Exercises for First Chapters 1 and 2 I. Filling the blamks. 1. At last early in the _________ century, the English settlements in ___________ and _______________ began the main strems of what we recognize as the American national history. 2. The earliest settlers in US, includes _________ , Swedes, _________, French ， __________， Italians and _____________. 3. The Puritans had come to New Land for the sake of _________________, while Virginia had been plantedmainly as a ____________________. 4. Hard work, _________, piety, and _________ were the Puritan values that dominated much of the earliest American writing. 5. Most Puritan verse was decidedly plodding, but the work of the two writers, Anne Bradstreet and Edward Taylor, rose to the level of ____________________. 6. __________ was , probably, at once the first modern American and the country's last medieval man. 7. The Puritans were opposed to _______________ and _______________. 8. _______________ was the only American to sign the four documents that created the United States: the Declaration of Independence, the treaty of alliance, the treaty peace with England and the constitution 9. Franklin's main literature achievement relys on his ___________________________ and ___________________________. II. Define the following literary terms: 1. American Puritanism 2. Puritan writing styles III. Answer the following questions: 1. give a description of Franklin. 2. what does Franklin's Autobiography reflect? 3. Why do people think Franklin is the embodiment of American Dream? Chapter 3 I. Filling the blanks. 1. The American Romanticism lasted from the end of 18th century to the __________________. 2. As a logical result of the foreign and native factors at work, American Romanticism was both ______________ and ______________________. 3. Through the first half of 19th century the persuit of _____________, utility, and _________________ remained an American characteristic. 4. Irving's _______________ became the first work by an American writeer to win financial success on both sides of the Atlantic. 5. ______________ values were prominent in American politics, art, and philosophy until the Civil War.. 6. Romantic writers placed increasing value on the _______________ expression of emotion and displayed increasing attention to the _______________ states of their characters. 7. __________ was the first great prose stylist of American romanticism, and his familiar style was destined to outlive the formal prose of such contemporariess as Scott and Cooper.
8. Irvinf was the first great ____________, writing always for _____________, and to produce ___________________. 9. Cooper lanuched two kinds of novels, _________________ and _______________. 10. _________________ was the father of Short story in American. 11. As a logical result of the foreign and native factors at work, American Romanticism was both ______________ and __________________. (imitative, independent) 12. _______________ marked the beginning of Ameican Romantisim. (The Sketch Book) 13. The Leatherstocking Tales was written by __________. (James Fenimore Cooper.) II. Answer the followings briefly. 1. American Romanticism The Romantic Period covers the first half of the 19th century. A rising America with its ideals of democracy and equality, its industrialization, its westward expansion and a variety of foreign influences made literary expansion and expression not only possible but also inevitable in the period immediately following the nation's political independence. Yet, romantics frequently shared certain general characteristics: moral enthusiasm, faith in value of individualism and intuitive perception, and a presumption that the natural world was a source of goodness and man's societies a source of corruption. Romantic value were prominent in American politics, art, and philosophy until the Civil War. The romantic exaltation of the individual suited the nation's revolutionary heritage and its frontier egalitarianism. 2. Features of American Romanticism American Romanticism was both imitative and independent. As for imitation, it refered to European and English writing Romanticism and traditional meters and stanza forms. As for independence, it had something to itself: the expression of a real new experience and alien quality, Newness of Americans as a nation, everything in the land is the source of writers' writing, Puritanism in Literature, traditional writing technique. III. State the followings Conflict thoughts in Leatherstocking Tales The basic conflict of Leatherstocking Tales is one between Leatherstocking who insists on man’s old forest freedom and Judge Temple, standing at the head of the squire-archy on the frontier, to whom man remains savage without law and order. On the otherhand, it is the conflict between the modern civilization and the tradition. Natty Bumppo represents the ideal American, the morally right. It mans that the wildness is good, pure, perfect, where there is freedom not tainted and fettered by any forms of human institutions. Natty Bumppo is a veritable embodiment of human virtues like innocence, simplicity, honesty and generosity, a man born with an immaculate sense of good and evil and right and wrong. For Judge Temple, he represents the pracitically enevitable aspect of frontier life. He symbolizeds law and civilization to transplant civilization on a virgin land. Chapter 4 I. Filling the blanks. 1. ____________________________ is called the summit of American Romanticism. 2 Transcedentalism is also called ________________.
3. Transcedentlists formed a club _________________ __________ and published their own journal ________. 4. New England Transcedentlism was the product of a combination of _____________ and ____________. (foreign influence, American Puritan tradition) 5. ________ is regarded as the Bible of Transcedentalism. (Nature) 6 ______________ has been regarded as “America’s Declaration of Intellectual Independence”. (The American Scholar) 7. In the book, “The American Scholar”, Emerson advocated the Americans should write about _____________. (American itself.) 8. Henry David Thoreau wrote his masterpiece, __________. (Walden) II. Answer the following question briefly. Transcedentalism American Transcendtentalism or New England Transcendentalism or American Renaissance is more of a tendency, an attitude, than the philosophy of Transcendentalists. Its major features can be summarized as the follows: Firstly, the Transcendentalists placed emphasis on spirit, or the Oversoul, as the most important thing in the Uiniverse. Secondly, they stressed the importance of the individual. To them, the individual was the most important element of the society. Thridly, they offered a fresh perception of nature as symbolic of the Spirit of God. Transcendentalism is based on the belief that the most fundamental truths about life and death can be reached only by going beyond the world of the senses. The sources of Transcedentalism New England Transcedentalism is the combination of the foreign influences and the American Puritan tradition. Foreign influences were idealsim form German and France, Oriental mysticism: Hindu and Chinese phylosophy. And its own thought is Puritianism. III. Emerson’s aethetics. 1) Emerson believes that good poetry and true art should ennoble, serve as a moral purification. 2) Emerson emphasizes ideas, symbols and imaginative words. 3) Emerson called on American authors to celebrate American itself and the life of today. America itself is a long poem that is worthy of celebrating. it marked the birth of true American poetry and true American poets. 4) Emerson advocates that American writers should write about America here and now. 5) Emerson possesses a cheerful optimism. He believes that there is force that can make the bad good and the good better. Good is a good doctor, and Bad is a better doctor. Angels must always be stronger than demons. IV. Emerson’s ideas in his literature career. 1) He believed in the transcendence of the Oversoul. His emphasis on the spirit run through all his writings.
2) He think that individual is the most important of all. He means the infinitude of man and human perfectibility. Emerson believes that the possibilities for man to develop and improve himself are infinite. Man should and could be self-reliant. Everyone makes himself by making his world, and he makes the world by making himself. The world exists for the individual and man should decide upon their own destinies. The regeneration of the individual leads to the regeneration of society. 3) Emerson thinks that the physcial world was vitalistic and evolutionary. Nature was symbolic of God. In the eyes of Emerson, “nature is the vehicle of thought,” and “particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts” "nature is the symbol of . spirit." Chapter 5 to 6 I. Filiing the blanks 1. with the book, _____________, Hawthorne became famous as the greatest writer in America. (The Scarlet Letter.) 2. The letter “A” in the book stands for ____________, ____________ and ______________. (adultery, able, angel) 3. Melsille wrote his famous book _______________, which fully presented the Sybolism. (Moby Dick) 4. Hawthorne was haunted in his life by his sense of sin and evil. 5. Hawthorne’s most of books revealed the social “ blackness”. 6. Whitman wrote about ______ poems, which were collected in _________________. (400, Leaves of Grass) 7. the last poem in Whitman’s life is _____________________. (Goodbye, My Fancy) 8. _________ first wrote about the common people and daily event in poems. (Whitman) 9. Dickinson’s themes in poems is about __________, __________, and ___________. (love, suffering, death) 10. Dickinson worte altogether ____________. (1175) 11. Dickinson’s basic tone in her poems is __________. (tragic) II. Short answer to the followings. 1. Hawthorne’s main thoughts in his writing. He seems to be haunted by his sense of sin and evil in life. Sin will be punished one way or another. One source of the evil is overweening intellect. Romance was predestined from in American narrative. 2. State three subsections of Whitman’s poems briefly. His poem can be split into three subsections: sings of ideal love and bliss, bereavement and lonesome love, and death as the fullfillment of lonesome love. 3. Compare two poets Dickinson and Whitman. The two poets differ in many ways. For one thing, Whitman seems to keep his eyys on
society on society; Dickinson explores the inner life of the individual. Whereas Whitman is national in his outlook, Dickinson is regional. In formal terms the two poets are vastly different: Whitman’s endless, all-inclusive catalogs contrast with the concise, direct, and simple diction and syntax which characterize Dickinson’s poetry. III. Give an account of Whitman’s contribution to American literature. ? Through him, American poets finally freed themselves from the old English traditions. Throughout his life he advocated a completely new and completely American form of poetic expression. ? The poetic form he employed is now called free verse ---- the verse that does not follow a fixed metrical pattern, the verse without a fixed beat or regular rhyme scheme. ? Whitman thought that message was always more important than form. So he always developed his style to suit his message and the audience he hoped to reach. ? He abandoned conventional and hackneyed poetic figures and drew his symbolism freely from his experience. He remains one of American most important poets because he announced and instructed a completely new age. Give an account of characters of Dickinson’s poems. ? The main theme is about death and immortality. ? Her poems are original. ? She emphasized free will and human responsibility ? She holds that beauty, truth and goodness are one Analyze the structural patterns in Dickinson’s poems. ? Major pattern is that of a sermon: statement or introduction of topic, elaboration, and conclusion. There are three variations of this major pattern: ? 1. The poet makes her initial announcement of topic in an unfigured line. ? 2. She uses a figure for that purpose. ? 3. She repeats her statement and its elaboration a number of times before drawing a conclusion.