, when I spoke to him, that he was very hungry, because he had had no food for two days. ? 在非洲,我曾遇到一个小男孩,他伤心地哭着,似乎心都碎 了。我问起他时,他说他饿极了。已经两天没吃东西了。

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? 汉语的分句或流水句,译成英语时,常常要化简为繁,组合 成复合句或长句,
? 因为距离远,又缺乏交通工具,农村社会是与外界隔绝的。 这种隔绝状态,由于通讯工具不足,就变得更加严重了。 ? The isolation of the rural world because of distance and the lack of transport facilities is compounded by the paucity of the information media.

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? 我们不知不觉地朝公园走去。公园就在人行桥那边,桥 下很深的地方,汹涌的河水滚滚流过。
? Somehow our path took us toward the park, across the footbridge high above the rolling waters of the river.

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? But for agriculture, man could not exist, nor could social production proceed.
? 没有农业,人类便不能生存,社会生产也就不能继续下去。

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静态与动态 ( Stative vs. Dynamic )
? 英语倾向于多用名词,介词,形容词等,因而叙述呈静态 (stative);
? 汉语倾向于多用动词,因而叙述呈动态(dynamic)。

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? 试比较: ? The doctor arrived extremely quickly and examined the patient uncommonly carefully; the result was that he recovered very speedily.
? The doctor’s extremely quick arrival and uncommonly careful examination of the patient brought about his very speedy recovery.

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静态与动态 ( Static vs. Dynamic )
? I am afraid of your misunderstanding me. ? 我担心你会误解我。
? Rockets have found application for the exploration of the universe. ? 火箭已经用来探索宇宙。

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? ? ? ?

我所认识的人当中,她最会记仇。 She is the best hater I’ve ever known. 他能吃能睡。 He is a good eater and a good sleeper.

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? 过去我也常常有点胡思乱想。 ? I used to be a bit of a fancier myself.
? 他失业以后,就很不合群了。 ? Since he lost his job, he’s been a loner. ? 他是个聪明人,很好相处,可是学习不肯用功。 ? He was a clever man; a pleasant companion; a careless student.

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? ? ? ? ?

名词优势造成介词优势,使英语的静态倾向更为显著。 He is at his books. (He is reading books) 他在读书。 He has someone behind him. (Someone supports him) 有人给他撑腰。

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? 由于以上的特点,英汉互译的过程往往是静态与动态互相转换的过程。

? His first pledge was, “ Mr. President, You have my support and loyalty.” ? 他一开始就保证说:“总统先生,我支持您,并效忠于您。”

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? Harvard, despite its own estimate of itself, was ultimately an academic haven where an error of interpretation could result only in loss of face, not in extinction. ? 哈佛大学,不管它如何自命高明,终究还是个学府胜地,在 那里把问题看错了,无非丢脸而已,总不至于完蛋。

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形合和意合 ( Hypotactic vs. Paratactic )
? 所谓形合,指的是句中的词语或分句之间用语言形式手段(如关 联词)连接起来,表达语法意义和逻辑关系。
? 所谓意合,指的是词语或分句之间不用语言形式手段连接, 句中的语法意义和逻辑关系通过词语或分句的含义表达。 ? 一般地说,英语形合句多,汉语意合句多,但其多少与文体 密切相关。

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形合和意合 ( Hypotactic vs. Paratactic )
? 英语注重结构完整,注重以形显义。 ? 1. 连接词

? If winter comes, can spring be far behind? ? 冬天到了,春天还会远吗? ? If I had known it would come to this, I would have acted differently. ? 早知今日, 何必当初。

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形合和意合 ( Hypotactic vs. Paratactic )
? 2. 介词 (介词是英语里最活跃的词类之一,是连接词、语或从句的重要手段。 英语造句几乎离不开介词,汉语则常常不用或省略介词。)

? The many colors of a rainbow range from red on the outside to violet on the inside. ? 彩虹有多种颜色,外圈红,内圈紫。 ? He had a disconcerting habit of expressing contradictory ideas in rapid succession. ? 他有一种令人难堪的习惯;一会儿一个看法,自相矛盾,变 化无常。

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形合和意合 ( Hypotactic vs. Paratactic )
? This was an intelligently organized and fervent meeting in a packed Town Hall, with Mr. Strong in the chair.
? 这是一次精心组织起来的会议。市政厅里济济一堂,热情洋 溢,主持会议的是斯特朗先生。

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形合和意合 ( Hypotactic vs. Paratactic )
? The present onslaught of vehicles poses a serious threat to urban life and pedestrian peace of mind.
? 当前,车辆横冲直撞,严重地威胁着城市生活,路上行人无 不提心吊胆。

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再来看几个汉译英的例子
(因为)他不老实, 我不能信任他。 ? Because he is not honest, I can't trust him.
? 人(若)不犯我,我(则)不犯人。 ? We will not attack unless we are attacked.

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? 说是说了,没有结果。=(我虽然说了,但是没有结果) ? I’ve made proposals, but they proved futile.
? 打肿脸充胖子,吃亏是自己。 ? If you get beyond your depth, you will suffer.

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紧缩句与成语
墙倒众人推。 ? When a man is going down-hill, everyone will give him a push. ? 不到黄河心不死。 ? Until all is over, ambition never dies.

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? 不进则退。 ? He who does not advance falls backward. ? Move forward, or you’ll fall behind. ? 物莫如新,友莫如故。 ? Everything is good when new, but friends when old.
? 前途是光明的,道路是曲折的。 ? While the prospects are bright, the road ahead has twists and turns.

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物称与人称 ( Impersonal vs. Personal )

?
? ? ? ? ? ?

英语常用非人称主语, 汉语常用人称主语。

What has happened to you? 你出了什么事啦? An idea suddenly struck me. 我突然想到了一个主意。 Excitement deprived me of all utterance. 我兴奋得什么话也说不出来。

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? Not a sound reached our ears. ? 我们没有听到任何声音。
? The thick carpet killed the sound of my heavy footsteps. ? 我走在厚厚的地毯上,一点声音也没有。

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? The sight of the big tree always reminds me of my childhood. ? 一看见那棵大树,我便想起了童年的情景。 ? A strange peace came over her when she was alone. ? 她独处时便感到一种特殊的安宁。

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? A great elation overcame them. ? 他们欣喜若狂。
? Alarm began to take entire possession of him. ? 他开始变得惊恐万状。 ? It never occurred to me that she was so dishonest. ? 我从来也没有想到她这么不老实。

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被动与主动 ( Passive vs. Active )
被动语态在英语里是一种常见的语法现象。
被动句促成了物称倾向, 物称倾向也滋长了被动句。 英语常用被动句,有以下几方面的原因:

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? 1. 施事未知而难以言明:
? The murderer was caught yesterday, and it is said that he will be hanged. ? 凶手已于昨天被捕,据说他将会被绞死。

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? 2. 句法的需求:
? 英语重形合,当主动式不便于表达时,往往采用被动式。

? Some kinds of plastics can be forced through machines which separate them into long, thin strings, called “fibres”, and these fibres can be made into cloth. ? 有几种塑料可以压入机器并分离成细长的纤维,这种纤维可 以用来织布。 ? (被动语态使句子承上启下、前后连贯。)

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? 3. 修辞的考虑: 试比较: ? There are many ways to vary the basic English sentence pattern of subject-verb-object. ? The basic English sentence pattern of subject-verbobject can be varied in many ways.
? (英语主-动-宾基本句型可以用许多方法加以变换。)

? (使用被动语态减少了填补词 there引导的句式,使句子干脆、 有力。)

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? 古代汉语的被动式是用“为”字或“为……所”结构。
? 如: ? 论语 “不为酒困”、 杜甫 “茅屋为秋风所破”。

? 到了近代,汉语有了“被字式”。“被”字是从“遭受”的 意义演变而来的, ? 如: 后汉书“身被十二创”

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? “被字式”曾被称为“不幸语态”(inflictive voice),用于 表达对主语而言是不如意的事(unpleasant or undesirable), ? 如“被捕”、“被杀”、“被剥削”、“被压迫”等。 ? 现代汉语“被字式”的使用范围有所扩大,也可以表达并非 不如意的事,
? 如:“被评为先进工作者”等。 ? 但是英语的被动式所表达的的意义不受此类限制。

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? 英语的被动式是由系表结构演变而来的,可以表示动作(动句), 也可以表示状态(静句),
? 而汉语的被动式却不是由系表结构演变而来的,一般只表示动作, 而不表示状态。 ? The glass is broken.(静句) ? 玻璃杯破了。(不用被动式) ? The glass was broken by my brother.(动句) ? 玻璃杯被我弟弟打破了。(被动式) ? 玻璃杯是我弟弟打破的。(被动式的转换式)

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? Last night I was covered up with two quilts. (静句) ? 昨晚我盖了两条被子。
? 不会译成为动句: ? 昨晚我被两条被子盖着。

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1.英语被动句译为汉语被动句
可转换成汉语的名词,与“受到”、“遭到”等受动词连用。 1)In the Old World, people are taught to hide their ambitions. 在旧大陆,人们受的教育是要掩饰雄心。

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2)He began to be moved by some spirit or other, probably that of curiosity. 他受到某种精神,大概是好奇心的感召。 3)Several buildings around the square were smashed or damaged. 广场附近的几幢建筑物都炸成了瓦砾,或是遭到了毁坏。

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4)Two super go players from Japan were defeated one after another. 两位日本围棋高手接连受挫。 5)Because of its cost it is limited in practical use. 由于成本问题,它的实际使用受到限制。
6)Early fires on the earth were certainly caused by nature, not by man. 地球上早期的火肯定是由大自然而不是由人类引燃的。

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? 2.英语被动句译成汉语主动句
? This method is much better, but can still be improved. ? 这个办法好多了,但还可以改进。 ? China's first atomic reactor and cyclotron were built in 1958. ? 中国的第一个原子反应堆和回旋加速器建于1958年。

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? 3.英语被动句译成汉语判断句
? The glass was broken by my brother. ? 玻璃杯是我弟弟打破的。 ? Movable printing was introduced into Europe from China. ? 活字印刷术是从中国传入欧洲的。 ? Credited with the invention of the telegraph is an American Samuel Morse. ? 发明电报的是一个美国人塞缪尔.莫尔斯。

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? 4.英语被动句译成汉语无主句
? That problem needn't be brought in. ? 不必将那个问题牵涉进来。 ? Stress must be laid on the development of knowledgebased economy. ? 必须强调知识经济的发展。

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?
? ? ? ? ?

不出现介词by引导的动作发出者,可适当增添一些泛指的 主语,如“人们 ”、“有人”、“大家”、“我们”等。 The issue has not yet been thoroughly explored. 人们对这一问题迄今尚未进行过彻底探索。
It may be supposed that originally the earth's land surface was composed of rock only. 我们可以假定,地球的陆地表面原先全是由岩石构成的。

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Thank you!

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